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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The impact of asthma control on salivary cortisol level in adult asthmatics.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Asthma is a chronic disease causing psychological stress which leads to the activation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The purpose of this study is to compare morning salivary cortisol levels in persistent asthma patients according to their disease severities and control status. Total 206 adult asthma patients were recruited from four university hospitals. Spirometry, questionnaire of Asthma Quality of Life (AQOL) and Asthma Control Test (ACT) were completed, and saliva samples were collected prospectively to measure morning cortisol level. The mean patient age was 56.5±15.3 years with mean asthma duration of 9.1±11.1 years. Sixty five patents (31.6%) were classified as mild persistent asthma, and 141 patients (68.4%) were classified as moderate persistent asthma according to the Expert Panel Report 3. The mean predicted FEV1 was 88.8%±18.4%, and the methacholine PC20 was 9.6±8.5 mg/mL in all study population. The mean ACT score for all patients was 19.9±3.6, and there were 71 (34.5%) patients in poorly controlled and 135 (65.5%) in well controlled asthma. The poorly controlled asthma patients were characterized by significantly lower FEV1 (84.6%±17.6% vs 91.1%±18.5%, P=0.018), lower AQOL scores (46.0±13.9 vs 73.8±26.3, P<0.001), and lower salivary cortisol levels (0.14±0.08 vs 0.18±0.11 µg/dL, P=0.04) compared to well controlled asthma. The ACT score was significantly related to salivary cortisol levels (P=0.034) after adjusting for age. There was no significant difference in salivary cortisol levels (0.17±0.12 vs 0.16±0.08, P=0.725) when analyzed according to the dose of used corticosteroid and lung function. Asthma control status affects morning salivary cortisol level. Measuring the morning salivary cortisol level might be a simple and new way to assess asthma control status.
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Phenolic Glycosides from the Twigs of Salix glandulosa.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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As a part of an ongoing search for bioactive constituents from Korean medicinal plants, the phytochemical investigations of the twigs of Salix glandulosa afforded 12 new phenolic glycosides (1-12) and a known analogue (13). The structures of 1-13 were characterized by a combination of NMR methods ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, and HMBC), chemical hydrolysis, and GC/MS. The absolute configuration of 13 [(1R,2S)-2-hydroxycyclohexyl-2'-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-?-d-glucopyranoside] was determined for the first time. Compounds 1-3, 6, and 7 exhibited inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine microglial cells (IC50 values in the range 6.6-20.5 ?M).
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Breast cancer recurrence according to molecular subtype.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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To evaluate the location of tumor relapse and imaging modality for detection according to the breast cancer subtype: luminal A, luminal B, HER2 positive luminal B, nonluminal HER2 positive, and triple negative.
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Imaging features of complex sclerosing lesions of the breast.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the imaging features of complex sclerosing lesions of the breast and to assess the rate of upgrade to breast cancer.
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Mechanical thrombolysis of thrombosed central venous port.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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To evaluate the effectiveness of a mechanical thrombolysis for thrombosed central venous port (CVP).
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Diagnostic value of breast MRI for predicting metastatic axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients: diffusion-weighted MRI and conventional MRI.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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To evaluate the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and combination of conventional MRI and DWI to predict metastatic axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer.
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Titanium dioxide exposure induces acute eosinophilic lung inflammation in rabbits.
Ind Health
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is increasingly widely used in industrial, commercial and home products. TiO2 aggravates respiratory symptoms by induction of pulmonary inflammation although the mechanisms have not been well investigated. We aimed to investigate lung inflammation in rabbits after intratracheal instillation of P25 TiO2. One ml of 10, 50 and 250µg of P25 TiO2 was instilled into one of the lungs of rabbits, chest computed-tomography was performed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected before, at 1 and 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Changes in inflammatory cells in the BAL fluids were measured. Lung pathological assay was also carried out at 24 h after P25 TiO2 exposure. Ground glass opacities were noted in both lungs 1 h after P25 TiO2 and saline (control) instillation. Although the control lung showed complete resolution at 24 h, the lung exposed to P25 TiO2 showed persistent ground glass opacities at 24 h. The eosinophil counts in BAL fluid were significantly increased after P25 TiO2 exposure. P25 TiO2 induced a dose dependent increase of eosinophils in BAL fluid but no significant differences in neutrophil and lymphocyte cell counts were detected. The present findings suggest that P25 TiO2 induces lung inflammation in rabbits which is associated with eosinophilic inflammation.
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Response of functional mitral regurgitation during dobutamine infusion in relation to changes in left ventricular dyssynchrony and mitral valve geometry.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) and myocardial dyssynchrony commonly occur in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The aim of this study was to elucidate changes in FMR in relation to those in left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony as well as geometric parameters of the mitral valve (MV) in DCM patients during dobutamine infusion.
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Surface Landmarks do not Correspond to Exact Levels of the Cervical Spine: References According to the Sex, Age and Height.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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A general orientation along the cervical spine could be estimated by external landmarks, and it was useful, quick and less exposable to radiation, but, sometimes it gave reference confusion of target cervical level. The authors reviewed the corresponding between the neck external landmarks and cervical levels.
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Clinical course of patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: can we predict the prognosis?
