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Genome sequence of the exopolysaccharide-producing Salipiger mucosus type strain (DSM 16094(T)), a moderately halophilic member of the Roseobacter clade.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Salipiger mucosus Martínez-Cànovas et al. 2004 is the type species of the genus Salipiger, a moderately halophilic and exopolysaccharide-producing representative of the Roseobacter lineage within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae. Members of this family were shown to be the most abundant bacteria especially in coastal and polar waters, but were also found in microbial mats and sediments. Here we describe the features of the S. mucosus strain DSM 16094(T) together with its genome sequence and annotation. The 5,689,389-bp genome sequence consists of one chromosome and several extrachromosomal elements. It contains 5,650 protein-coding genes and 95 RNA genes. The genome of S. mucosus DSM 16094(T) was sequenced as part of the activities of the Transregional Collaborative Research Center 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
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Genome sequence of the Thermotoga thermarum type strain (LA3(T)) from an African solfataric spring.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Thermotoga thermarum Windberger et al. 1989 is a member to the genomically well characterized genus Thermotoga in the phylum 'Thermotogae'. T. thermarum is of interest for its origin from a continental solfataric spring vs. predominantly marine oil reservoirs of other members of the genus. The genome of strain LA3T also provides fresh data for the phylogenomic positioning of the (hyper-)thermophilic bacteria. T. thermarum strain LA3(T) is the fourth sequenced genome of a type strain from the genus Thermotoga, and the sixth in the family Thermotogaceae to be formally described in a publication. Phylogenetic analyses do not reveal significant discrepancies between the current classification of the group, 16S rRNA gene data and whole-genome sequences. Nevertheless, T. thermarum significantly differs from other Thermotoga species regarding its iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, as it contains only a minimal set of the necessary proteins. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,039,943 bp long chromosome with its 2,015 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Genome sequence of the mud-dwelling archaeon Methanoplanus limicola type strain (DSM 2279(T)), reclassification of Methanoplanus petrolearius as Methanolacinia petrolearia and emended descriptions of the genera Methanoplanus and Methanolacinia.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Methanoplanus limicola Wildgruber et al. 1984 is a mesophilic methanogen that was isolated from a swamp composed of drilling waste near Naples, Italy, shortly after the Archaea were recognized as a separate domain of life. Methanoplanus is the type genus in the family Methanoplanaceae, a taxon that felt into disuse since modern 16S rRNA gene sequences-based taxonomy was established. Methanoplanus is now placed within the Methanomicrobiaceae, a family that is so far poorly characterized at the genome level. The only other type strain of the genus with a sequenced genome, Methanoplanus petrolearius SEBR 4847(T), turned out to be misclassified and required reclassification to Methanolacinia. Both, Methanoplanus and Methanolacinia, needed taxonomic emendations due to a significant deviation of the G+C content of their genomes from previously published (pre-genome-sequence era) values. Until now genome sequences were published for only four of the 33 species with validly published names in the Methanomicrobiaceae. Here we describe the features of M. limicola, together with the improved-high-quality draft genome sequence and annotation of the type strain, M3(T). The 3,200,946 bp long chromosome (permanent draft sequence) with its 3,064 protein-coding and 65 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and Archaea project.
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Genome sequence of the pink to light reddish-pigmented Rubellimicrobium mesophilum type strain (DSM 19309(T)), a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from soil, and emended description of the species.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Rubellimicrobium mesophilum Dastager et al. 2008 is a mesophilic and light reddish-pigmented representative of the Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae. Representatives of the Roseobacter group play an important role in the marine biogeochemical cycles and were found in a broad variety of marine environments associated with algal blooms, different kinds of sediments, and surfaces of invertebrates and vertebrates. Roseobacters were shown to be widely distributed, especially within the total bacterial community found in coastal waters, as well as in mixed water layers of the open ocean. Here we describe the features of R. mesophilum strain MSL-20(T) together with its genome sequence and annotation generated from a culture of DSM 19309(T). The 4,927,676 bp genome sequence consists of one chromosome and probably one extrachromosomal element. It contains 5,082 protein-coding genes and 56 RNA genes. As previously reported, the G+C content is significantly different from the actual genome sequence-based G+C content and as the type strain tests positively for oxidase, the species description is emended accordingly. The genome was sequenced as part of the activities of the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
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Genome sequence of the Wenxinia marina type strain (DSM 24838(T)), a representative of the Roseobacter group isolated from oilfield sediments.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Wenxinia marina Ying et al. 2007 is the type species of the genus Wenxinia, a representative of the Roseobacter group within the alphaproteobacterial family Rhodobacteraceae, isolated from oilfield sediments of the South China Sea. This family was shown to harbor the most abundant bacteria especially from coastal and polar waters, but was also found in microbial mats, sediments and attached to different kind of surfaces. Here we describe the features of W. marina strain HY34(T) together with the genome sequence and annotation of strain DSM 24838(T) and novel aspects of its phenotype. The 4,181,754 bp containing genome sequence encodes 4,047 protein-coding genes and 59 RNA genes. The genome of W. marina DSM 24838(T) was sequenced as part of the activities of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG) project funded by the DoE and the Transregional Collaborative Research Centre 51 (TRR51) funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG).
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Genome analysis of Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae strain Groll(T) a highly versatile Gram-positive sulfate-reducing bacterium.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Desulfotomaculum gibsoniae is a mesophilic member of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum within the family Peptococcaceae. This bacterium was isolated from a freshwater ditch and is of interest because it can grow with a large variety of organic substrates, in particular several aromatic compounds, short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids, which are degraded completely to carbon dioxide coupled to the reduction of sulfate. It can grow autotrophically with H2 + CO2 and sulfate and slowly acetogenically with H2 + CO2, formate or methoxylated aromatic compounds in the absence of sulfate. It does not require any vitamins for growth. Here, we describe the features of D. gibsoniae strain Groll(T) together with the genome sequence and annotation. The chromosome has 4,855,529 bp organized in one circular contig and is the largest genome of all sequenced Desulfotomaculum spp. to date. A total of 4,666 candidate protein-encoding genes and 96 RNA genes were identified. Genes of the acetyl-CoA pathway, possibly involved in heterotrophic growth and in CO2 fixation during autotrophic growth, are present. The genome contains a large set of genes for the anaerobic transformation and degradation of aromatic compounds, which are lacking in the other sequenced Desulfotomaculum genomes.
