Objectives. Suicidal behaviour results from a complex interplay between stressful events and vulnerability factors, including cognitive deficits. It is not yet clear if memory impairment is part of this specific vulnerability. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the association between memory deficits and vulnerability to suicidal acts. Methods. A literature review was performed using Medline, Embase, and PsycInfo databases. Twenty-four studies (including 2,595 participants) met the selection criteria. Four different types of memory (i.e., working memory, short- and long-term memory, and autobiographical memory) were assessed in at least three different studies. Results. Autobiographical memory was significantly less specific and more general in patients with a history of suicide attempt relative to those without such a history (Hedges' g = 0.8 and 0.9, respectively). Long-term memory and working memory were both more impaired in suicide attempters than in patient and healthy controls. Only short-term memory did not differentiate suicide attempters from patient controls. Conclusions. Memory may play a significant role in the risk of suicidal acts, perhaps by preventing these individuals from using past experiences to solve current problems and to envision the future, and by altering inhibitory processes. More studies are necessary to better clarify these relationships.
People who attempt suicide often display cognitive impairments, particularly poor cognitive control. Could poor cognitive control contribute to high suicide rates in old age? A component of cognitive control, cognitive inhibition-active suppression of task-irrelevant processing-is very sensitive to aging and has been linked to attempted suicide. We investigated cognitive inhibition in older high-lethality suicide attempters, closely resembling suicide victims, as well as low-lethality attempters, and control groups with and without depression and suicidal ideation.
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1 and HIF-2) are essential mediators for the adaptive transcriptional response of cells and tissues to low-oxygen conditions. Under hypoxia or when cells are treated with various nonhypoxic stimuli, the active HIF-? subunits are mainly regulated through increased protein stabilization. For HIF-1?, it is clear that further transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational regulations are important for complete HIF-1 activity. Novel evidence links hypoxia and HIF-1 to arginine methylation, an important protein modification. These studies suggest that arginine methyltransferases may be important for hypoxic responses. Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1), the predominant arginine methyltransferase, can act as a transcriptional activator or repressor by modifying a diverse set of substrates. In this work, we show that PRMT1 is a repressor of both HIF-1 and HIF-2. The cellular depletion of PRMT1 by small interference RNA targeting leads to increased HIF transcriptional activity. This activation is the result of enhanced HIF-? subunit transcription, which allows increased HIF-? subunit availability. We provide evidence that PRMT1-dependent HIF-1? regulation is mediated through the activities of both specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and Sp3, two transcription factors known to control HIF-1? expression. This study therefore identifies PRMT1 as a novel regulator of HIF-1- and HIF-2-mediated responses.
Schizophrenia is associated with an increase in the risk of both homicide and suicide. The objectives of this study were to systematically review all published articles that examined the relation between neurocognitive deficits and suicidal or homicidal behaviours in schizophrenia, and to identify vulnerabilities in suicidal and homicidal behaviour that may share a common pathway in schizophrenia.
Objective: a comprehensive literature review suggests that suicidal behaviour results from a complex interplay between stressful events and vulnerability factors including cognitive deficits. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify the neurocognitive markers associated with suicide vulnerability in elderly people. Method: a systematic English Medline literature search of cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies published between January 1960 and December 2012 was performed, combining the MeSH terms "Suicide", "Neuropsychology", "Neuropsychological Tests", "Executive Function", "Magnetic Resonance Imaging", "Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging", "Positron-Emission Tomography", "Prefrontal Cortex", "Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon", and "Diffusion Tensor Imaging". The abstract selection was based on the Strobe checklist for observational studies. Results: of the 446 original articles, 10 neuropsychological and 4 brain imaging studies were selected. The number of suicidal subjects ranged from 10 to 29 (mean age=66.8 to 79.1 years old, 0-85% women). Executive functions, in particular decision-making and cognitive inhibition, were more impaired in the depressed elderly with a history of suicide attempts compared to those without such a history. fMRI data, which need to be confirmed in further details, showed abnormalities of fronto-limbic circuits which are involved in suicide vulnerability in the elderly independently of any associated psychopathological conditions including depression. Conclusion: this literature review confirms the existence of neurocognitive markers of suicide vulnerability in elderly people. A neuropsychological assessment could thus help to identify the suicide vulnerability of a depressed elderly person, a first step for both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic cares.
From the stem bark of a Madagascan endemic plant, Millettia richardiana Baill., lonchocarpenin and betulinic acid were isolated and their structures established by spectroscopic methods. The analysis of dichloromethane fractions suggested the presence of beta-amyrin, lupeol, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid. Except for beta-amyrin and lupeol, these compounds are described for the first time for the Millettia genus.
The histone lysine demethylase KDM5B plays key roles in gene repression by demethylating trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3), a modification commonly found at the promoter region of actively transcribed genes. KDM5B is known to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression; however, little is known about the post-translational modifications that regulate KDM5B. Herein, we report that KDM5B is SUMOylated at lysine residues 242 and 278 and that the ectopic expression of the hPC2 SUMO E3 ligase enhances this SUMOylation. Interestingly, the levels of KDM5B and its SUMOylated forms are regulated during the cell cycle. KDM5B is modulated by RNF4, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets SUMO-modified proteins to proteasomal degradation. Digital gene expression analyses showed that cells expressing the SUMOylation-deficient KDM5B harbor repressed mRNA expression profiles of cell cycle and DNA repair genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitations confirmed some of these genes as KDM5B targets, as they displayed reduced H3K4me3 levels in cells ectopically expressing KDM5B. We propose that SUMOylation by hPC2 regulates the activity of KDM5B.
RNA-binding proteins are critical post-transcriptional regulators of RNA and can influence pre-mRNA splicing, RNA localization, and stability. The RNA-binding protein Quaking (QKI) is essential for embryonic blood vessel development. However, the role of QKI in the adult vasculature, and in particular in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is currently unknown.
The literature suggests that many suicide attempters show impairment in both decision-making and cognitive control. However, it is not clear if these deficits are linked to each other, and if they may be related to more basic alterations in attention. This is a relevant question in the perspective of future interventions targeting cognitive deficits to prevent suicidal acts.