Pharmacogenomics
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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This study aimed to identify prognostic factors of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease by comparing clinical and genetic data with the clinical course.
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Full-field digital mammography image data storage reduction using a crop tool.
Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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 PURPOSE: The storage requirements for full-field digital mammography (FFDM) in a picture archiving and communication system are significant, so methods to reduce the data set size are needed. A FFDM crop tool for this purpose was designed, implemented, and tested.
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Efficacy of two different self-expanding nitinol stents for atherosclerotic femoropopliteal arterial disease (SENS-FP trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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There have been few randomized control trials comparing the incidence of stent fracture and primary patency among different self-expanding nitinol stents to date. The SMART™ CONTROL stent (Cordis Corp, Miami Lakes, Florida, United States) has a peak-to-valley bridge and inline interconnection, whereas the COMPLETE™-SE stent (Medtronic Vascular, Santa Rosa, California, United States) crowns have been configured to minimize crown-to-crown interaction, increasing the stent's flexibility without compromising radial strength. Further, the 2011 ESC (European society of cardiology) guidelines recommend that dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine such as clopidogrel should be administered for at least one month after infrainguinal bare metal stent implantation. Cilostazol has been reported to reduce intimal hyperplasia and subsequent repeat revascularization. To date, there has been no randomized study comparing the safety and efficacy of two different antiplatelet regimens, clopidogrel and cilostazol, following successful femoropopliteal stenting.
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In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of lung cells from Fischer 344 rats following 28 days of inhalation exposure to MWCNTs, plus 28 days and 90 days post-exposure.
Inhal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Despite their useful physico-chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) continue to cause concern over occupational and human health due to their structural similarity to asbestos. Thus, to evaluate the toxic and genotoxic effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on lung cells in vivo, eight-week-old rats were divided into four groups (each group?=?25 animals), a fresh air control (0?mg/m(3)), low (0.17?mg/m(3)), middle (0.49?mg/m(3)), and high (0.96?mg/m(3)) dose group, and exposed to MWCNTs via nose-only inhalation 6?h per day, 5 days per week for 28 days. The count median length and geometric standard deviation for the MWCNTs determined by TEM were 330.18 and 1.72?nm, respectively, and the MWCNT diameters ranged from 10 to 15?nm. Lung cells were isolated from five male and five female rats in each group on day 0, day 28 (only from males) and day 90 following the 28-day exposure. The total number of animals used was 15 male and 10 female rats for each concentration group. To determine the genotoxicity of the MWCNTs, a single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was conducted on the rat lung cells. As a result of the exposure, the olive tail moments were found to be significantly higher (p?
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Thrombus aspiration during primary percutaneous coronary intervention for preserving the index of microcirculatory resistance: a randomised study.
EuroIntervention
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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We aimed to investigate whether thrombus aspiration could preserve the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
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Thermosensitive and mucoadhesive sol-gel composites of paclitaxel/dimethyl-?-cyclodextrin for buccal delivery.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to develop a buccal paclitaxel delivery system using the thermosensitive polymer Pluronic F127 (PF127) and the mucoadhesive polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO). The anticancer agent paclitaxel is usually used to treat ovarian, breast, and non-small-cell lung cancer. To improve its aqueous solubility, paclitaxel was incorporated into an inclusion complex with (2,6-di-O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DM?CD). The formation of the paclitaxel inclusion complex was evaluated using various techniques, including x-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hydrogels were prepared using a cold method. Concentrations of 18, 20, and 23% (w/v) PF127 were dissolved in distilled water including paclitaxel and stored overnight in a refrigerator at 4 °C. PEO was added at concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1% (w/v). Each formulation included paclitaxel (0.5 mg/mL). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was measured using the tube-inverting method. Drug release from the hydrogels was measured using a Franz diffusion cell containing pH 7.4 phosphate-buffered solution (PBS) buffer at 37 °C. The cytotoxicity of each formulation was measured using the MTT assay with a human oral cancer cell (KB cell). The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogel decreased when PF127 was present and varied according to the presence of mucoadhesive polymers. The in vitro release was sustained and the release rate was slowed by the addition of the mucoadhesive polymer. The cytotoxicity of the blank formulation was low, although the drug-loaded hydrogel showed acceptable cytotoxicity. The results of our study suggest that the combination of a PF 127-based mucoadhesive hydrogel formulation and inclusion complexes improves the in vitro release and cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel.
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Modulation of Quinone PCET Reaction by Ca(2+) Ion Captured by Calix[4]quinone in Water.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Calix[4]arene-triacid-monoquinone (CTAQ), a quinone-containing water-soluble ionophore, was utilized to investigate how proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions of quinones were influenced by redox-inactive metal ions in aqueous environment. This ionophoric quinone derivative captured a Ca(2+) ion that drastically altered the voltammetric behavior of quinone, showing a characteristic response to pH and unique redox wave separation. Spectroelectrochemistry verified significant stabilization of the semiquinone, and electrocatalytic currents were observed in the presence of Ca(2+)-free CTAQ. Using digital simulation of cyclic voltammograms to clarify how the thermodynamic properties of quinones were altered, a simple scheme was proposed that successfully accounted for all the observations. The change induced by Ca(2+) complexation was explained on the basis of the combined effects of the electrostatic influence of the captured metal ion and hydrogen bonding of water molecules with the support of DFT calculation.