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Genome analyses of the carboxydotrophic sulfate-reducers Desulfotomaculum nigrificans and Desulfotomaculum carboxydivorans and reclassification of Desulfotomaculum caboxydivorans as a later synonym of Desulfotomaculum nigrificans.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Desulfotomaculum nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans are moderately thermophilic members of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum in the family Peptococcaceae. They are phylogenetically very closely related and belong to 'subgroup a' of the Desulfotomaculum cluster 1. D. nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans have a similar growth substrate spectrum; they can grow with glucose and fructose as electron donors in the presence of sulfate. Additionally, both species are able to ferment fructose, although fermentation of glucose is only reported for D. carboxydivorans. D. nigrificans is able to grow with 20% carbon monoxide (CO) coupled to sulfate reduction, while D. carboxydivorans can grow at 100% CO with and without sulfate. Hydrogen is produced during growth with CO by D. carboxydivorans. Here we present a summary of the features of D. nigrificans and D. carboxydivorans together with the description of the complete genome sequencing and annotation of both strains. Moreover, we compared the genomes of both strains to reveal their differences. This comparison led us to propose a reclassification of D. carboxydivorans as a later heterotypic synonym of D. nigrificans.
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Function and Evolution of the Sox Multienzyme Complex in the Marine Gammaproteobacterium Congregibacter litoralis.
ISRN Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Core sets of sox genes were detected in several genome sequenced members of the environmental important OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria. However, emendation of media with thiosulfate did not result in stimulation of growth in two of these strains and cultures of Congregibacter litoralis DSM 17192(T) did not oxidize thiosulfate to sulfate in concentrations of one mmol L(-1) or above. On the other hand, a significant production of sulfate was detected upon growth with the organic sulfur compounds, cysteine and glutathione. It was found that degradation of glutathione resulted in the formation of submillimolar amounts of thiosulfate in the closely related sox-negative strain Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344(T). It is proposed that the Sox multienzyme complex in Congregibacter litoralis and related members of the OM60/NOR5 clade is adapted to the oxidation of submillimolar amounts of thiosulfate and nonfunctional at higher concentrations of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. Pelagic bacteria thriving in the oxic zones of marine environments may rarely encounter amounts of thiosulfate, which would allow its utilization as electron donor for lithoautotrophic or mixotrophic growth. Consequently, in evolution the Sox multienzyme complex in some of these bacteria may have been optimized for the effective utilization of trace amounts of thiosulfate generated from the degradation of organic sulfur compounds.
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Genome sequence of the thermophilic fresh-water bacterium Spirochaeta caldaria type strain (H1(T)), reclassification of Spirochaeta caldaria, Spirochaeta stenostrepta, and Spirochaeta zuelzerae in the genus Treponema as Treponema caldaria comb. nov., Trep
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Spirochaeta caldaria Pohlschroeder et al. 1995 is an obligately anaerobic, spiral-shaped bacterium that is motile via periplasmic flagella. The type strain, H1(T), was isolated in 1990 from cyanobacterial mat samples collected at a freshwater hot spring in Oregon, USA, and is of interest because it enhances the degradation of cellulose when grown in co-culture with Clostridium thermocellum. Here we provide a taxonomic re-evaluation for S. caldaria based on phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA sequences and whole genomes, and propose the reclassification of S. caldaria and two other Spirochaeta species as members of the emended genus Treponema. Whereas genera such as Borrelia and Sphaerochaeta possess well-distinguished genomic features related to their divergent lifestyles, the physiological and functional genomic characteristics of Spirochaeta and Treponema appear to be intermixed and are of little taxonomic value. The 3,239,340 bp long genome of strain H1(T) with its 2,869 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Genome analysis of Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii strain 17(T) reveals a physiological similarity with Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum strain SI(T).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii is a moderately thermophilic member of the polyphyletic spore-forming genus Desulfotomaculum in the family Peptococcaceae. This species is of interest because it originates from deep subsurface thermal mineral water at a depth of about 3,000 m. D. kuznetsovii is a rather versatile bacterium as it can grow with a large variety of organic substrates, including short-chain and long-chain fatty acids, which are degraded completely to carbon dioxide coupled to the reduction of sulfate. It can grow methylotrophically with methanol and sulfate and autotrophically with H2 + CO2 and sulfate. For growth it does not require any vitamins. Here, we describe the features of D. kuznetsovii together with the genome sequence and annotation. The chromosome has 3,601,386 bp organized in one contig. A total of 3,567 candidate protein-encoding genes and 58 RNA genes were identified. Genes of the acetyl-CoA pathway, possibly involved in heterotrophic growth with acetate and methanol, and in CO2 fixation during autotrophic growth are present. Genomic comparison revealed that D. kuznetsovii shows a high similarity with Pelotomaculum thermopropionicum. Genes involved in propionate metabolism of these two strains show a strong similarity. However, main differences are found in genes involved in the electron acceptor metabolism.
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Complete genome sequence of the moderate thermophile Anaerobaculum mobile type strain (NGA(T)).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Anaerobaculum mobile Menes and Muxí 2002 is one of three described species of the genus Anaerobaculum, family Synergistaceae, phylum Synergistetes. This anaerobic and motile bacterium ferments a range of carbohydrates and mono- and dicarboxylic acids with acetate, hydrogen and CO2 as end products. A. mobile NGA(T) is the first member of the genus Anaerobaculum and the sixth member of the phylum Synergistetes with a completely sequenced genome. Here we describe the features of this bacterium, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. The 2,160,700 bp long single replicon genome with its 2,053 protein-coding and 56 RNA genes is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Sequencing orphan species initiative (SOS): Filling the gaps in the 16S rRNA gene sequence database for all species with validly published names.