Congenital erythrocytosis (CE), or congenital polycythemia, represents a rare and heterogeneous clinical entity. It is caused by deregulated red blood cell production where erythrocyte overproduction results in elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. Primary congenital familial erythrocytosis is associated with low erythropoietin (Epo) levels and results from mutations in the Epo receptor gene (EPOR). Secondary CE arises from conditions causing tissue hypoxia and results in increased Epo production. These include hemoglobin variants with increased affinity for oxygen (HBB, HBA mutations), decreased production of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate due to BPGM mutations, or mutations in the genes involved in the hypoxia sensing pathway (VHL, EPAS1, and EGLN1). Depending on the affected gene, CE can be inherited either in an autosomal dominant or recessive mode, with sporadic cases arising de novo. Despite recent important discoveries in the molecular pathogenesis of CE, the molecular causes remain to be identified in about 70% of the patients. With the objective of collecting all the published and unpublished cases of CE the COST action MPN&MPNr-Euronet developed a comprehensive Internet-based database focusing on the registration of clinical history, hematological, biochemical, and molecular data (http://www.erythrocytosis.org/). In addition, unreported mutations are also curated in the corresponding Leiden Open Variation Database.
Motifs rich in arginines and glycines were recognized several decades ago to play functional roles and were termed glycine-arginine-rich (GAR) domains and/or RGG boxes. We review here the evolving functions of the RGG box along with several sequence variations that we collectively term the RGG/RG motif. Greater than 1,000 human proteins harbor the RGG/RG motif, and these proteins influence numerous physiological processes such as transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, DNA damage signaling, mRNA translation, and the regulation of apoptosis. In particular, we discuss the role of the RGG/RG motif in mediating nucleic acid and protein interactions, a function that is often regulated by arginine methylation and partner-binding proteins. The physiological relevance of the RGG/RG motif is highlighted by its association with several diseases including neurological and neuromuscular diseases and cancer. Herein, we discuss the evidence for the emerging diverse functionality of this important motif.
CD25, the alpha chain of the interleukin-2 receptor, is expressed in activated T cells and has a significant role in autoimmune disease and tumorigenesis; however, the mechanisms regulating transcription of CD25 remain elusive. Here we identify the Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa (Sam68) as a novel non-Rel component in the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) complex that confers CD25 transcription. Our results demonstrate that Sam68 has an essential role in the induction and maintenance of CD25 in T cells. T-cell receptor engagement triggers translocation of the inhibitor of NF-?B kinase alpha (IKK?) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, where it phosphorylates Sam68, causing complex formation with NF-?B in the nucleus. These findings reveal the important roles of KH domain-containing components and their spatial interactions with IKKs in determining the binding targets of NF-?B complexes, thus shedding novel insights into the regulatory specificity of NF-?B.
Post-translational modifications are well-known modulators of DNA damage signaling and epigenetic gene expression. Protein arginine methylation is a covalent modification that results in the addition of methyl groups to the nitrogen atoms of the arginine side chains and is catalyzed by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). In the past, arginine methylation was mainly observed on abundant proteins such as RNA-binding proteins and histones, but recent advances have revealed a plethora of arginine methylated proteins implicated in a variety of cellular processes including RNA metabolism, epigenetic regulation and DNA repair pathways. Herein, we discuss these recent advances, focusing on the role of PRMTs in DNA damage signaling and its importance for maintaining genomic stability.
The genetic cause of some familial nonsyndromic renal cell carcinomas (RCC) defined by at least two affected first-degree relatives is unknown. By combining whole-exome sequencing and tumor profiling in a family prone to cases of RCC, we identified a germline BAP1 mutation c.277A>G (p.Thr93Ala) as the probable genetic basis of RCC predisposition. This mutation segregated with all four RCC-affected relatives. Furthermore, BAP1 was found to be inactivated in RCC-affected individuals from this family. No BAP1 mutations were identified in 32 familial cases presenting with only RCC. We then screened for germline BAP1 deleterious mutations in familial aggregations of cancers within the spectrum of the recently described BAP1-associated tumor predisposition syndrome, including uveal melanoma, malignant pleural mesothelioma, and cutaneous melanoma. Among the 11 families that included individuals identified as carrying germline deleterious BAP1 mutations, 6 families presented with 9 RCC-affected individuals, demonstrating a significantly increased risk for RCC. This strongly argues that RCC belongs to the BAP1 syndrome and that BAP1 is a RCC-predisposition gene.
Suicidal acts result from a complex interplay between vulnerability factors, such as reduced social and cognitive abilities, social stressors. To our knowledge nothing is known about the explicit recognition of others facial emotions, a major component of social interactions, in patients at long-term risk for suicide.
Of all our mechanosensitive tissues, skeletal muscle is the most developmentally responsive to physical activity. Conversely, restricted mobility due to injury or disease results in muscle atrophy. Gravitational force is another form of mechanical input with profound developmental consequences. The mechanical unloading resulting from the reduced gravitational force experienced during spaceflight results in oxidative muscle loss. We examined the early stages of myogenesis under conditions of simulated microgravity (SM). C2C12 mouse myoblasts in SM proliferated more slowly (2.23× less) as a result of their being retained longer within the G2/M phase of the cell cycle (2.10× more) relative to control myoblasts at terrestrial gravity. Blocking calcium entry via TRP channels with SKF-96365 (10-20 ?M) accumulated myoblasts within the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and retarded their proliferation. On the genetic level, SM resulted in the reduced expression of TRPC1 and IGF-1 isoforms, transcriptional events regulated by calcium downstream of mechanical input. A decrease in TRPC1-mediated calcium entry thus appears to be a pivotal event in the muscle atrophy brought on by gravitational mechanical unloading. Hence, relieving the constant force of gravity on cells might prove one valid experimental approach to expose the underlying mechanisms modulating mechanically regulated developmental programs.
Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification that is found on both histone and non-histone proteins. Three types of arginine methylation exist in mammalian cells: monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). PRMT1 is the primary methyltransferase that deposits the ADMA mark, and it accounts for over 90% of this type of methylation. Here, we show that with the loss of PRMT1 activity, there are major increases in global MMA and SDMA levels, as detected by type-specific antibodies. Amino acid analysis confirms that MMA and SDMA levels accumulate when ADMA levels are reduced. These findings reveal the dynamic interplay between different arginine methylation types in the cells, and that the pre-existence of the dominant ADMA mark can block the occurrence of SDMA and MMA marks on the same substrate. This study provides clear evidence of competition for different arginine methylation types on the same substrates.
Telomere shortening is a major source of chromosome instability (CIN) at early stages during carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms through which telomere-driven CIN (T-CIN) contributes to the acquisition of tumor phenotypes remain uncharacterized. We discovered that human epithelial kidney cells undergoing T-CIN display massive microRNA (miR) expression changes that are not related to local losses or gains. This widespread miR deregulation encompasses a miR-200-dependent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) that confers to immortalized pre-tumoral cells phenotypic traits of metastatic potential. Remarkably, a miR signature of these cells, comprising a downregulation of miRs with conserved expression in kidney, was retrieved in poorly differentiated aggressive renal cell carcinomas. Our results reveal an unanticipated connection between telomere crisis and the activation of the EMT program that occurs at pre-invasive stages of epithelial cancers, through mechanisms that involve miR deregulation. Thus, this study provides a new rational into how telomere instability contributes to the acquisition of the malignant phenotype.