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Diagnostic accuracy of 64-slice multidetector CT angiography for detection of in-stent restenosis of vertebral artery ostium stents: comparison with conventional angiography.
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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There are very few reports assessing in-stent restenosis (ISR) after vertebral artery ostium (VAO) stents using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).
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Intercoronary Communication between the Circumflex and Right Coronary Arteries Coexisted with Coronary Vasospasm.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Intercoronary arterial connection between normal coronary arteries is a rare variant of coronary anatomy in which there is open-ended circulation. It is distinguished from collaterals seen in the occlusive coronary artery disease. We report a case of bidirectional intercoronary communication between the left circumflex artery and the right coronary artery without occlusive coronary artery disease, but with left anterior descending artery spasm.
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Effect of solution combusted TiO2 nanopowder within commercial BaTiO3 dielectric layer on the photoelectric properties for AC powder electroluminescence devices.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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A unique synthesis method was developed, which is called solution combustion method (SCM). TiO2 nanopowder was synthesized by this method. This SCM TiO2 nanopowder (-35 nm) was added to the dielectric layer of AC powder electroluminescence (EL) device. The dielectric layer was made of commercial BaTiO3 powder (-1.2 microm) and binding polymer. 0, 5, 10 and 15 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added to the dielectric layer during fabrication of AC powder EL device respectively. Dielectric constant of these four kinds of dielectric layers was measured. The brightness and current density of AC powder EL device were also measured. When 10 wt% of SCM TiO2 nanopowder was added, dielectric constant and brightness were increased by 30% and 101% respectively. Furthermore, the current density was decreased by 71%. This means that the brightness was double and the power consumption was one third.
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The twisting maneuver for fluoroscopic-guided removal of nonpalpable tunneled central venous access catheter cuffs.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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The present report describes an alternative technique for the detection of nonpalpable polyester cuffs during the removal of tunneled central venous catheters. By twisting the external segment of the tunneled catheter in obese patients or those with severe edema, fluoroscopy can easily confirm the estimated site of the hidden cuff.
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Significant response to lower acetylcholine dose is associated with worse clinical and angiographic characteristics in patients with vasospastic angina.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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The intracoronary injection of acetylcholine (Ach) has been shown to induce coronary spasms in patients with variant angina. Clinical significance and angiographic characteristics of patients with a significant response to lower Ach dosages are as-yet non-clarified compared with patients responding to higher Ach doses.
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Reaction-based dual signaling of fluoride ions by resorufin sulfonates.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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We developed new reaction-based probes for the dual signaling of fluoride ions. Selective fluoride-assisted deprotection of resorufin nosylate to generate resorufin fluorochrome was used for signaling. Resorufin nosylate exhibited selective colorimetric and fluorogenic signaling of fluoride ions in acetonitrile. The response from sulfide ions was effectively masked by using the TPEN-Cu(2+) complex as a source of Cu(2+) ions for masking sulfide. Selective optical signaling of fluoride was possible in the presence of commonly encountered anions with a detection limit of 1.9 × 10(-6) M.
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Dual signaling of hydrazine by selective deprotection of dichlorofluorescein and resorufin acetates.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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The highly selective chemosignaling behaviors for hydrazine by a reaction-based probe of dichlorofluorescein and resorufin acetates were investigated. Hydrazinolysis of latent dichlorofluorescein and resorufin acetate fluorochromes caused prominent chromogenic and fluorescent turn-on type signals. The probes selectively detected hydrazine in the presence of commonly encountered metal ions and anions as background. Dichlorofluorescein and resorufin acetates selectively detected hydrazine with detection limits of 9.0 × 10(-8) M and 8.2 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Furthermore, hydrazine was selectively detected over other closely related compounds, such as hydroxylamine, ethylenediamine, and ammonia. As a possible application of the acetate probes, hydrazine signaling in tap water was tested.
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Percutaneous management of postoperative duodenal stump leakage with foley catheter.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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This study was designed to evaluate retrospectively the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous management of duodenal stump leakage with a Foley catheter after subtotal gastrectomy.
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T-shaped angioplasty with apex puncture of thrombosed looped hemodialysis grafts.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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This study is a retrospective evaluation of an alternative technique for angioplasty of thrombosed loop hemodialysis grafts through a single vascular access. This technique can provide balloon angioplasty to the puncture site without any additional vascular accesses by using a T-shaped balloon catheter and can simplify thrombectomy procedures.
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Radiologists performance for detecting lesions and the interobserver variability of automated whole breast ultrasound.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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To compare the detection performance of the automated whole breast ultrasound (AWUS) with that of the hand-held breast ultrasound (HHUS) and to evaluate the interobserver variability in the interpretation of the AWUS.