Syst. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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High quality 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from the type strains of all species with validly published names, as defined by the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, are a prerequisite for their accurate affiliations within the global genealogical classification and for the recognition of potential new taxa. During the last few years, the Living Tree Project (LTP) has taken care to create a high quality, aligned 16S and 23S rRNA gene sequence database of all type strains. However, the manual curation of the sequence dataset and type strain information revealed that a total of 552 "orphan" species (about 5.7% of the currently classified species) had to be excluded from the reference trees. Among them, 322 type strains were not represented by an SSU entry in the public sequence repositories. The remaining 230 type strains had to be discarded due to bad sequence quality. Since 2010, the LTP team has coordinated a network of researchers and culture collections in order to improve the situation by (re)-sequencing the type strains of these "orphan" species. As a result, we can now report 351 16S rRNA gene sequences of type strains. Nevertheless, 201 species could not be sequenced because cultivable type strains were not available (121), the cultures had either been lost or were never deposited in the first place (66), or it was not possible due to other constraints (14). The International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria provides a number of mechanisms to deal with the problem of missing type strains and we recommend that due consideration be given to the appropriate mechanisms in order to help solve some of these issues.
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Taxonomy and evolution of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria: description of Luminiphilus syltensis gen. nov., sp. nov., reclassification of Haliea rubra as Pseudohaliea rubra gen. nov., comb. nov
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Aerobic gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade are widespread in saline environments and of ecological importance in several marine ecosystems, especially the euphotic zone of coastal areas. Within this group a close relationship between aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs and non-phototrophic members has been found.
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Mixotrophic growth of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria is carbon-starvation independent and correlates with the type of carbon source and oxygen availability.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Populations of aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophic bacteria in marine environments are dominated by members of the Roseobacter lineage within the Alphaproteobacteria and the OM60/NOR5 clade of gammaproteobacteria. A wealth of information exists about the regulation of pigment production and mixotrophic growth in various members of the Roseobacter clade, but a detailed knowledge about aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-containing gammaproteobacteria is still limited to one strain of the species Congregibacter litoralis.
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Genomics and physiology of a marine flavobacterium encoding a proteorhodopsin and a xanthorhodopsin-like protein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Proteorhodopsin (PR) photoheterotrophy in the marine flavobacterium Dokdonia sp. PRO95 has previously been investigated, showing no growth stimulation in the light at intermediate carbon concentrations. Here we report the genome sequence of strain PRO95 and compare it to two other PR encoding Dokdonia genomes: that of strain 4H-3-7-5 which shows the most similar genome, and that of strain MED134 which grows better in the light under oligotrophic conditions. Our genome analysis revealed that the PRO95 genome as well as the 4H-3-7-5 genome encode a protein related to xanthorhodopsins. The genomic environment and phylogenetic distribution of this gene suggest that it may have frequently been recruited by lateral gene transfer. Expression analyses by RT-PCR and direct mRNA-sequencing showed that both rhodopsins and the complete ?-carotene pathway necessary for retinal production are transcribed in PRO95. Proton translocation measurements showed enhanced proton pump activity in response to light, supporting that one or both rhodopsins are functional. Genomic information and carbon source respiration data were used to develop a defined cultivation medium for PRO95, but reproducible growth always required small amounts of yeast extract. Although PRO95 contains and expresses two rhodopsin genes, light did not stimulate its growth as determined by cell numbers in a nutrient poor seawater medium that mimics its natural environment, confirming previous experiments at intermediate carbon concentrations. Starvation or stress conditions might be needed to observe the physiological effect of light induced energy acquisition.
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Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfur-reducer Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum type strain (BSA(T)) from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2011
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Desulfurobacterium thermolithotrophum LHaridon et al. 1998 is the type species of the genus Desulfurobacterium which belongs to the family Desulfurobacteriaceae. The species is of interest because it represents the first thermophilic bacterium that can act as a primary producer in the temperature range of 45-75 °C (optimum 70°C) and is incapable of growing under microaerophilic conditions. Strain BSA(T) preferentially synthesizes high-melting-point fatty acids (C(18) and C(20)) which is hypothesized to be a strategy to ensure the functionality of the membrane at high growth temperatures. This is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the family Desulfurobacteriaceae and the first sequence from the genus Desulfurobacterium. The 1,541,968 bp long genome harbors 1,543 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Tolumonas auensis type strain (TA 4).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Tolumonas auensis Fischer-Romero et al. 1996 is currently the only validly named species of the genus Tolumonas in the family Aeromonadaceae. The strain is of interest because of its ability to produce toluene from phenylalanine and other phenyl precursors, as well as phenol from tyrosine. This is of interest because toluene is normally considered to be a tracer of anthropogenic pollution in lakes, but T. auensis represents a biogenic source of toluene. Other than Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, T. auensis strain TA 4(T) is the only other member in the family Aeromonadaceae with a completely sequenced type-strain genome. The 3,471,292 bp chromosome with a total of 3,288 protein-coding and 116 RNA genes was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program JBEI 2008.