The histone H2A variant H2AZ is an essential chromatin signaling factor. Herein, we report that H2AZ is monomethylated at lysine 7 (H2AZK7me1) by the lysine methyltransferase SETD6. We observed that methylation of H2AZ increased noticeably upon cellular differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). H2AZK7me1 and the repressive H3K27me3 mark were found near the transcriptional start sites of differentiation marker genes, but were removed upon retinoic acid-induced cellular differentiation. The depletion of Setd6 in mESCs led to cellular differentiation, compromised self-renewal, and poor clonogenicity. These findings demonstrate that mESCs require Setd6 for self-renewal and portray H2AZK7me1 as a marker of cellular differentiation.
The quaking (qkI) gene encodes 3 major alternatively spliced isoforms that contain unique sequences at their C termini dictating their cellular localization. QKI-5 is predominantly nuclear, whereas QKI-6 is distributed throughout the cell and QKI-7 is cytoplasmic. The QKI isoforms are sequence-specific RNA binding proteins expressed mainly in glial cells modulating RNA splicing, export, and stability. Herein, we identify a new role for the QKI proteins in the regulation of microRNA (miRNA) processing. We observed that small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated QKI depletion of U343 glioblastoma cells leads to a robust increase in miR-7 expression. The processing from primary to mature miR-7 was inhibited in the presence QKI-5 and QKI-6 but not QKI-7, suggesting that the nuclear localization plays an important role in the regulation of miR-7 expression. The primary miR-7-1 was bound by the QKI isoforms in a QKI response element (QRE)-specific manner. We observed that the pri-miR-7-1 RNA was tightly bound to Drosha in the presence of the QKI isoforms, and this association was not observed in siRNA-mediated QKI or Drosha-depleted U343 glioblastoma cells. Moreover, the presence of the QKI isoforms led to an increase presence of pri-miR-7 in nuclear foci, suggesting that pri-miR-7-1 is retained in the nucleus by the QKI isoforms. miR-7 is known to target the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) 3 untranslated region (3-UTR), and indeed, QKI-deficient U343 cells had reduced EGFR expression and decreased ERK activation in response to EGF. Elevated levels of miR-7 are associated with cell cycle arrest, and it was observed that QKI-deficient U343 that harbor elevated levels of miR-7 exhibited defects in cell proliferation that were partially rescued by the addition of a miR-7 inhibitor. These findings suggest that the QKI isoforms regulate glial cell function and proliferation by regulating the processing of certain miRNAs.
This paper describes a highly unusual hospital unit that combines somatic and psychiatric approaches under the generic heading of a Medico-Psycho-Social Unit (MPSU) established at Angers University Hospital since 1996. The paper examines the value of a mixed approach while highlighting its limitations. The interest of the MPSU is that it provides a multidisciplinary, somatic and psychiatric approach on the same site. The joint expertise of medical and paramedical staff is required in cases where the assessment of the consultation-liaison services is not sufficient and in complex situations requiring the resources of an intensive care unit and specific medical and surgical specialties. Based on an established partnership and joint service provision, this type of unit is relatively uncommon both in France and abroad. However, the prevalence of somatic and organic comorbidity suggests that MPSUs are an innovative solution for the challenges of this type of care. Two clinical cases will be used as examples.
PRMT5 is a type II protein arginine methyltranferase that catalyzes monomethylation and symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues. PRMT5 is functionally involved in a variety of biological processes including embryo development and circadian clock regulation. However, the role of PRMT5 in oligodendrocyte differentiation and central nervous system myelination is unknown. Here we show that PRMT5 expression gradually increases throughout postnatal brain development, coinciding with the period of active myelination. PRMT5 expression was observed in neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. siRNA-mediated depletion of PRMT5 in mouse primary oligodendrocyte progenitor cells abrogated oligodendrocyte differentiation. In addition, the PRMT5-depleted oligodendrocyte progenitor and C6 glioma cells expressed high levels of the inhibitors of differentiation/DNA binding, Id2 and Id4, known repressors of glial cell differentiation. We observed that CpG-rich islands within the Id2 and Id4 genes were bound by PRMT5 and were hypomethylated in PRMT5-deficient cells, suggesting that PRMT5 plays a role in gene silencing during glial cell differentiation. Our findings define a role of PRMT5 in glial cell differentiation and link PRMT5 to epigenetic changes during oligodendrocyte differentiation.
Mutations in FUS/TLS (fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma) cause an inheritable form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS6). In contrast to FUS(WT), which is concentrated in the nucleus, these mutants are abnormally distributed in the cytoplasm where they form inclusions and associate with stress granules. The data reported herein demonstrate the importance of protein arginine methylation in nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of FUS and abnormalities of ALS-causing mutants. Depletion of protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1; the enzyme that methylates FUS) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts by gene knockout, or in human HEK293 cells by siRNA knockdown, diminished the ability of ALS-linked FUS mutants to localize to the cytoplasm and form inclusions. To examine properties of FUS mutants in the context of neurons vulnerable to the disease, FUS(WT) and ALS-linked FUS mutants were expressed in motor neurons of dissociated murine spinal cord cultures. In motor neurons, shRNA-mediated PRMT1 knockdown concomitant with the expression of FUS actually accentuated the shift in distribution of ALS-linked FUS mutants from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. However, when PRMT1 was inhibited prior to expression of ALS-linked FUS mutants, by pretreatment with a global methyltransferase inhibitor, ALS-linked FUS mutants were sequestered in the nucleus and cytoplasmic inclusions were reduced, as in the cell lines. Mitochondria were significantly shorter in neurons with cytoplasmic ALS-linked FUS mutants, a factor that could contribute to toxicity. We propose that arginine methylation by PRMT1 participates in the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of FUS, particularly of ALS6-associated mutants, and thus contributes to the toxic gain of function conferred by these disease-causing mutations.
Congenital secondary erythrocytoses are due to deregulation of hypoxia inducible factor resulting in overproduction of erythropoietin. The most common germline mutation identified in the hypoxia signaling pathway is the Arginine 200-Tryptophan mutant of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene, resulting in Chuvash polycythemia. This mutant displays a weak deficiency in hypoxia inducible factor ? regulation and does not promote tumorigenesis. Other von Hippel-Lindau mutants with more deleterious effects are responsible for von Hippel-Lindau disease, which is characterized by the development of multiple tumors. Recently, a few mutations in gene for the prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 protein (PHD2) have been reported in cases of congenital erythrocytosis not associated with tumor formation with the exception of one patient with a recurrent extra-adrenal paraganglioma.