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Novel pyrimidoazepine analogs as serotonin 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor ligands for the treatment of obesity.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems worldwide in the 21st century. Current therapeutic treatment for obesity is mostly focused on preventive measures involving dietary control and physical exercises in combination with anti-obesity medications. However, most of these anti-obesity medications have little or no effect on weight loss, and some cases have demonstrated fatal side effects. Due to the urgent need for highly potent and selective anti-obesity agents, the serotonin receptors (5-HTR) have been the focus of much interest as a novel therapeutic target. In this report, we have developed pyrimidoazepine analogs targeting the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors and evaluated their biological activity in vitro and in vivo as novel anti-obesity agents. We were able to identify 6p as the most potent 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C ligand in vitro (IC50 = 3 nM and 2.3 nM, respectively), and this compound also demonstrated the greatest potency in vivo. In an acute obesity model, mice treated with 6p showed significant decrease in body weight gain and food intake over approximately 77-94% compared to a control group. In a chronic obesity model, mice treated with 6p also showed a marked decrease in food intake and body weight gain.
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Topical treatment of the buccal mucosa and wounded skin in rats with a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel prepared using an electron beam.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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In this study, a triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel was prepared by electron beam irradiation and evaluated for use as a buccal mucoadhesive drug delivery system. A poloxamer was modified to have vinyl end groups for preparation of the hydrogel via an irradiation cross-linking reaction. Carbopol was introduced to improve the mucoadhesive properties of the hydrogel. The in vitro release of triamcinolone acetonide from the hydrogel was examined at 37 °C. To investigate the topical therapeutic effect of triamcinolone acetonide on wounded rat skin and buccal mucosa, the appearance and histological changes were evaluated for 15 days after treatment with saline, triamcinolone acetonide solution, triamcinolone acetonide hydrogel, and blank hydrogel, respectively. Triamcinolone acetonide was released constantly from the gel formulation at 37 °C and reach 100% at about 48 h. After 15 days, in the skin of the group treated with the triamcinolone acetonide-loaded hydrogel, the wound was almost completely free of crust and a number of skin appendages, including hair follicles, had formed at the margins of the tissue. Moreover, the inflammatory response in the buccal mucosa was milder than that in the other groups, and the wound surface was completely covered with regenerating, hyperkeratotic, thickened epithelial cells. Our results indicate that the triamcinolone-acetonide hydrogel showed sustained drug release behavior, while causing no significant histopathological changes in buccal and skin tissues. Therefore, this hydrogel system may be a powerful means of drug delivery for buccal administration with controlled release and no tissue irritation.
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Comparison of antiplatelet efficacy and tolerability of clopidogrel napadisilate with clopidogrel bisulfate in coronary artery disease patients after percutaneous coronary intervention: a prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase IV, noninfe
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Clopidogrel bisulfate, a potent antiplatelet agent, has a pivotal role in the prevention and treatment of atherothrombotic disease. Clopidogrel napadisilate, a different salt preparation of clopidogrel, has been developed and approved in Korea and several European countries. Recent studies have suggested that clopidogrel napadisilate might have improved stability and comparable bioequivalence to clopidogrel bisulfate. However, these 2 clopidogrel preparations have not been compared in terms of efficacy and tolerability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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The allergenic potency of Japanese hop pollen is increasing with environmental changes in Korea.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The sensitization rate to Japanese Hop (Hop J) in respiratory allergy patients has increased in recent years in Korea. We evaluated changes in the allergenic potency of Hop J pollen collected in 1998 and 2009.
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DC Bead Transarterial Chemoembolization Is Effective in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Refractory to Conventional Transarteral Chemoembolization: A Pilot Study.
Gut Liver
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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To determine if hepatocellular carcinoma refractory to conventional transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) responds to TACE with DC beads.
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Transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads in hepatocellular carcinoma: usefulness of contrast saturation features on cone-beam computed tomography imaging for predicting short-term tumor response.
J Vasc Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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To evaluate the predictability of the short-term tumor response and the clinical usefulness of cone-beam computed tomography (CT) performed immediately after drug-eluting bead (DEB) transarterial chemoembolization in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Molecular characterization of vegetative incompatibility genes that restrict hypovirus transmission in the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica.
Genetics
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Genetic nonself recognition systems such as vegetative incompatibility operate in many filamentous fungi to regulate hyphal fusion between genetically dissimilar individuals and to restrict the spread of virulence-attenuating mycoviruses that have potential for biological control of pathogenic fungi. We report here the use of a comparative genomics approach to identify seven candidate polymorphic genes associated with four vegetative incompatibility (vic) loci of the chestnut blight fungus Cryphonectria parasitica. Disruption of candidate alleles in one of two strains that were heteroallelic at vic2, vic6, or vic7 resulted in enhanced virus transmission, but did not prevent barrage formation associated with mycelial incompatibility. Detailed characterization of the vic6 locus revealed the involvement of nonallelic interactions between two tightly linked genes in barrage formation, heterokaryon formation, and asymmetric, gene-specific influences on virus transmission. The combined results establish molecular identities of genes associated with four C. parasitica vic loci and provide insights into how these recognition factors interact to trigger incompatibility and restrict virus transmission.