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Genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic halophile Flexistipes sinusarabici strain (MAS10).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Flexistipes sinusarabici Fiala et al. 2000 is the type species of the genus Flexistipes in the family Deferribacteraceae. The species is of interest because of its isolated phylogenetic location in a genomically under-characterized region of the tree of life, and because of its origin from a multiply extreme environment; the Atlantis Deep brines of the Red Sea, where it had to struggle with high temperatures, high salinity, and a high concentrations of heavy metals. This is the fourth completed genome sequence to be published of a type strain of the family Deferribacteraceae. The 2,526,590 bp long genome with its 2,346 protein-coding and 53 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of the hyperthermophilic chemolithoautotroph Pyrolobus fumarii type strain (1A).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Pyrolobus fumarii Blöchl et al. 1997 is the type species of the genus Pyrolobus, which belongs to the crenarchaeal family Pyrodictiaceae. The species is a facultatively microaerophilic non-motile crenarchaeon. It is of interest because of its isolated phylogenetic location in the tree of life and because it is a hyperthermophilic chemolithoautotroph known as the primary producer of organic matter at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. P. fumarii exhibits currently the highest optimal growth temperature of all life forms on earth (106°C). This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Pyrolobus to be published and only the second genome sequence from a member of the family Pyrodictiaceae. Although Diversa Corporation announced the completion of sequencing of the P. fumarii genome on September 25, 2001, this sequence was never released to the public. The 1,843,267 bp long genome with its 1,986 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Syntrophobotulus glycolicus type strain (FlGlyR).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2011
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Syntrophobotulus glycolicus Friedrich et al. 1996 is currently the only member of the genus Syntrophobotulus within the family Peptococcaceae. The species is of interest because of its isolated phylogenetic location in the genome-sequenced fraction of tree of life. When grown in pure culture with glyoxylate as carbon source the organism utilizes glyoxylate through fermentative oxidation, whereas, when grown in syntrophic co-culture with homoacetogenic or methanogenic bacteria, it is able to oxidize glycolate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. No other organic or inorganic carbon source is utilized by S. glycolicus. The subdivision of the family Peptococcaceae into genera does not reflect the natural relationships, particularly regarding the genera most closely related to Syntrophobotulus. Both Desulfotomaculum and Pelotomaculum are paraphyletic assemblages, and the taxonomic classification is in significant conflict with the 16S rRNA data. S. glycolicus is already the ninth member of the family Peptococcaceae with a completely sequenced and publicly available genome. The 3,406,739 bp long genome with its 3,370 protein-coding and 69 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of the acetate-degrading sulfate reducer Desulfobacca acetoxidans type strain (ASRB2).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Desulfobacca acetoxidans Elferink et al. 1999 is the type species of the genus Desulfobacca, which belongs to the family Syntrophaceae in the class Deltaproteobacteria. The species was first observed in a study on the competition of sulfate-reducers and acetoclastic methanogens for acetate in sludge. D. acetoxidans is considered to be the most abundant acetate-degrading sulfate reducer in sludge. It is of interest due to its isolated phylogenetic location in the 16S rRNA-based tree of life. This is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the family Syntrophaceae to be published and only the third genome sequence from a member of the order Syntrophobacterales. The 3,282,536 bp long genome with its 2,969 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Mahella australiensis type strain (50-1 BON).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Mahella australiensis Bonilla Salinas et al. 2004 is the type species of the genus Mahella, which belongs to the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. The species is of interest because it differs from other known anaerobic spore-forming bacteria in its G+C content, and in certain phenotypic traits, such as carbon source utilization and relationship to temperature. Moreover, it has been discussed that this species might be an indigenous member of petroleum and oil reservoirs. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Mahella and the ninth completed type strain genome sequence from the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. The 3,135,972 bp long genome with its 2,974 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of the thermophilic sulfur-reducer Hippea maritima type strain (MH(2)).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Hippea maritima (Miroshnichenko et al. 1999) is the type species of the genus Hippea, which belongs to the family Desulfurellaceae within the class Deltaproteobacteria. The anaerobic, moderately thermophilic marine sulfur-reducer was first isolated from shallow-water hot vents in Matipur Harbor, Papua New Guinea. H. maritima was of interest for genome sequencing because of its isolated phylogenetic location, as a distant next neighbor of the genus Desulfurella. Strain MH(2) (T) is the first type strain from the order Desulfurellales with a completely sequenced genome. The 1,694,430 bp long linear genome with its 1,723 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes consists of one circular chromosome and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Cellulophaga lytica type strain (LIM-21).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Cellulophaga lytica (Lewin 1969) Johansen et al. 1999 is the type species of the genus Cellulophaga, which belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae within the phylum Bacteroidetes and was isolated from marine beach mud in Limon, Costa Rica. The species is of biotechnological interest because its members produce a wide range of extracellular enzymes capable of degrading proteins and polysaccharides. After the genome sequence of Cellulophaga algicola this is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Cellulophaga. The 3,765,936 bp long genome with its 3,303 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes consists of one circular chromosome and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Desulfurococcus mucosus type strain (O7/1).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Desulfurococcus mucosus Zillig and Stetter 1983 is the type species of the genus Desulfurococcus, which belongs to the crenarchaeal family Desulfurococcaceae. The species is of interest because of its position in the tree of life, its ability for sulfur respiration, and several biotechnologically relevant thermostable and thermoactive extracellular enzymes. This is the third completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Desulfurococcus and already the 8(th) sequence from a member the family Desulfurococcaceae. The 1,314,639 bp long genome with its 1,371 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Marivirga tractuosa type strain (H-43).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Marivirga tractuosa (Lewin 1969) Nedashkovskaya et al. 2010 is the type species of the genus Marivirga, which belongs to the family Flammeovirgaceae. Members of this genus are of interest because of their gliding motility. The species is of interest because representative strains show resistance to several antibiotics, including gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, polymixin and streptomycin. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Flammeovirgaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,511,574 bp long chromosome and the 4,916 bp plasmid with their 3,808 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes are a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Desulfobulbus propionicus type strain (1pr3).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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Desulfobulbus propionicus Widdel 1981 is the type species of the genus Desulfobulbus, which belongs to the family Desulfobulbaceae. The species is of interest because of its great implication in the sulfur cycle in aquatic sediments, its large substrate spectrum and a broad versatility in using various fermentation pathways. The species was the first example of a pure culture known to disproportionate elemental sulfur to sulfate and sulfide. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Desulfobulbus and the third published genome sequence from a member of the family Desulfobulbaceae. The 3,851,869 bp long genome with its 3,351 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens type strain (Yu37-1).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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Calditerrivibrio nitroreducens Iino et al. 2008 is the type species of the genus Calditerrivibrio. The species is of interest because of its important role in the nitrate cycle as nitrate reducer and for its isolated phylogenetic position in the Tree of Life. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the third complete genome sequence of a member of the family Deferribacteraceae. The 2,216,552 bp long genome with its 2,128 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Ilyobacter polytropus type strain (CuHbu1).