The MRE11/RAD50/NBS1 complex is the primary sensor rapidly recruited to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). MRE11 is known to be arginine methylated by PRMT1 within its glycine-arginine-rich (GAR) motif. In this study, we report a mouse knock-in allele of Mre11 that substitutes the arginines with lysines in the GAR motif and generates the MRE11(RK) protein devoid of methylated arginines. The Mre11(RK/RK) mice were hypersensitive to ?-irradiation (IR) and the cells from these mice displayed cell cycle checkpoint defects and chromosome instability. Moreover, the Mre11(RK/RK) MEFs exhibited ATR/CHK1 signaling defects and impairment in the recruitment of RPA and RAD51 to the damaged sites. The M(RK)RN complex formed and localized to the sites of DNA damage and normally activated the ATM pathway in response to IR. The M(RK)RN complex exhibited exonuclease and DNA-binding defects in vitro responsible for the impaired DNA end resection and ATR activation observed in vivo in response to IR. Our findings provide genetic evidence for the critical role of the MRE11 GAR motif in DSB repair, and demonstrate a mechanistic link between post-translational modifications at the MRE11 GAR motif and DSB processing, as well as the ATR/CHK1 checkpoint signaling.
The qk(v) mutation is a one megabase deletion resulting in abnormal expression of the qkI gene. qk(v) mice exhibit hypomyelination of the central nervous system and display rapid tremors and seizures as adults. The qkI locus on 6q26-27 has also been implicated as a candidate tumor suppressor gene as the qkI locus maps to a region of genetic instability in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), an aggressive brain tumor of astrocytic lineage. As GBM frequently harbors mutations affecting p53, we crossbred qk(v) and p53 mutant mice to examine whether qk(v) mice on a p53(-/-) background have an increased incidence of GBM. qk(v) (/v); p53(-/-) mice had a reduced survival rate compared to p53(-/-) littermates, and the cause of death of the majority of the mice remains unknown. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed Purkinje cell degeneration in the cerebellum. These results suggest that p53 and qkI are genetically linked for neuronal maintenance and survival.
Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutation causes hereditary type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC2). The main effect of FH mutation is fumarate accumulation. The current paradigm posits that the main consequence of fumarate accumulation is HIF-? stabilization. Paradoxically, FH mutation differs from other HIF-? stabilizing mutations, such as VHL and SDH mutations, in its associated tumor types. We identified that fumarate can directly up-regulate antioxidant response element (ARE)-controlled genes. We demonstrated that aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B10 (AKR1B10) is an ARE-controlled gene and is up-regulated upon FH knockdown as well as in FH null cell lines. AKR1B10 overexpression is also a prominent feature in both hereditary and sporadic PRCC2. This phenotype better explains the similarities between hereditary and sporadic PRCC2.
The INhibitor of Growth tumor suppressors (ING1-ING5) affect aging, apoptosis, DNA repair and tumorigenesis. Plant homeodomains (PHD) of ING proteins bind histones in a methylation-sensitive manner to regulate chromatin structure. ING1 and ING2 contain a polybasic region (PBR) adjacent to their PHDs that binds stress-inducible phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PtIn-MP) signaling lipids to activate these INGs. ING1 induces apoptosis independently of p53 but other studies suggest proapoptotic interdependence of ING1 and p53 leaving their functional relationship unclear. Here we identify a novel ubiquitin-binding domain (UBD) that overlaps with the PBR of ING1 and shows similarity to previously described UBDs involved in DNA damage responses. The ING1 UBD binds ubiquitin with high affinity (K(d)?100 nM) and ubiquitin competes with PtIn-MPs for ING1 binding. ING1 expression stabilized wild-type, but not mutant p53 in an MDM2-independent manner and knockdown of endogenous ING1 depressed p53 levels in a transcription-independent manner. ING1 stabilized unmodified and six multimonoubiquitinated forms of wild-type p53 that were also seen upon DNA damage, but not p53 mutants lacking the six known sites of ubiquitination. We also find that ING1 physically interacts with herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP), a p53 and MDM2 deubiquitinase (DUB), and knockdown of HAUSP blocks the ability of ING1 to stabilize p53. These data link lipid stress signaling to ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation through the PBR/UBD of ING1 and further indicate that ING1 stabilizes p53 by inhibiting polyubiquitination of multimonoubiquitinated forms via interaction with and colocalization of the HAUSP-deubiquitinase with p53.
Predicting off-targets by computational methods is gaining increasing interest in early-stage drug discovery. Here, we present a computational method based on full 3D comparisons of 3D structures. When a similar binding site is detected in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) (or any protein structure database), it is possible that the corresponding ligand also binds to that similar site. On one hand, this target hopping case is probably rare because it requires a high similarity between the binding sites. On the other hand, it could be a strong rational evidence to highlight possible off-target reactions and possibly a potential undesired side effect. This target-based drug repurposing can be extended a significant step further with the capability of searching the full surface of all proteins in the PDB, and therefore not relying on pocket detection. Using this approach, we describe how MED-SuMo reproduces the repurposing of tadalafil from PDE5A to PDE4A and a structure of PDE4A with tadalafil. Searching for local protein similarities generates more hits than for whole binding site similarities and therefore fragment repurposing is more likely to occur than for drug-sized compounds. In this work, we illustrate that by mining the PDB for proteins sharing similarities with the hinge region of protein kinases. The experimentally validated examples, biotin carboxylase and synapsin, are retrieved. Further to fragment repurposing, this approach can be applied to the detection of druggable sites from 3D structures. This is illustrated with detection of the protein kinase hinge motif in the HIV-RT non-nucleosidic allosteric site.
Patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease frequently have early, multiple and recurrent renal cell carcinoma. Renal cell carcinoma treatment, which must prevent metastatic disease and spare nephrons, has changed in the last 2 decades. We evaluated renal cell carcinoma treatments in the long term in a large series of patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease.
Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant disorder predisposing humans to cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas; in 20% of affected families, type 2 papillary renal cell cancers (PRCCII) also occur with aggressive course and poor prognosis. HLRCC results from heterozygous germline mutations in the tumour suppressor fumarate hydratase (FH) gene.
The autosomal dominantly inherited disorder von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is caused by germline mutations in the VHL tumour suppressor gene (TSG). VHL mutations predispose to the development of a variety of tumours (most commonly retinal and central nervous system haemangioblastomas, clear cell renal carcinoma and phaeochromocytomas). Here, we review the clinical and genetic features of VHL disease, briefly review the molecular pathogenesis and outline clinical management and tumour surveillance strategies.