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Critical role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-? on body fat reduction in C57BL/6J and human apolipoprotein E2 transgenic mice fed delipidated soybean.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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The consumption of soy protein and fiber reduces body fat accumulation; however, the mechanism of this effect has not been clearly understood. We investigated the antiobesogenic effect of soy protein and fiber in two different mouse models. Normolipidemic nonobese C57BL/6J and hyperlipidemic obese human apolipoprotein E2 transgenic mice were fed either delipidated soybean (DLSB) containing soy protein and fiber or a control diet. The DLSB-fed mice showed a significant reduction in body weight gain and adiposity compared with controls, in both C57BL/6J and apoE2 mice. All metabolic parameters were significantly improved in the DLSB group compared with controls: total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, insulin, and leptin levels were significantly reduced. Adiponectin concentrations were significantly elevated, and glucose tolerance was improved. In both types of DLSB-fed mice, the specific induction of PPAR-? protein expression was evident in muscle and adipose tissues. The expression of PPAR-? target genes in the DLSB-fed mice was also significantly altered. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 and fatty acid synthase levels in adipose tissue were downregulated, and uncoupling protein-2 in muscle was upregulated. Intestinal expression of fatty acid transport protein-4, cluster of differentiation-36, and acyl-CoA synthetase were significantly downregulated. We propose that marked activation of PPAR-? is the primary mechanism mediating the antiobesogenic effect of soybean and that PPAR-? has multiple actions: induction of thermogenesis in muscle, reduction of fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissue, and reduction of fatty acid uptake in intestinal tissue.
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Acute Cerebral Infarction Following Intravenous Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitor for Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Stroke is a rare but serious complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Currently, glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor is used in clinical practice for acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs). The incidence of stroke in patients receiving GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor during PCIs is very low. We report the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with AMI and suffered an acute cerebral infarction after infusion of a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor following primary PCI.
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Hydrazine-selective chromogenic and fluorogenic probe based on levulinated coumarin.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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Chemosignaling of hydrazine by selective deprotection of levulinated coumarin was investigated. In the presence of hydrazine, levulinated coumarin was selectively deprotected, resulting in chromogenic and fluorescent turn-on type signaling. The selective naked-eye detectable signaling of hydrazine was possible in the presence of representative metal ions and common anions in an aqueous environment.
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Comparison of full-field digital mammography workstation and conventional picture archiving and communication system in image quality and diagnostic performance.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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The object of this study was to compare of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) workstation and conventional picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in image quality and diagnostic performance. We assembled 80 masses and 80 microcalcifications. Images were displayed on workstation, 5M, and 3M PACS monitors. The image quality for mammograms on workstation was significantly better than that for mammograms on PACS monitors. The sensitivity and NPV for microcalcifications on workstation were higher than those on PACS monitors. The conventional PACS cannot substitute for a FFDM workstation for mammographic evaluation.
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Signaling of hypochlorous acid by selective deprotection of dithiane. [corrected].
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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The selective signaling of hypochlorous acid by dithiane-protected [corrected] pyrene-aldehyde was investigated. Dithiolane derivative of pyrene-aldehyde was efficiently deprotected by hypochlorous acid to its corresponding aldehyde, which resulted in a prominent UV-vis and turn-on type fluorescence signaling. The signaling was not affected by the presence of other common alkali, alkaline earth metal ions, and anions. Interference from Hg(2+) ions could be successfully circumvented by using Chelex-100 resin. Dithiane [corrected] also provided selectivity toward hypochlorous acid over other commonly used oxidant of hydrogen peroxide.
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5-HT?c receptor selectivity and structure-activity relationship of N-methyl-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)benzenesulfonamide analogs.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2011
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Agonists of the 5-HT(2C) receptor have attracted much attention as therapeutic agents for the treatment of obesity. Subtype selectivity against other 5-HT(2) receptors is one of the most important prerequisites for reducing side effects. We present the synthesis of N-methyl-N-(1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)benzenesulfonamide analogs and their structure-activity relationship studies on 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. Although the compounds showed nanomolar activity to the 5-HT(2C) receptor, their selectivity against the 5-HT(2A) receptor was modest to low. Molecular modeling studies using homology modeling and docking simulation revealed that selectivity originated from subtype specific residues. The observed binding modes and receptor-ligand interactions provided us a clue for optimizing the selectivity against the 5-HT(2A) receptor.
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Ruptured endometrial cysts as a rare cause of acute pelvic pain: can we differentiate them from ruptured corpus luteal cysts on CT scan?
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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To evaluate the usefulness of CT in the differentiation of ruptured endometrial cysts and corpus luteal cysts.
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Oligomycin A enhances apoptotic effect of TRAIL through CHOP-mediated death receptor 5 expression.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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Development of resistance to TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in tumor cells is one of the important problems in cancer treatment. Despite the previous report demonstrating that oligomycin suppressed TNF-induced apoptosis, in our screening of small molecules enhancing cancer cell death to TRAIL, oligomycin A (OMA) was found to enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) was found to directly bind to death receptor 5 (DR5) promoter through endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER-stress) signaling and sensitize the cells to TRAIL. Among ER-stress associated proteins, OMA triggered the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) signaling pathway, leading to X-binding protein 1 (XBP1) splicing, CHOP expression and DR5 upregulation. In contrast, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) of CHOP reduced the number of apoptotic cells in response to the co-treatment of TRAIL and OMA. Collectively, our data suggest that OMA enhances apoptotic death of cervical cancer cells to TRAIL through upregulation of CHOP-mediated DR5 expression following ER-stress.
