Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) including docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid are suspected to play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. LCPUFAs are known to be preferentially concentrated in specific phospholipids termed as plasmalogens. This study was aimed to highlight potential changes in the metabolism of phospholipids, and particularly plasmalogens, and LCPUFAs at various stages of diabetic retinopathy in humans.
Diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are the leading causes of blindness in Western populations. Although it is a matter of controversy, large-scale population-based studies have reported increased prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in patients with diabetes or diabetic retinopathy. We hypothesized that metabolic syndrome, one of the major risk factors for type 2 diabetes, would represent a favorable environment for the development of choroidal neovascularization, the main complication of age-related macular degeneration. The fructose-fed rat was used as a model for metabolic syndrome in which choroidal neovascularization was induced by laser photocoagulation. Male Brown Norway rats were fed for 1, 3, and 6 months with a standard equilibrated chow diet or a 60%-rich fructose diet (n?=?24 per time point). The animals expectedly developed significant body adiposity (+17%), liver steatosis at 3 and 6 months, hyperleptinemia at 1 and 3 months (two-fold increase) and hyperinsulinemia at 3 and 6 months (up to two-fold increase), but remained normoglycemic and normolipemic. The fructose-fed animals exhibited partial loss of rod sensitivity to light stimulus and reduced amplitude of oscillatory potentials at 6 months. Fructose-fed rats developed significantly more choroidal neovascularization at 14 and 21 days post-laser photocoagulation after 1 and 3 months of diet compared to animals fed the control diet. These results were consistent with infiltration/activation of phagocytic cells and up-regulation of pro-angiogenic gene expression such as Vegf and Leptin in the retina. Our data therefore suggested that metabolic syndrome would exacerbate the development of choroidal neovascularization in our experimental model.
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) may be partially prevented by dietary habits privileging the consumption of ?3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3s) while lowering linoleic acid (LA) intake. The present study aimed to document whether following these epidemiological guidelines would enrich the neurosensory retina and RPE with ?3s and modulate gene expression in the neurosensory retina. Rat progenitors and pups were fed with diets containing low or high LA, and low or high ?3s. After scotopic single flash and 8-Hz-Flicker electroretinography, rat pups were euthanized at adulthood. The fatty acid profile of the neurosensory retina, RPE, liver, adipose tissue and plasma was analyzed using gas chromatography. Gene expression was analyzed with real-time PCR in the neurosensory retina. Diets rich in ?3s efficiently improved the incorporation of ?3s into the organs and tissues. This raising effect was magnified by lowering LA intake. Compared to a diet with high LA and low ?3s, low LA diets significantly upregulated LDL-receptor gene expression. Similar but not significant upregulation of CD36, ABCA1, ALOX5 and ALOX12 gene expression was observed in rats fed with low LA. No effect was observed on retinal function. Increasing the intake in ?3s and lowering LA improved the enrichment with ?3s of the tissues, including the neurosensory retina and RPE, and upregulated genes involved in lipid trafficking in the neurosensory retina. Those results consistently reinforced the beneficial role of ?3s in the prevention of AMD, especially when the diet contained low levels of LA, as suggested from epidemiological data.
The purpose of this work was to identify an unknown component which has been detected during the analysis of cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAMs) in low erucic acid rapeseed oils (LEAR). A sample of crude LEAR was transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and hydrogenated using PtO(2). The hydrogenated sample was fractionated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and the fraction containing the CFAMs transformed into picolinyl esters. Analysing these picolinyl derivatives by gas-liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed that the unknown product observed in LEAR is the 11,12-methylene-octadecanoic acid. This cyclic fatty acid was also found in crude LEAR and in the corresponding seeds but was not detected in crude soya and sunflower oils. As this acid is present in the same fraction as CFAMs, known to be formed during heat treatment, great care must therefore be taken for not including it when quantifying CFAMs. It is thus necessary to verify by mass spectrometry the structures of the CFAMs in the isolated cyclic fatty acid fraction prior to quantification.