Sam68 plays an essential role in mouse spermatogenesis and male fertility. Herein, we report an interaction between Sam68 and the phosphorylated forms of the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) in meiotic spermatocytes. RNase treatment decreased but did not abolish the interaction, consistently with in vitro binding of RNAPII to the Sam68 carboxyl-terminal region. Sam68 retention in the spermatocyte nucleus was dependent on the integrity of cellular RNAs, suggesting that the protein is recruited to transcriptionally active chromatin. Mouse knockout models characterized by stage-specific arrest of spermatogenesis and staining with the phosphorylated form of RNAPII documented that Sam68 expression is confined to the transcriptionally active stages of spermatogenesis. Furthermore, Sam68 associates with splicing regulators in germ cells and we report that alternative splicing of Sgce exon 8 is regulated in a Sam68-dependent manner during spermatogenesis. RNA and chromatin crosslink immunoprecipitation experiments showed that Sam68 binds in vivo to sequences surrounding the intron 7/exon 8 boundary, thereby affecting the recruitment of the phosphorylated RNAPII and of the general splicing factor U2AF65. These results suggest that Sam68 regulates alternative splicing at transcriptionally active sites in differentiating germ cells and provide new insights into the regulation of Sam68 expression during spermatogenesis.
The assembly of synapses and neuronal circuits relies on an array of molecular recognition events and their modification by neuronal activity. Neurexins are a highly polymorphic family of synaptic receptors diversified by extensive alternative splicing. Neurexin variants exhibit distinct isoform-specific biochemical interactions and synapse assembly functions, but the mechanisms governing splice isoform choice are not understood. We demonstrate that Nrxn1 alternative splicing is temporally and spatially controlled in the mouse brain. Neuronal activity triggers a shift in Nrxn1 splice isoform choice via calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV signaling. Activity-dependent alternative splicing of Nrxn1 requires the KH-domain RNA-binding protein SAM68 that associates with RNA response elements in the Nrxn1 pre-mRNA. Our findings uncover SAM68 as a key regulator of dynamic control of Nrxn1 molecular diversity and activity-dependent alternative splicing in the central nervous system.
So far, no common environmental and/or phenotypic factor has been associated with melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The known risk factors for melanoma include sun exposure, pigmentation and nevus phenotypes; risk factors associated with RCC include smoking, obesity and hypertension. A recent study of coexisting melanoma and RCC in the same patients supports a genetic predisposition underlying the association between these two cancers. The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) has been proposed to act as a melanoma oncogene; it also stimulates the transcription of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF1A), the pathway of which is targeted by kidney cancer susceptibility genes. We therefore proposed that MITF might have a role in conferring a genetic predisposition to co-occurring melanoma and RCC. Here we identify a germline missense substitution in MITF (Mi-E318K) that occurred at a significantly higher frequency in genetically enriched patients affected with melanoma, RCC or both cancers, when compared with controls. Overall, Mi-E318K carriers had a higher than fivefold increased risk of developing melanoma, RCC or both cancers. Codon 318 is located in a small-ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) consensus site (?KXE) and Mi-E318K severely impaired SUMOylation of MITF. Mi-E318K enhanced MITF protein binding to the HIF1A promoter and increased its transcriptional activity compared to wild-type MITF. Further, we observed a global increase in Mi-E318K-occupied loci. In an RCC cell line, gene expression profiling identified a Mi-E318K signature related to cell growth, proliferation and inflammation. Lastly, the mutant protein enhanced melanocytic and renal cell clonogenicity, migration and invasion, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Our data provide insights into the link between SUMOylation, transcription and cancer.
The quaking viable (qk(v)) mice harbor an autosomal recessive mutation that deletes the parkin co-regulated gene (pacrg) and parkin (park2) genes, and alters the expression of the quaking (qkI) gene. qk(v) mice have been well-studied for their dysmyelination phenotype caused by the altered expression of the qkI gene. The qk(v) mice exhibit sterility in males and develop acquired mild hydrocephalus due to the lack of PACRG expression. To identify genetic interactors of the pacrg-parkin-qkI locus, we crossbred the qk(v) mice with various mouse strains including the patched1 (ptch1)-deficient mice. The ptch1 heterozygous mice exhibit increased Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling and are prone to several malignancies including tumorigenesis. In the present study, we show that the qk(v/v); ptch1?/? mice are distinguished by a dome-shaped skull at 4 to 6weeks of age and exhibit dilation of the lateral and third ventricles leading to fatal acquired hydrocephalus by ~5months of age, unlike their littermate controls that did not develop the condition. The qk(v/v); ptch1?/? mice contained normal ciliated ependymal cells lining the ventricles of the brain, but these cells were functionally compromised with a severe cilial mediated flow defect. Our findings suggest that the ptch1 and the pacrg-parkin-qkI loci genetically interact to regulate cilia function of the ependymal cells.
The genetics of renal cancer is dominated by inactivation of the VHL tumour suppressor gene in clear cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the commonest histological subtype. A recent large-scale screen of ?3,500 genes by PCR-based exon re-sequencing identified several new cancer genes in ccRCC including UTX (also known as KDM6A), JARID1C (also known as KDM5C) and SETD2 (ref. 2). These genes encode enzymes that demethylate (UTX, JARID1C) or methylate (SETD2) key lysine residues of histone H3. Modification of the methylation state of these lysine residues of histone H3 regulates chromatin structure and is implicated in transcriptional control. However, together these mutations are present in fewer than 15% of ccRCC, suggesting the existence of additional, currently unidentified cancer genes. Here, we have sequenced the protein coding exome in a series of primary ccRCC and report the identification of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex gene PBRM1 (ref. 4) as a second major ccRCC cancer gene, with truncating mutations in 41% (92/227) of cases. These data further elucidate the somatic genetic architecture of ccRCC and emphasize the marked contribution of aberrant chromatin biology.
The prototype STAR (Signal Transduction and Activation of RNA) protein is Sam68, the Src-associated substrate during mitosis of 68 kDa. Sam68, like all other STAR proteins, belongs to the large class of heteronuclear ribonucleoprotein particle K (hnRNP K) homology (KH) domain family of RNA-binding proteins. The KH domain is an evolutionarily conserved RNA binding domain that consists of 70-100 amino acids. The KH domain is one of the most prevalent RNA binding domains that directly contacts single-stranded RNA with a signature topology. Sam68 contains a single KH domain that harbors additional conserved N- and C-terminal sequences also required for RNA binding specificity and dimerization. Sam68 frequently contains post-translational modifications including serine/threonine, tyrosine phosphorylation, lysine acetylation, arginine methylation and sumoylation. The phosphorylation of Sam68 or its association with SH3 domain containing proteins has been shown to influence its RNA binding activity. Hence Sam68 behaves as a STAR protein, whereby extracellular signals influence its ability to regulate RNA metabolism. Studies in mice have revealed physiological roles linking Sam68 to osteoporosis, cancer, infertility and ataxia. The role of Sam68, a closely related family member quaking (QKI), the KH domain and their links with human disease will be discussed in the present chapter.