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Drug-eluting bead loaded with doxorubicin versus conventional Lipiodol-based transarterial chemoembolization in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study of Asian patients.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Lipiodol transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is widely used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, a drug-eluting bead (DEB) has been developed to enhance drug delivery to the tumor and reduce its systemic availability. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intra-arterial injection of DEB loaded with doxorubicin versus conventional, Lipiodol-based TACE regimens in Asian patients with HCC.
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Safety of accelerated schedules of subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with house dust mite extract in patients with atopic dermatitis.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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The safety of accelerated schedules of allergen immunotherapy (ASAI) in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) has been reported but there are little data on the safety of ASAI for patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). In this study, we investigated the safety of ASAI in patients with AD. Sixty patients with AD and 18 patients with BA sensitized to house dust mites (HDM) were studied. A maximum maintenance dose of HDM extract, adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, was administered to patients by subcutaneous injection with either a 3-day protocol (rush immunotherapy) or 1-day protocol (ultra-rush immunotherapy). Systemic reactions were observed 4 of 15 patients (26.7%) with AD during rush immunotherapy, 13 of 45 patients (28.9%) with AD during ultra-rush immunotherapy, and 4 of 18 patients (22.2%) with BA during rush immunotherapy (P > 0.05). No severe or near fatal systemic reactions occurred in 78 subjects of this study. Systemic reactions developed within 4 hr after administration of the maximum allergen dose in 20 of 21 patients (95.2%) with AD and BA who showed systemic reactions during rush or ultra-rush immunotherapy. In conclusion, ASAI was safe and well tolerated in patients with AD. ASAI can be a useful therapeutic option for AD.
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Association of ??-adrenergic receptor polymorphism with work-related symptoms in workers exposed to wheat flour.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Our previous study indicated that the presence of wheat-specific IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies was associated with work-related symptoms in workers exposed to wheat flour. We performed this study to investigate the genetic polymorphisms of ??-adrenergic receptors and wheat-specific antibodies in association with the clinical parameters of bakers asthma.
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Synthesis of C (6)-epimer derivatives of diacetoxy acetal derivative of santonin and their inducing effects on HL-60 leukemia cell differentiation.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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Induction of differentiation is a new and promising approach to leukemia therapy, well illustrated by the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25-(OH)(2)D(3)] or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Using combination of either 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) or ATRA and chemotherapy, adverse effects 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) or ATRA such as hypercalcemic effects have decreased, and long-term survival has improved. In a previous study, we demonstrated that santonin could be chemically modified into a diacetoxy acetal derivative of santonin with strong differentiation-inducing activity. In this study, we further synthesized C(6)-epimer derivatives of diacetoxy acetal derivative of santonin and tested their effects on HL-60 cell differentiation. Some of the C(6)-epimer derivatives themselves induced increases in cell differentiation. Especially, (11S)-3,3-(ethylenedioxy) eudesmano-13-ol-6?-acetate (7) was demonstrated to induce differentiation with larger than 80% of the cells attaining a differentiated phenotype. Importantly, 7 strongly enhanced differentiation of HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner when combined with either low doses of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) or ATRA. The ability to enhance the differentiation potential of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) or ATRA by 7 may improve outcomes in the therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
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Diagnostic value of the serum-specific IgE ratio of ?-5 gliadin to wheat in adult patients with wheat-induced anaphylaxis.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Wheat is an important food allergen associated with severe allergic reactions, including wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) and wheat-induced anaphylaxis (WIA). To diagnose WDEIA, an exercise challenge test following wheat ingestion is performed, which is time-consuming and unsafe. The compound ?-5 gliadin has been identified as a major allergen for WDEIA and WIA. We evaluated the diagnostic value of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) ratios of ?-5 gliadin to wheat in adult patients with WDEIA or WIA.
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Transcatheter venous embolization of a massive hepatic arteriovenous shunt complicating hepatocellular carcinoma using an Amplatzer Vascular Plug.
Jpn J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2011
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Arteriovenous (AV) shunts are relatively uncommon in the liver and usually associated with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In patients with massive AV shunts complicating advanced HCC, transarterial chemoinfusion therapy is not effective because chemotherapeutic agents go through the shunts and may cause systemic toxicity as well as decrease the chemotherapeutic effects against the tumor. We report two cases of successful transcatheter venous embolization of massive AV shunts complicating advanced HCC using the Amplatzer Vascular Plug for transarterial chemoinfusion therapy.
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Association between plasma hepatocyte growth factor and gefitinib resistance in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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It has been suggested that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 are associated with gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We investigated the predictive and prognostic roles of these proteins in NSCLC patients treated with gefitinib.
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Encapsulation enhancement and stabilization of insulin in cationic liposomes.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
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The purpose of this study was to enhance encapsulation efficiency and sustained-release delivery for parenteral administration of a protein drug. To reduce the administration frequency of protein drugs, it is necessary to develop sustained delivery systems. In this study, protein drug-loaded cationic liposomes were formulated with dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP), and cholesterol (CH) at a molar ratio of DOPE/DOTAP/CH of 2/1.5/2. Five mol% of distearoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine polyethylene glycol (DSPE-PEG) was added prior to encapsulation of the drug into liposomes. Insulin was chosen as a model protein drug and encapsulation efficiency was evaluated in various liposomes with and without DSPE-PEG. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the insulin-loaded cationic liposomes. Structural analysis was performed using spectropolarimetry. Additionally, the stability and cytotoxicity of insulin-loaded cationic liposomes were evaluated. Liposomes coated with DSPE-PEG showed higher insulin encapsulation efficiency than did those without DSPE-PEG, but not significantly. Moreover, among the liposomes coated with DSPE-PEG, those hydrated with 10% sucrose showed higher encapsulation efficiency than did liposomes hydrated in either phosphate-buffered saline or 5% dextrose. In vitro release of insulin was prolonged by cationic liposomes. Our findings suggest that cationic liposomes may be a potential sustained-release delivery system for parenteral administration of protein and peptide drugs to prolong efficacy and improve bioavailability.