The purpose of this study was to compare the susceptibility of the retina and the exorbital lacrimal gland to dietary supplies of long-chain omega-3 (omega3) and omega-6 (omega6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs). Male Wistar rats were fed a 5% lipid diet containing: (1) 10% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 7% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or (2) 10% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), or (3) 10% EPA, 7% DHA and 10% GLA or (4) a balanced diet deprived of EPA, DHA and GLA for 3 months. Lipids were extracted from plasma phospholipids, retina and exorbital lacrimal gland, and fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Dietary supplementation with EPA and DHA increased omega3 PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids as well as in the retina and the exorbital lacrimal gland. By contrast, GLA supplementation favored omega6 PUFA incorporation, and particularly the incorporation of the end-chain omega6 product, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), into all tissues. Supplementation with EPA, DHA and GLA increased the levels of DHA, EPA and dihomo-GLA (dGLA), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) was unchanged and DPA decreased in the retina and the lacrimal gland. The ability of both tissues to incorporate PUFAs from blood was evaluated. The results showed that the retina was more selective than the lacrimal gland for EPA. In spite of the different susceptibility of the retina and the lacrimal gland to dietary PUFAs, these results suggest that the concomitant use of dietary omega3 and omega6 PUFAs may be useful in modulating inflammation in both tissues.
Functional atrophy and accompanying lymphocytic infiltration and destruction of the lacrimal gland (LG) are characteristics of Sjögrens Syndrome (SjS). The male NOD mouse is an experimental model for the autoimmune exocrinopathy that develops in the LG of SjS patients. Acinar cells in LG of male NOD mice aged 3-4 months were previously shown to accumulate lipid droplets. In the current study, analysis of lipid components revealed that the accumulated lipids were mostly cholesteryl esters (CE). Gene expression microarray analysis followed by real-time RT-PCR revealed alterations in the expression of several genes involved in lipid homeostasis in LG of 12-week-old male NOD mice relative to matched BALB/c controls. A series of upregulated genes including apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein F, hepatic lipase, phosphomevalonate kinase, ATP-binding cassette D1 and ATP-binding cassette G1 were identified. Comparison of liver mRNAs to LG mRNAs in BALB/c and NOD mice revealed that the differential expressions were LG-specific. Gene expression profiles were also characterized in LGs of female mice, younger mice and immune-incompetent NOD SCID mice. Investigation of the cellular distribution of Apo-E and Apo-F proteins suggested that these proteins normally coordinate to mediate lipid efflux from the acinar cells but that dysfunction of these processes due to missorting of Apo-F may contribute to CE deposition. Finally, the initiation and extent of lipid deposition were correlated with lymphocytic infiltration in the LG of male NOD mice. We propose that impaired lipid efflux contributes to lipid deposition, an event that may contribute to the development and/or progression of dacryoadenitis in the male NOD mouse.
Among several theories involved in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the vascular theory considers the disease to be a consequence of reduced ocular blood flow associated with red blood cell abnormalities. Red blood cell membrane structure and function are influenced by their phospholipid composition. We investigated whether specific lipid entities that may affect the membrane physiology, namely, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and plasmalogens, are modified in POAG and whether these potential variations are related to the stage of glaucoma. Blood samples were collected from 31 POAG patients and 10 healthy individuals. The stage of glaucoma was determined according to the Hodapp and Parrish classification. Lipids were extracted from red blood cell membranes and individual phospholipid species were quantified by liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry using triple quadrupole technology. POAG patients had reduced erythrocyte levels of phosphatidyl-choline (PC) carrying docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). POAG patients also displayed lower levels of choline plasmalogens (PlsC) carrying PUFAs other than DHA. These differences were greater as the severity of the disease increased. Linear regressions predicted that red blood cell PlsC levels would decrease years before clinical symptoms, whereas the levels of PC carrying DHA were linearly correlated to visual field loss. Our data demonstrate the selective loss of some individual phospholipid species in red blood cell membranes, which may partly explain their loss of flexibility in POAG.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA may affect retinal PUFA composition and PGE(1) and PGE(2) production. Male Wistar rats were fed for 3 months with diets containing: (1) 10% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 7% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or (2) 10% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), or (3) 10% EPA, 7% DHA and 10% GLA, or (4) a balanced diet deprived of EPA, DHA, and GLA. The fatty acid composition of retinal phospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. Prostaglandin production was measured by enzyme immunoassay. When compared to rats fed the control diet, the retinal levels of DHA were increased in rats fed both diets enriched with n-3 PUFA (EPA + DHA and EPA + DHA + GLA diets) and decreased in those supplemented with n-6 PUFA only (GLA diet). The diet enriched with both n-6 and n-3 PUFA resulted in the greatest increase in retinal DHA. The levels of PGE(1) and PGE(2) were significantly increased in retinal homogenates of rats fed with the GLA-rich diet when compared with those of animals fed the control diet. These higher PGE(1) and PGE(2) levels were not observed in animals fed with EPA + DHA + GLA. In summary, GLA added to EPA + DHA resulted in the highest retinal DHA content but without increasing retinal PGE(2) as seen in animals supplemented with GLA only.