Chromatin is broadly compartmentalized in two defined states: euchromatin and heterochromatin. Generally, euchromatin is trimethylated on histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4(me3)) while heterochromatin contains the H3K9(me3) marks. The H3K9(me3) modification is added by lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) such as SETDB1. Herein, we show that SETDB1 interacts with its substrate H3, but only in the absence of the euchromatic mark H3K4(me3). In addition, we show that SETDB1 fails to methylate substrates containing the H3K4(me3) mark. Likewise, the functionally related H3K9 KMTs G9A, GLP, and SUV39H1 also fail to bind and to methylate H3K4(me3) substrates. Accordingly, we provide in vivo evidence that H3K9(me2)-enriched histones are devoid of H3K4(me2/3) and that histones depleted of H3K4(me2/3) have elevated H3K9(me2/3). The correlation between the loss of interaction of these KMTs with H3K4 (me3) and concomitant methylation impairment leads to the postulate that, at least these four KMTs, require stable interaction with their respective substrates for optimal activity. Thus, novel substrates could be discovered via the identification of KMT interacting proteins. Indeed, we find that SETDB1 binds to and methylates a novel substrate, the inhibitor of growth protein ING2, while SUV39H1 binds to and methylates the heterochromatin protein HP1?. Thus, our observations suggest a mechanism of post-translational regulation of lysine methylation and propose a potential mechanism for the segregation of the biologically opposing marks, H3K4(me3) and H3K9(me3). Furthermore, the correlation between H3-KMTs interaction and substrate methylation highlights that the identification of novel KMT substrates may be facilitated by the identification of interaction partners.
In endolymphatic sac tumors associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease, early detection and surgery have been warranted to avoid associated neurological morbidity. However, in lately discovered tumors, hearing preserving surgery is often impossible and timing of surgical resection is difficult to define. We report two cases of tumors revealed by a sudden and profound hearing loss and managed conservatively for more than 15 years without worsening of the neurological symptoms associated with the endolymphatic sac tumor. Tumor size remained stable for the first patient and a stuttering growth pattern was observed for the second patient. Initial observation may be considered a not unreasonable management paradigm in these cases.
The quaking viable (qk(v)) mice represent an animal model of dysmyelination. The absence of expression of the QKI-6 and QKI-7 cytoplasmic isoforms in oligodendrocytes (OLs) during CNS myelination causes the qk(v) mouse phenotype. The QKI RNA-binding proteins are known to regulate RNA metabolism of cell cycle proteins and myelin components in OLs; however, little is known of their role in reorganizing the cytoskeleton or process outgrowth during OL maturation and differentiation. Here, we identify the actin-interacting protein (AIP)-1 mRNA as a target of QKI-6 by using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis. The AIP-1 mRNA contains a consensus QKI response element within its 3-untranslated region that, when bound by QKI-6, decreases the half-life of the AIP-1 mRNA. Although the expression of QKI-6 is known to increase during OL differentiation and CNS myelination, we show that this increase is paralleled with a corresponding decrease in AIP-1 expression in rat brains. Furthermore, qk(v)/qk(v) mice that lack QKI-6 and QKI-7 within its OLs had an increased level of AIP-1 in OLs. Moreover, primary rat OL precursors harboring an AIP-1 small interfering RNA display defects in OL process outgrowth. Our findings suggest that the QKI RNA-binding proteins regulate OL differentiation by modulating the expression of AIP-1.
Germline mutations in the folliculin (FLCN) gene are associated with the development of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), a disease characterized by papular skin lesions, a high occurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax, and the development of renal neoplasias. The majority of renal tumors that arise in BHDS-affected individuals are histologically similar to sporadic chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and sporadic renal oncocytoma. However, most sporadic tumors lack FLCN mutations and the extent to which the BHDS-derived renal tumors share genetic defects associated with the sporadic tumors has not been well studied.
Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) and renal oncocytoma are two distinct but closely related entities with strong morphologic and genetic similarities. While chRCC is a malignant tumor, oncocytoma is usually regarded as a benign entity. The overlapping characteristics are best explained by a common cellular origin, and the biologic differences between chRCC and oncocytoma are therefore of considerable interest in terms of carcinogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. Previous studies have been relatively limited in terms of examining the differences between oncocytoma and chromophobe RCC.
To illustrate the diagnostic and pathophysiologic issues of endolymphatic sac tumors (ELSTs) and its clinical association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease and to demonstrate the interest of genetic testing in such cases.
von Hippel-Lindau disease is a progressive, autosomal dominant disorder with multiorgan involvement. There are 2 types of pancreatic lesions from von Hippel-Lindau disease: cystic lesions and endocrine pancreatic tumors. Only the latter type is potentially malignant and may justify pancreatic resection. The differential diagnosis between these 2 types of lesions can be difficult. We report 3 patients with atypical cystic pancreatic lesions who underwent surgery for suspected malignant tumors. The pathological-radiological correlations and the diagnostic and management strategies are discussed.
Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is a tumor predisposition syndrome caused by heterozygous germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas are the most common clinical manifestations of HLRCC, whereas only approximately 20% of the families display renal cell cancer (RCC). The number of RCC cases in these families varies from one to five. Interestingly, families with multiple RCC cases are mainly found in Finland and the USA. Such aggregation of RCC in only some families and populations has led to the hypothesis that besides FH mutations also other inherited genetic and/or environmental factors may contribute to the malignant kidney tumor formation. To search for such a genetic modifier we have performed a genome-wide linkage analysis in two and an identical by descent analysis in four Finnish HLRCC families with several RCC patients. Additional Finnish and French families were used in fine-mapping and haplotype analyses. The only region compatible with linkage was the locus surrounding the FH gene itself in chromosome 1q43. The genes in the putative candidate region were screened, but no potentially pathogenic alterations were observed. Although these data do not rule out the existence of a genetic modifier, they emphasize the contribution of the FH genotype in HLRCC related RCC. Therefore, as all FH mutation carriers may have an increased risk for developing renal cancer, counseling and genetic testing should be offered for all HLRCC family members and clinical follow-up should be organized for the mutation carriers.