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Ilyobacter polytropus Stieb and Schink 1984 is the type species of the genus Ilyobacter, which belongs to the fusobacterial family Fusobacteriaceae. The species is of interest because its members are able to ferment quite a number of sugars and organic acids. I. polytropus has a broad versatility in using various fermentation pathways. Also, its members do not degrade poly-?-hydroxybutyrate but only the monomeric 3-hydroxybutyrate. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Ilyobacter and the second sequence from the family Fusobacteriaceae. The 3,132,314 bp long genome with its 2,934 protein-coding and 108 RNA genes consists of two chromosomes (2 and 1 Mbp long) and one plasmid, and is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Syntrophothermus lipocalidus type strain (TGB-C1).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Syntrophothermus lipocalidus Sekiguchi et al. 2000 is the type species of the genus Syntrophothermus. The species is of interest because of its strictly anaerobic lifestyle, its participation in the primary step of the degradation of organic maters, and for releasing products which serve as substrates for other microorganisms. It also contributes significantly to maintain a regular pH in its environment by removing the fatty acids through ?-oxidation. The strain is able to metabolize isobutyrate and butyrate, which are the substrate and the product of degradation of the substrate, respectively. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Syntrophothermus and the second in the family Syntrophomonadaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,405,559 bp long genome with its 2,385 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Methanothermus fervidus type strain (V24S).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2010
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Methanothermus fervidus Stetter 1982 is the type strain of the genus Methanothermus. This hyperthermophilic genus is of a thought to be endemic in Icelandic hot springs. M. fervidus was not only the first characterized organism with a maximal growth temperature (97°C) close to the boiling point of water, but also the first archaeon in which a detailed functional analysis of its histone protein was reported and the first one in which the function of 2,3-cyclodiphosphoglycerate in thermoadaptation was characterized. Strain V24S(T) is of interest because of its very low substrate ranges, it grows only on H(2) + CO(2). This is the first completed genome sequence of the family Methanothermaceae. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 1,243,342 bp long genome with its 1,311 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of Aminomonas paucivorans type strain (GLU-3).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2010
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Aminomonas paucivorans Baena et al. 1999 is the type species of the genus Aminomonas, which belongs to the family Synergistaceae. The species is of interest because it is an asaccharolytic chemoorganotrophic bacterium which ferments quite a number of amino acids. This is the first finished genome sequence (with one gap in a rDNA region) of a member of the genus Aminomonas and the third sequence from the family Synergistaceae. The 2,630,120 bp long genome with its 2,433 protein-coding and 61 RNA genes is a part of the GenomicEncyclopedia ofBacteria andArchaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Desulfarculus baarsii type strain (2st14).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2010
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Desulfarculus baarsii (Widdel 1981) Kuever et al. 2006 is the type and only species of the genus Desulfarculus, which represents the family Desulfarculaceae and the order Desulfarculales. This species is a mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium with the capability to oxidize acetate and fatty acids of up to 18 carbon atoms completely to CO(2). The acetyl-CoA/CODH (Wood-Ljungdahl) pathway is used by this species for the complete oxidation of carbon sources and autotrophic growth on formate. The type strain 2st14(T) was isolated from a ditch sediment collected near the University of Konstanz, Germany. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the order Desulfarculales. The 3,655,731 bp long single replicon genome with its 3,303 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Methanoplanus petrolearius type strain (SEBR 4847).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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Methanoplanus petrolearius Ollivier et al. 1998 is the type strain of the genus Methanoplanus. The strain was originally isolated from an offshore oil field from the Gulf of Guinea. Members of the genus Methanoplanus are of interest because they play an important role in the carbon cycle and also because of their significant contribution to the global warming by methane emission in the atmosphere. Like other archaea of the family Methanomicrobiales, the members of the genus Methanoplanus are able to use CO(2) and H(2) as a source of carbon and energy; acetate is required for growth and probably also serves as carbon source. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Methanomicrobiaceae and the sixth complete genome sequence from the order Methanomicrobiales. The 2,843,290 bp long genome with its 2,824 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Sulfurimonas autotrophica type strain (OK10).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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Sulfurimonas autotrophica Inagaki et al. 2003 is the type species of the genus Sulfurimonas. This genus is of interest because of its significant contribution to the global sulfur cycle as it oxidizes sulfur compounds to sulfate and by its apparent habitation of deep-sea hydrothermal and marine sulfidic environments as potential ecological niche. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the second complete genome sequence of the genus Sulfurimonas and the 15(th) genome in the family Helicobacteraceae. The 2,153,198 bp long genome with its 2,165 protein-coding and 55 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Spirochaeta smaragdinae type strain (SEBR 4228).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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Spirochaeta smaragdinae Magot et al. 1998 belongs to the family Spirochaetaceae. The species is Gram-negative, motile, obligately halophilic and strictly anaerobic and is of interest because it is able to ferment numerous polysaccharides. S. smaragdinae is the only species of the family Spirochaetaceae known to reduce thiosulfate or element sulfur to sulfide. This is the first complete genome sequence in the family Spirochaetaceae. The 4,653,970 bp long genome with its 4,363 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Vulcanisaeta distributa type strain (IC-017).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Vulcanisaeta distributa Itoh et al. 2002 belongs to the family Thermoproteaceae in the phylum Crenarchaeota. The genus Vulcanisaeta is characterized by a global distribution in hot and acidic springs. This is the first genome sequence from a member of the genus Vulcanisaeta and seventh genome sequence in the family Thermoproteaceae. The 2,374,137 bp long genome with its 2,544 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteriaand Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Thermosediminibacter oceani type strain (JW/IW-1228P).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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Thermosediminibacter oceani (Lee et al. 2006) is the type species of the genus Thermosediminibacter in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. The anaerobic, barophilic, chemoorganotrophic thermophile is characterized by straight to curved Gram-negative rods. The strain described in this study was isolated from a core sample of deep sea sediments of the Peruvian high productivity upwelling system. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the genus Thermosediminibacter and the seventh genome sequence in the family Thermoanaerobacteraceae. The 2,280,035 bp long genome with its 2,285 protein-coding and 63 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Peptoniphilus methioninivorax sp. nov., a Gram-positive anaerobic coccus isolated from retail ground beef.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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Strain NRRL B-23883(T) was isolated from retail ground beef as part of a study on the genetic diversity of Clostridium perfringens. The strain was found to be a strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive coccus that was able to utilize peptone as a sole carbon source. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that the strain was closely related to species within the genera Peptoniphilus and Anaerosphaera, but it was substantially different from the closest recognized species by nearly 10 % sequence divergence. The strain was also found to be closely related (>99 % sequence similarity) to an uncultured bacterial strain that was sequenced from a 16S rRNA gene clone library constructed to characterize the bacterial community of faeces from a captive spotted hyena. Strain NRRL B-23883(T) shared the peptidoglycan type A4?, l-Orn-d-Glu with members of the genus Peptoniphilus. Further phenotypic analysis revealed that strain NRRL B-23883(T) was able to utilize glycyl l-methionine as a sole carbon source, in contrast to other species of the genus Peptoniphilus. Therefore, it is proposed that the isolate represents a novel species, Peptoniphilus methioninivorax sp. nov.; the type strain is NRRL B-23883(T) (?= DSM 22461(T)).