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Note: Picosecond impulse generator driven by cascaded step recovery diode pulse shaping circuit.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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In this paper, a picosecond impulse generator using step recovery diodes (SRDs) is presented. In order to reduce the pulse width of an impulse generator, we employed a cascaded SRD pulse-shaping circuit. A short impulse generation is confirmed in numerical simulation of a time-transient circuit simulator. Measurements show that the measured pulse width of the cascaded SRD impulse generator is 250 ps at 10% of the peak amplitude, which is improved by 85 ps compared with a conventional SRD impulse generator.
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Serum cytokines markers in toluene diisocyanate-induced asthma.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Toluene diisocyante-induced occupational asthma (TDI-OA) is an inflammatory disease of airway, composing inflammatory cells and cytokines associated with airway remodeling. Majority of the patients with TDI-OA presented persistent asthma. Therefore, early diagnosis is essential for the favorable prognosis. We investigated to identify serologic markers for early diagnosis of TDI-OA.
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Changes of Alpha1-Antitrypsin Levels in Allergen-induced Nasal Inflammation.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) is the main inhibitor of human neutrophil elastase, and plays a role in counteracting the tissue damage caused by elastase in local inflammatory conditions. The study evaluated the involvement of AAT in nasal allergic inflammation.
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Role of dyssynchrony on functional mitral regurgitation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy: a comparison study with geometric parameters of mitral apparatus.
J Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) occurs commonly in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This study was conducted to explore the role of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in developing FMR in patients with DCM in comparison with geometric parameters of the mitral apparatus.
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Fluorescent signaling of oxone by desulfurization of thioamide.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
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The chemosignaling of the oxidant Oxone by selective desulfurization of a thioamide was investigated. Pyrene-thioamide was efficiently converted to its amide analogue by reaction with Oxone, resulting in a pronounced fluorescent turn-on type signaling. Selective signaling of Oxone in aqueous solution was possible in the presence of representative alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, as well as common anions.
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Chromogenic and fluorogenic signaling of sulfite by selective deprotection of resorufin levulinate.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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A new sulfite-selective probe system based on resorufin was investigated. Levulinate of resorufin exhibited a prominent chromogenic and turn-on type fluorogenic signaling toward sulfite ions in aqueous media based on the selective deprotection of the levulinate group. The sulfite-selective signaling was possible in the presence of commonly encountered anions.
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Interstitial lung disease associated with FOLFOX chemotherapy.
J Cancer Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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Currently, FOLFOX regimen has been widely used as an effective approach for treating many advanced GI tract cancers. Toxicity induced by oxaliplatin has been well known and mostly moderate and manageable. Gastrointestinal, hematological and neurosensory toxicities are the most common. However, information concerning the pulmonary toxicity of this regimen is very limited and only a few cases of severe lung toxicity associated with FOLFOX chemotherapy have been reported. Here, we report a fatal case of interstitial lung disease which was associated with FOLFOX chemotherapy in metastatic advanced gastric cancer. The patient expired from progressive respiratory failure. This case suggests that FOLFOX-induced interstitial lung disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of new lung lesions in patients who are treated with FOLFOX chemotherapy. And further investigations of possible association that may lead to acute respiratory failure are warranted.
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Acute and Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity of n-Octane in Rats.
Saf Health Work
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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We have investigated the toxic effects of the inhalation of subchronic and acute levels of n-octane.
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Implementation of single source based hospital information system for the catholic medical center affiliated hospitals.
Healthc Inform Res
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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The objective of this research is to introduce the unique approach of the Catholic Medical Center (CMC) integrate network hospitals with organizational and technical methodologies adopted for seamless implementation.
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Immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency is the major phenotype of primary immunodeficiency in a Korean adult cohort.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) is a rare disorder in adults. Most often, serious forms are detected during infancy or childhood. However, mild forms of PID may not be diagnosed until later in life, and some types of humoral immunodeficiency may occur in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical features of PID in Korean adults. A retrospective study was performed on 55 adult patients who were diagnosed as PID between January 1998 and January 2009 at a single tertiary medical center in Korea. IgG subclass deficiency was the most common phenotype (67%, 37/55), followed by total IgG deficiency (20%, 11/55), IgM deficiency (7%, 4/55), common variable immunodeficiency (2%, 1/55), and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (2%, 1/55). IgG3 and IgG4 were the most affected subclasses. Upper and lower respiratory tract infections (76%) were the most frequently observed symptoms, followed by multiple site infection (11%), urinary tract infection, and colitis. Bronchial asthma, rhinitis, and several autoimmune diseases were common associated diseases. IgG and IgG subclass deficiency should be considered in adult patients presenting with recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections, particularly in those with respiratory allergies or autoimmune diseases.