Fragile X-associated Tremor/Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by expansion of 55-200 CGG repeats in the 5-UTR of the FMR1 gene. FXTAS is characterized by action tremor, gait ataxia and impaired executive cognitive functioning. It has been proposed that FXTAS is caused by titration of RNA-binding proteins by the expanded CGG repeats. Sam68 is an RNA-binding protein involved in alternative splicing regulation and its ablation in mouse leads to motor coordination defects. Here, we report that mRNAs containing expanded CGG repeats form large and dynamic intranuclear RNA aggregates that recruit several RNA-binding proteins sequentially, first Sam68, then hnRNP-G and MBNL1. Importantly, Sam68 is sequestered by expanded CGG repeats and thereby loses its splicing-regulatory function. Consequently, Sam68-responsive splicing is altered in FXTAS patients. Finally, we found that regulation of Sam68 tyrosine phosphorylation modulates its localization within CGG aggregates and that tautomycin prevents both Sam68 and CGG RNA aggregate formation. Overall, these data support an RNA gain-of-function mechanism for FXTAS neuropathology, and suggest possible target routes for treatment options.
The quaking viable (qk(v)) mouse has several developmental defects that result in rapid tremors in the hind limbs. The qkI gene expresses three major alternatively spliced mRNAs (5, 6 and 7 kb) that encode the QKI-5, QKI-6 and QKI-7 RNA binding proteins that differ in their C-terminal 30 amino acids. The QKI isoforms are known to regulate RNA metabolism within oligodendrocytes, however, little is known about their roles during cellular stress.
Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised clinically by skin fibrofolliculomas, pulmonary cysts, spontaneous pneumothorax, and renal cancer. The condition is caused by germline mutations in the FLCN gene, which encodes folliculin; the function of this protein is largely unknown, although FLCN has been linked to the mTOR pathway. The availability of DNA-based diagnosis has allowed insight into the great variation in expression of FLCN, both within and between families. Patients can present with skin signs and also with pneumothorax or renal cancer. Preventive measures are aimed mainly at early diagnosis and treatment of renal cancer. This Review gives an overview of current diagnosis and management of BHD.
Sam68, Src associated in mitosis of 68 kDa, is a known RNA-binding protein and a signaling adaptor protein for tyrosine kinases. However, the proteins associated with Sam68 and the existence of a Sam68 complex, its mass, and regulation are, however, unknown. Herein we identify a large Sam68 complex with a mass >1 MDa in HeLa cells that is composed of approximately 40 proteins using an immunoprecipitation followed by a mass spectrometry approach. Many of the proteins identified are RNA-binding proteins and are known components of a previously identified structure termed the spreading initiation center. The large Sam68 complex is a ribonucleoprotein complex, as treatment with RNases caused a shift in the molecular mass of the complex to 200-450 kDa. Moreover, treatment of HeLa cells with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or epidermal growth factor induced the disassociation of Sam68 from the large complex and the appearance of Sam68 within the smaller complex. Actually, in certain cell lines such as breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and BT-20, Sam68 exists in equilibrium between a large and a small complex. The appearance of the small Sam68 complex in cells correlates with the ability of Sam68 to promote the alternative splicing of CD44 and cell migration. Our findings show that Sam68 exists in equilibrium in transformed cells between two complexes and that extracellular signals, such as epidermal growth factor stimulation, promote alternative splicing by modulating the composition of the Sam68 complex.
Protein arginine methyltransferase 6 (PRMT6) is known to catalyze the generation of asymmetric dimethylarginine in polypeptides. Although the cellular role of PRMT6 is not well understood, it has been implicated in human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. PRMT6 is known to methylate histone H3 Arg-2 (H3R2), and this negatively regulates the lysine methylation of H3K4 resulting in gene repression. To identify in a nonbiased manner genes regulated by PRMT6 expression, we performed a microarray analysis on U2OS osteosarcoma cells transfected with control and PRMT6 small interfering RNAs. We identified thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a potent natural inhibitor of angiogenesis, as a transcriptional repression target of PRMT6. Moreover, we show that PRMT6-deficient U2OS cells exhibited cell migration defects that were rescued by blocking the secreted TSP-1 with a neutralizing peptide or blocking alpha-TSP-1 antibody. PRMT6 associates with the TSP-1 promoter and regulates the balance of methylation of H3R2 and H3K4, such that in PRMT6-deficient cells H3R2 was hypomethylated and H3K4 was trimethylated at the TSP-1 promoter. Using a TSP-1 promoter reporter gene, we further show that PRMT6 directly regulates the TSP-1 promoter activity. These findings show that TSP-1 is a transcriptional repression target of PRMT6 and suggest that neutralizing the activity of PRMT6 could inhibit tumor progression and therefore may be of cancer therapeutic significance.
Sam68 is a KH-type RNA-binding protein involved in several steps of RNA metabolism with potential implications in cell differentiation and cancer. However, its physiological roles are still poorly understood. Herein, we show that Sam68(-/-) male mice are infertile and display several defects in spermatogenesis, demonstrating an essential role for Sam68 in male fertility. Sam68(-/-) mice produce few spermatozoa, which display dramatic motility defects and are unable to fertilize eggs. Expression of a subset of messenger mRNAs (mRNAs) is affected in the testis of knockout mice. Interestingly, Sam68 is associated with polyadenylated mRNAs in the cytoplasm during the meiotic divisions and in round spermatids, when it interacts with the translational machinery. We show that Sam68 is required for polysomal recruitment of specific mRNAs and for accumulation of the corresponding proteins in germ cells and in a heterologous system. These observations demonstrate a novel role for Sam68 in mRNA translation and highlight its essential requirement for the development of a functional male gamete.
Post-translational modifications are well-known effectors in DNA damage signaling and epigenetic gene expression. Protein arginine methylation is a covalent modification that results in the addition of methyl groups to the nitrogen atoms of the arginine side chains and is catalyzed by a family of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). In the past, arginine methylation was mainly observed on abundant proteins such as RNA-binding proteins and histones, but recent advances have revealed a plethora of arginine-methylated proteins implicated in a variety of cellular processes including signal transduction, epigenetic regulation and DNA repair pathways. Herein, we discuss these recent advances, focusing on the role of PRMT1, the major asymmetric arginine methyltransferase, in cellular processes and its link to human diseases.
Head and neck paragangliomas (HNPs) occur as sporadic or familial entities, the latter mostly in association with germline mutations of the SDHB, SDHC, or SDHD (SDHx) genes. Heritable non-SDHx HNP might occur in von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL, VHL gene), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2, RET gene), and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, NF1 gene). Reports of non-SDHx HNP presentations are scarce and guidance for genetic testing nonexistent.
Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is the major enzyme that generates monomethylarginine and asymmetrical dimethylarginine. We report here a conditional null allele of PRMT1 in mice and that the loss of PRMT1 expression leads to embryonic lethality. Using the Cre/lox-conditional system, we show that the loss of PRMT1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) leads to the loss of arginine methylation of substrates harboring a glycine-arginine rich motif, including Sam68 and MRE11. The loss of PRMT1 in MEFs leads to spontaneous DNA damage, cell cycle progression delay, checkpoint defects, aneuploidy, and polyploidy. We show using a 4-hydroxytamoxifen-inducible Cre that the loss of PRMT1 in MEFs leads to a higher incidence of chromosome losses, gains, structural rearrangements, and polyploidy, as documented by spectral karyotyping. Using PRMT1 small interfering RNA in U2OS cells, we further show that PRMT1-deficient cells are hypersensitive to the DNA damaging agent etoposide and exhibit a defect in the recruitment of the homologous recombination RAD51 recombinase to DNA damage foci. Taken together, these data show that PRMT1 is required for genome integrity and cell proliferation. Our findings also suggest that arginine methylation by PRMT1 is a key posttranslational modification in the DNA damage response pathway in proliferating mammalian cells.
BReast tumor Kinase (BRK) also known as protein kinase 6 (PTK6) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed in the majority of human breast carcinoma. The expression of BRK is a known prognostic marker of breast carcinoma. BRK has been shown to lie downstream of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling and mediate effects on cell proliferation and migration. To identify BRK substrates and interacting proteins, we undertook a proteomic approach. BRK immune complexes were purified from the BT-20 breast cancer cell line and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Herein, we report the identification of PSF, the polypyrimidine tract-binding (PTB) protein-associated splicing factor, as a BRK-interacting protein and substrate. BRK and PSF co-eluted in a large protein complex that was regulated by EGF stimulation. Furthermore, BRK and PSF co-immunoprecipitated in BT-20 cells and we defined the interaction as being an SH3 domain-polyproline interaction. The C-terminal tyrosines of PSF were the site of phosphorylation by BRK. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of PSF was also observed upon EGF stimulation, consistent with a role of PSF and BRK downstream of the EGF receptor. Interestingly, the tyrosine phosphorylation promoted the cytoplasmic relocalization of PSF, impaired its binding to polypyrimidine RNA, and led to cell cycle arrest. Our findings show that BRK targets the PSF RNA-binding protein during EGF stimulation.
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an inherited syndrome caused by germline mutation in the VHL tumor suppressor gene predisposing to pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET). Whether these tumors derive from preexisting endocrine microadenomatosis as in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is yet unknown. pVHL regulates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) that causes transcription activity of target genes like carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and cyclin D1. Our aim was to look for overexpression of these molecules to identify precursor endocrine lesions in the pancreas of VHL patients.
Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzes the condensation of l-serine and palmitoyl-CoA, which is the rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of sphingolipids. SPT activity is commonly measured by monitoring the incorporation of radiolabeled l-serine into 3-ketodihydrosphingosine. In this article, we introduce several adaptations of the established protocol to improve sensitivity, reproducibility, and practicability of the assay. A significant improvement of this new protocol is the possibility to measure SPT activity in total cell lysate instead of microsomes. The assay is furthermore extended by the introduction of a nonradioactive, HPLC-based detection protocol. The suggested HPLC method offers several advantages, most importantly, a 20-fold lower detection limit compared with the radioactive assay and the possibility to use an internal standard to correct for variation in the extraction.
Familial aggregation of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) has been reported, but it is unclear if familial TGCT represents a unique entity with distinct clinicopathologic characteristics. Here we describe a collection of familial TGCT cases from an international consortium, in an effort to elucidate any clinical characteristics that are specific to this population.
SAM68, SAM68-like mammalian protein 1 (SLM-1) and 2 (SLM-2) are members of the K homology (KH) and STAR (signal transduction activator of RNA metabolism) protein family. The function of these RNA binding proteins has been difficult to elucidate mainly because of lack of genetic data providing insights about their physiological RNA targets. In comparison, genetic studies in mice and C. elegans have provided evidence as to the physiological mRNA targets of QUAKING and GLD-1 proteins, two other members of the STAR protein family. The GLD-1 binding site is defined as a hexanucleotide sequence (NACUCA) that is found in many, but not all, physiological GLD-1 mRNA targets. Previously by using Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX), we defined the QUAKING binding site as a hexanucleotide sequence with an additional half-site (UAAY). This sequence was identified in QKI mRNA targets including the mRNAs for myelin basic proteins.
The Src-associated substrate during mitosis with a molecular mass of 68 kDa (Sam68) is predominantly nuclear and is known to associate with proteins containing the Src homology 3 (SH3) and SH2 domains. Although Sam68 is a Src substrate, little is known about the signaling pathway that link them. Src is known to be activated transiently after cell spreading, where it modulates the activity of small Rho GTPases. Herein we report that Sam68-deficient cells exhibit loss of cell polarity and cell migration. Interestingly, Sam68-deficient cells exhibited sustained Src activity after cell attachment, resulting in the constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of p190RhoGAP and its association with p120rasGAP. Consistently, we observed that Sam68-deficient cells exhibited deregulated RhoA and Rac1 activity. By using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we observed Sam68 near the plasma membrane after cell attachment coinciding with phosphorylation of its C-terminal tyrosines and association with Csk. These findings show that Sam68 localizes near the plasma membrane during cell attachment and serves as an adaptor protein to modulate Src activity for proper signaling to small Rho GTPases.
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSAN I) is an autosomal dominant inherited neurodegenerative disorder of the peripheral nervous system associated with mutations in the SPTLC1 subunit of the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Four missense mutations (C133W, C133Y, V144D and G387A) in SPTLC1 were reported to cause HSAN I. SPT catalyses the condensation of Serine and Palmitoyl-CoA, which is the first and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of ceramides. Earlier studies showed that C133W and C133Y mutants have a reduced activity, whereas the impact of the V144D and G387A mutations on the human enzyme was not tested yet. In this paper, we show that none of the HSAN I mutations interferes with SPT complex formation. We demonstrate that also V144D has a reduced SPT activity, however to a lower extent than C133W and C133Y. In contrast, the G387A mutation showed no influence on SPT activity. Furthermore, the growth phenotype of LY-B cells--a SPTLC1 deficient CHO cell line--could be reversed by expressing either the wild-type SPTLC1 or the G387A mutant, but not the C133W mutant. This indicates that the G387A mutation is most likely not directly associated with HSAN I. These findings were genetically confirmed by the identification of a nuclear HSAN family which showed segregation of the G387A variant as a non-synonymous SNP.
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