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The genome sequence of Methanohalophilus mahii SLP(T) reveals differences in the energy metabolism among members of the Methanosarcinaceae inhabiting freshwater and saline environments.
Archaea
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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Methanohalophilus mahii is the type species of the genus Methanohalophilus, which currently comprises three distinct species with validly published names. Mhp. mahii represents moderately halophilic methanogenic archaea with a strictly methylotrophic metabolism. The type strain SLP(T) was isolated from hypersaline sediments collected from the southern arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 2,012,424 bp genome is a single replicon with 2032 protein-coding and 63 RNA genes and part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project. A comparison of the reconstructed energy metabolism in the halophilic species Mhp. mahii with other representatives of the Methanosarcinaceae reveals some interesting differences to freshwater species.
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Permanent draft genome sequence of Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans type strain (SEBR 4207).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Dethiosulfovibrio peptidovorans Magot et al. 1997 is the type species of the genus Dethiosulfovibrio of the family Synergistaceae in the recently created phylum Synergistetes. The strictly anaerobic, vibriod, thiosulfate-reducing bacterium utilizes peptides and amino acids, but neither sugars nor fatty acids. It was isolated from an offshore oil well where it was been reported to be involved in pitting corrosion of mild steel. Initially, this bacterium was described as a distant relative of the genus Thermoanaerobacter, but was not assigned to a genus, it was subsequently placed into the novel phylum Synergistetes. A large number of repeats in the genome sequence prevented an economically justifiable closure of the last gaps. This is only the third published genome from a member of the phylum Synergistetes. The 2,576,359 bp long genome consists of three contigs with 2,458 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes and is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Ignisphaera aggregans type strain (AQ1.S1).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Ignisphaera aggregans Niederberger et al. 2006 is the type and sole species of genus Ignisphaera. This archaeal species is characterized by a coccoid-shape and is strictly anaerobic, moderately acidophilic, heterotrophic hyperthermophilic and fermentative. The type strain AQ1.S1(T) was isolated from a near neutral, boiling spring in Kuirau Park, Rotorua, New Zealand. This is the first completed genome sequence of the genus Ignisphaera and the fifth genome (fourth type strain) sequence in the family Desulfurococcaceae. The 1,875,953 bp long genome with its 2,009 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Acetohalobium arabaticum type strain (Z-7288).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Acetohalobium arabaticum Zhilina and Zavarzin 1990 is of special interest because of its physiology and its participation in the anaerobic C(1)-trophic chain in hypersaline environments. This is the first completed genome sequence of the family Halobacteroidaceae and only the second genome sequence in the order Halanaerobiales. The 2,469,596 bp long genome with its 2,353 protein-coding and 90 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Archaeoglobus profundus type strain (AV18).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Archaeoglobus profundus (Burggraf et al. 1990) is a hyperthermophilic archaeon in the euryarchaeal class Archaeoglobi, which is currently represented by the single family Archaeoglobaceae, containing six validly named species and two strains ascribed to the genus Geoglobus which is taxonomically challenged as the corresponding type species has no validly published name. All members were isolated from marine hydrothermal habitats and are obligate anaerobes. Here we describe the features of the organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the class Archaeoglobi. The 1,563,423 bp genome with its 1,858 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Aminobacterium colombiense type strain (ALA-1).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Aminobacterium colombiense Baena et al. 1999 is the type species of the genus Aminobacterium. This genus is of large interest because of its isolated phylogenetic location in the family Synergistaceae, its strictly anaerobic lifestyle, and its ability to grow by fermentation of a limited range of amino acids but not carbohydrates. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the second completed genome sequence of a member of the family Synergistaceae and the first genome sequence of a member of the genus Aminobacterium. The 1,980,592 bp long genome with its 1,914 protein-coding and 56 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Denitrovibrio acetiphilus type strain (N2460).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Denitrovibrio acetiphilus Myhr and Torsvik 2000 is the type species of the genus Denitrovibrio in the bacterial family Deferribacteraceae. It is of phylogenetic interest because there are only six genera described in the family Deferribacteraceae. D. acetiphilus was isolated as a representative of a population reducing nitrate to ammonia in a laboratory column simulating the conditions in off-shore oil recovery fields. When nitrate was added to this column undesirable hydrogen sulfide production was stopped because the sulfate reducing populations were superseded by these nitrate reducing bacteria. Here we describe the features of this marine, mesophilic, obligately anaerobic organism respiring by nitrate reduction, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the second complete genome sequence of the order Deferribacterales and the class Deferribacteres, which is the sole class in the phylum Deferribacteres. The 3,222,077 bp genome with its 3,034 protein-coding and 51 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Brachyspira murdochii type strain (56-150).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Brachyspira murdochii Stanton et al. 1992 is a non-pathogenic, host-associated spirochete of the family Brachyspiraceae. Initially isolated from the intestinal content of a healthy swine, the group B spirochaetes were first described as Serpulina murdochii. Members of the family Brachyspiraceae are of great phylogenetic interest because of the extremely isolated location of this family within the phylum Spirochaetes. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a type strain of a member of the family Brachyspiraceae and only the second genome sequence from a member of the genus Brachyspira. The 3,241,804 bp long genome with its 2,893 protein-coding and 40 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Thermosphaera aggregans type strain (M11TL).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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Thermosphaera aggregans Huber et al. 1998 is the type species of the genus Thermosphaera, which comprises at the time of writing only one species. This species represents archaea with a hyperthermophilic, heterotrophic, strictly anaerobic and fermentative phenotype. The type strain M11TL(T) was isolated from a water-sediment sample of a hot terrestrial spring (Obsidian Pool, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming). Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 1,316,595 bp long single replicon genome with its 1,410 protein-coding and 47 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Sulfurospirillum deleyianum type strain (5175).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Sulfurospirillum deleyianum Schumacher et al. 1993 is the type species of the genus Sulfurospirillum. S. deleyianum is a model organism for studying sulfur reduction and dissimilatory nitrate reduction as an energy source for growth. Also, it is a prominent model organism for studying the structural and functional characteristics of cytochrome c nitrite reductase. Here, we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of the genus Sulfurospirillum. The 2,306,351 bp long genome with its 2,291 protein-coding and 52 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Chitinophaga pinensis type strain (UQM 2034).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Chitinophaga pinensis Sangkhobol and Skerman 1981 is the type strain of the species which is the type species of the rapidly growing genus Chitinophaga in the sphingobacterial family Chitinophagaceae. Members of the genus Chitinophaga vary in shape between filaments and spherical bodies without the production of a fruiting body, produce myxospores, and are of special interest for their ability to degrade chitin. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Chitinophagaceae, and the 9,127,347 bp long single replicon genome with its 7,397 protein-coding and 95 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Desulfohalobium retbaense type strain (HR(100)).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Desulfohalobium retbaense (Ollivier et al. 1991) is the type species of the polyphyletic genus Desulfohalobium, which comprises, at the time of writing, two species and represents the family Desulfohalobiaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria. D. retbaense is a moderately halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, which can utilize H(2) and a limited range of organic substrates, which are incompletely oxidized to acetate and CO(2), for growth. The type strain HR(100) (T) was isolated from sediments of the hypersaline Retba Lake in Senegal. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the family Desulfohalobiaceae. The 2,909,567 bp genome (one chromosome and a 45,263 bp plasmid) with its 2,552 protein-coding and 57 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Thermanaerovibrio acidaminovorans type strain (Su883).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2009
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Thermanaerovibrio acidaminovorans (Guangsheng et al. 1997) Baena et al. 1999 is the type species of the genus Thermanaerovibrio and is of phylogenetic interest because of the very isolated location of the novel phylum Synergistetes. T. acidaminovorans Su883(T) is a Gram-negative, motile, non-spore-forming bacterium isolated from an anaerobic reactor of a sugar refinery in The Netherlands. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence from a member of the phylum Synergistetes. The 1,848,474 bp long single replicon genome with its 1765 protein-coding and 60 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans type strain (5575).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2009
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Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans Widdel and Pfennig 1977 was one of the first sulfate-reducing bacteria known to grow with acetate as sole energy and carbon source. It is able to oxidize substrates completely to carbon dioxide with sulfate as the electron acceptor, which is reduced to hydrogen sulfide. All available data about this species are based on strain 5575(T), isolated from piggery waste in Germany. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a Desulfotomaculum species with validly published name. The 4,545,624 bp long single replicon genome with its 4370 protein-coding and 100 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Caldithrix palaeochoryensis sp. nov., a thermophilic, anaerobic, chemo-organotrophic bacterium from a geothermally heated sediment, and emended description of the genus Caldithrix.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2009
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A novel thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, chemo-organotrophic bacterium, designated MC(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated sediment of a marine hydrothermal system at Palaeochory Bay, Milos, Greece. Cells of strain MC(T) were rods of variable length (4-12 mum) and width (0.2-0.3 mum), occurring as single cells or forming large aggregates that were visible as flocs. Strain MC(T) grew optimally at pH 7.0 and 60 degrees C and with 3 % (w/v) NaCl. Strain MC(T) grew chemo-organoheterotrophically and fermented peptides and di- and polysaccharides in the presence of 0.1 g yeast extract l(-1). The DNA G+C content of strain MC(T) was 43.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed strain MC(T) within the genus Caldithrix. However, strain MC(T) possessed certain phenotypic features that differentiated it from the type strain of the only species of the genus Caldithrix described to date. On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain MC(T) represents a novel species, Caldithrix palaeochoryensis sp. nov. The type strain is MC(T) (=DSM 21940(T) =VKM B-2536(T)). In addition, an emended description of the genus Caldithrix is presented.
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Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov., represented by xenobiotics degrading type strains.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2009
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Two strains of gram-negative bacteria isolated because of their abilities to decompose xenobiotic compounds were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the two strains were found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas. Benzene degrading strain DSM 8628(T) was moderately related to P. flavescens NCPP 3063(T) (98.3% similarity), P. monteilii CIP 104883(T), and P. plecoglossicida FPC 951(T) (98.1%). Strain DSM 9751(T) capable to grow with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride as the sole carbon source showed the highest similarity values with P. tremae CFBP 2341(T) and P. meliae MAFF 301463(T) (98.0%), both related to Pseudomonas syringae. The fatty acid pattern of strain DSM 8628(T) was distinct from patterns of other members of the genus Pseudomonas in combining a high ratio of 3OH-C(12:1) (5.1%), a low ratio of 2OH-C(12:0) (0.2%) and a relatively low ratio of C(18:1)omega7c (23.8%). On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, physiological properties and the composition of whole cell fatty acids, two novel species, Pseudomonas benzenivorans sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 8628(T) (=CIP 109857(T)) and Pseudomonas saponiphila sp. nov. with the type strain DSM 9751(T) (=CIP 109856(T)), are proposed.
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Desulfonauticus autotrophicus sp. nov., a novel thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from oil-production water and emended description of the genus Desulfonauticus.