FATP1 is involved in lipid transport into cells and in intracellular lipid metabolism. We showed previously that this protein interacts with and inhibits the limiting-step isomerase of the visual cycle RPE65. Here, we aimed to analyze the effect of Fatp1-deficiency in vivo on the visual cycle, structure and function, and on retinal aging. Among the Fatp family members, we observed that only Fatp1 and 4 are expressed in the control retina, in both the neuroretina and the retinal pigment epithelium. In the neuroretina, Fatp1 is mostly expressed in photoreceptors. In young adult Fatp1(-/-) mice, Fatp4 expression was unchanged in retinal pigment epithelium and reduced two-fold in the neuroretina as compared to Fatp1(+/+) mice. The Fatp1(-/-) mice had a preserved retinal structure but a decreased electroretinogram response to light. These mice also displayed a delayed recovery of the b-wave amplitude after bleaching, however, visual cycle speed was unchanged, and both retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors presented the same fatty acid pattern compared to controls. In 2 year-old Fatp1(-/-) mice, transmission electron microscopy studies showed specific abnormalities in the retinas comprising choroid vascularization anomalies and thickening of the Bruch membrane with material deposits, and sometimes local disorganization of the photoreceptor outer segments. These anomalies lead us to speculate that the absence of FATP1 accelerates the aging process.
Regular consumption of food enriched in omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?3 PUFAs) has been shown to reduce risk of cognitive decline in elderly, and possibly development of Alzheimers disease. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are the most likely active components of ?3-rich PUFAs diets in the brain. We therefore hypothesized that exposing mice to a DHA and EPA enriched diet may reduce neuroinflammation and protect against memory impairment in aged mice. For this purpose, mice were exposed to a control diet throughout life and were further submitted to a diet enriched in EPA and DHA during 2 additional months. Cytokine expression together with a thorough analysis of astrocytes morphology assessed by a 3D reconstruction was measured in the hippocampus of young (3-month-old) and aged (22-month-old) mice. In addition, the effects of EPA and DHA on spatial memory and associated Fos activation in the hippocampus were assessed. We showed that a 2-month EPA/DHA treatment increased these long-chain ?3 PUFAs in the brain, prevented cytokines expression and astrocytes morphology changes in the hippocampus and restored spatial memory deficits and Fos-associated activation in the hippocampus of aged mice. Collectively, these data indicated that diet-induced accumulation of EPA and DHA in the brain protects against neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment linked to aging, further reinforcing the idea that increased EPA and DHA intake may provide protection to the brain of aged subjects.
The assessment of blood lipids is very frequent in clinical research as it is assumed to reflect the lipid composition of peripheral tissues. Even well accepted such relationships have never been clearly established. This is particularly true in ophthalmology where the use of blood lipids has become very common following recent data linking lipid intake to ocular health and disease. In the present study, we wanted to determine in humans whether a lipidomic approach based on red blood cells could reveal associations between circulating and tissue lipid profiles. To check if the analytical sensitivity may be of importance in such analyses, we have used a double approach for lipidomics.
In order to investigate new sources of dietary phytochemicals, recent studies have focused on underexploited seeds. In this study the total lipid contents, fatty acid profiles and levels of soluble proteins, minerals and antioxidants in seeds from 12 Acacia cyanophylla ecotypes commonly grown in Tunisia were determined.
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