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IL-13 Gene Polymorphisms are Associated With Rhinosinusitis and Eosinophilic Inflammation in Aspirin Intolerant Asthma.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA) is characterized by moderate to severe asthma that is aggravated by aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Affected patients frequently have chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis due to persistent upper and lower airway inflammation with marked eosinophilia. IL-13 plays a crucial role in the development of allergic asthma by inducing airway eosinophilia and hyper-reactivity and it has been correlated with an increased eosinophil count.
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What radiologists want to see: stack mode display in PowerPoint.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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The purpose of this article is to describe a stack mode viewer that is fully embeddable in PowerPoint and does not require external files.
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Selective perborate signaling by deprotection of fluorescein and resorufin acetates.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2010
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The acetate derivatives of fluorescein and resorufin exhibited a prominent turn-on type signaling behavior toward BO(3)(-) ions over other common anions. Signaling is based on the selective deprotection of acetate groups by perborate, which resulted in significant chromogenic and fluorogenic signaling. Compound 1 also exhibited a pronounced perborate selectivity over other commonly used oxidants in 90% aqueous acetonitrile solution.
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Beef-induced anaphylaxis confirmed by the basophil activation test.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2010
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Beef allergies are relatively rare, especially in adults. However, clinical manifestations can vary from urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis to gastrointestinal symptoms. Currently available tests, such as skin testing or in vitro determination of beef-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE), do not provide an accurate diagnosis of beef allergy. The recent development of the basophil activation test (BAT) presents a new opportunity for the diagnosis of food allergies. Here, we report a 37-year-old woman with a history of recurrent generalised urticaria, nausea, vomiting and hypotension after ingestion of beef, suggesting a beef allergy. Although the skin prick test and serum specific IgE to beef, pork and milk allergens showed negative results using commercial kits, the BAT showed significant upregulation of CD203c in a dose-dependent manner compared to both non-atopic and atopic controls. To our knowledge, this is the first case study of beef allergy consisting of a non-IgE-mediated reaction. The detection of food allergies using direct basophil activation is suggested to complement conventional diagnostic tests.
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Postcardiac injury syndrome after percutaneous coronary intervention.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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The post cardiac injury syndrome is characterized by the development of a fever, pleuropericarditis, and parenchymal pulmonary infiltrates in the weeks following trauma to the pericardium or myocardium. According to previous reports, almost all cases develop after major cardiac surgery or a myocardial infarction. Recently, a few reports have described post cardiac injury syndrome as a complication of endovascular procedures such as percutaneous cardiac intervention. Here we describe an unusual case of post cardiac injury syndrome after a percutaneous coronary intervention.
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Image quality improvement after implementation of a CT accreditation program.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate any improvement in the quality of abdominal CTs after the utilization of the nationally based accreditation program.
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Imaging findings of intrahepatic bile duct adenoma (peribiliary gland hamartoma): a case report and literature review.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Intrahepatic bile duct adenoma is a rare benign epithelial hepatic tumor derived from bile duct cells. We report the imaging findings of a patient with bile duct adenoma, which appeared as a small heterogeneously enhancing mass with focal small cystic change on CT and MRI. Follow-up images at seven months showed a slight increase in tumor size, which could be partly explained by intratumoral hemorrhage on pathologic examination. Although rare, bile duct adenoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis of a small hypervascular tumor located in the periphery of liver. Focal cystic change and intratumoral hemorrhage may occur.
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A case of occupational rhinitis caused by rice powder in the grain industry.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Rice is the major staple food in a large part of the world, especially in Asia. Hypersensitivity reactions to rice are rare. Moreover, cases of occupational allergies induced by inhalation of rice powder are uncommon. We report a 31-year-old male with work-related rhinitis and conjunctivitis symptoms caused by occupational exposure to rice powder in the grain industry. He showed positive responses to rice extracts on a skin prick test, and a high level of serum specific IgE to rice was detected by ELISA. Occupational rhinitis was confirmed by a nasal provocation test with rice extracts. An IgE ELISA inhibition test showed cross-creativity between rice and various grass pollen extracts. These findings suggest that the inhalation of rice powder can induce IgE-mediated occupational rhino-conjunctivitis, which may be derived from cross-reactivity to major grass pollens.
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Sulfide-selective chemosignaling by a Cu2+ complex of dipicolylamine appended fluorescein.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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A new sulfide-selective chemosignaling system was devised based on a Cu(2+) complex of fluorescein derivative having a dipicolylamine (DPA) binding site; the fluorescein-DPA conjugate 1, in the presence of Cu(2+) ions, revealed a selective turn-on type signaling behavior toward sulfide ions with a detection limit of 420 nM in 100% aqueous solution.
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Epidemiology and current status of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and associated allergic diseases in Korea: ARIA Asia-Pacific workshop report.
Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma has recently increased in Korea, and both conditions are recognized as major chronic respiratory diseases requiring active intervention. The prevalence of rhinitis among asthmatic patients is high, ranging from 60 to 80%, and could seriously affect asthma severity and outcome. We suggest that allergic rhinitis should be properly evaluated in asthmatic patients to achieve better asthma control.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.