Extremophiles
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2009
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A novel moderately thermophilic and halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain TeSt(T), was isolated from production water of an oil field in Northern Germany near Hamburg. The cells were Gram-negative, straight to slightly curved rods and motile by a single polar flagellum. Only hydrogen and formate served as electron donors, whereas a wide variety of organic substrates and CO(2) could be used as carbon sources. Sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate and sulfur were used as electron acceptors, but not nitrate or ferric iron. The novel isolate was negative for oxidase, catalase and desulfoviridin enzyme activity. Cytochromes were present and predominantly of the c-type. Whole-cells fatty acid patterns were dominated by the branched-chain fatty acids anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). As major respiratory lipoquinones partially saturated derivates of menaquinone 6 [MK-6(H(2)) and probably MK-6(H(4))] were identified. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 41.3 mol% (HPLC method). An analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain TeSt(T) belongs to the family Desulfohalobiaceae within the class Deltaproteobacteria. The most closely related species with a sequence similarity of 95.0% was Desulfonauticus submarinus suggesting an affiliation of TeSt(T) to the genus Desulfonauticus. The novel isolate could be clearly distinguished from Desulfonauticus submarinus by its ability to grow chemolithoautotrophically and hence should be assigned to a novel species for which the name Desulfonauticus autotrophicus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TeSt(T) (=DSM 4206(T)=JCM 13028(T)).
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A phylogeny-driven genomic encyclopaedia of Bacteria and Archaea.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Sequencing of bacterial and archaeal genomes has revolutionized our understanding of the many roles played by microorganisms. There are now nearly 1,000 completed bacterial and archaeal genomes available, most of which were chosen for sequencing on the basis of their physiology. As a result, the perspective provided by the currently available genomes is limited by a highly biased phylogenetic distribution. To explore the value added by choosing microbial genomes for sequencing on the basis of their evolutionary relationships, we have sequenced and analysed the genomes of 56 culturable species of Bacteria and Archaea selected to maximize phylogenetic coverage. Analysis of these genomes demonstrated pronounced benefits (compared to an equivalent set of genomes randomly selected from the existing database) in diverse areas including the reconstruction of phylogenetic history, the discovery of new protein families and biological properties, and the prediction of functions for known genes from other organisms. Our results strongly support the need for systematic phylogenomic efforts to compile a phylogeny-driven Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea in order to derive maximum knowledge from existing microbial genome data as well as from genome sequences to come.
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Caldimicrobium rimae gen. nov., sp. nov., an extremely thermophilic, facultatively lithoautotrophic, anaerobic bacterium from the Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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An extremely thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacterium designated strain DS(T) was isolated from Treshchinnyi Spring, one of the hottest springs of the Uzon Caldera (Kamchatka, Russia). Cells of the novel organism were Gram-negative rods, about 1.0-1.2 microm long and 0.5 microm wide. The temperature range for growth was 52-82 degrees C, with an optimum at 75 degrees C. Growth was observed at pH 6.8-7.4, and the optimum pH was 7.0-7.2. Strain DS(T) was able to grow lithoautotrophically with hydrogen in the presence of CO(2) as a carbon source and thiosulfate or elemental sulfur as an electron acceptor. It also grew well with ethanol, fumarate, succinate or malate in the presence of thiosulfate. Yeast extract was not required for growth and did not stimulate growth. The genomic DNA G+C content was 35.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that the novel organism was a member of the family Thermodesulfobacteriaceae. On the basis of phylogenetic and physiological considerations, it is proposed that strain DS(T) represents a new genus and species, Caldimicrobium rimae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Caldimicrobium rimae is DS(T) (=DSM 19393(T) =VKM B-2460(T)).
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Optimization of three FISH procedures for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in biological wastewater treatment.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2009
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Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using fluorochrome-labeled DNA oligonucleotide probes has been successfully applied for in situ detection of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. However, application of the standard FISH protocols to visualize anammox bacteria in biofilms from a laboratory-scale wastewater reactor produced only weak signals. Increased signal intensity was achieved either by modifying the standard FISH protocol, using peptide nucleic acid probes (PNA FISH), or applying horse radish peroxidase- (HRP-) labeled probes and subsequent catalyzed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH). A comparative analysis using anammox biofilm samples and suspended anammox biomass from different laboratory wastewater bioreactors revealed that the modified standard FISH protocol and the PNA FISH probes produced equally strong fluorescence signals on suspended biomass, but only weak signals were obtained with the biofilm samples. The probe signal intensities in the biofilm samples could be enhanced by enzymatic pre-treatment of fixed cells, and by increasing the hybridization time of the PNA FISH protocol. CARD-FISH always produced up to four-fold stronger fluorescent signals but unspecific fluorescence signals, likely caused by endogenous peroxidases as reported in several previous studies, compromised the results. Interference of the development of fluorescence intensity with endogenous peroxidases was also observed in cells of aerobic ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas europea, and sulfate-reducers like Desulfobacter postgatei. Interestingly, no interference was observed with other peroxidase-positive microorganisms, suggesting that CARD-FISH is not only compromised by the mere presence of peroxidases. Pre-treatment of cells to inactivate peroxidase with HCl or autoclavation/pasteurization failed to inactive peroxidases, but H(2)O(2) significantly reduced endogenous peroxidase activity. However, for optimal inactivation, different H(2)O(2) concentrations and incubation time may be needed, depending on nature of sample and should therefore always be individually determined for each study.
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The photosynthetic apparatus and its regulation in the aerobic gammaproteobacterium Congregibacter litoralis gen. nov., sp. nov.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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There is accumulating evidence that in some marine environments aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-producing bacteria represent a significant part of the microbial population. The interaction of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism in these interesting bacteria is still largely unknown and requires further investigation in order to estimate their contribution to the marine carbon cycle.
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Complete genome sequence of Pedobacter heparinus type strain (HIM 762-3).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Pedobacter heparinus (Payza and Korn 1956) Steyn et al. 1998 comb. nov. is the type species of the rapidly growing genus Pedobacter within the family Sphingobacteriaceae of the phylum Bacteroidetes. P. heparinus is of interest, because it was the first isolated strain shown to grow with heparin as sole carbon and nitrogen source and because it produces several enzymes involved in the degradation of mucopolysaccharides. All available data about this species are based on a sole strain that was isolated from dry soil. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first report on a complete genome sequence of a member of the genus Pedobacter, and the 5,167,383 bp long single replicon genome with its 4287 protein-coding and 54 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans type strain (ICP).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans (Clark and Norris 1996) is the sole and type species of the genus, which until recently was the only genus within the actinobacterial family Acidimicrobiaceae and in the order Acidomicrobiales. Rapid oxidation of iron pyrite during autotrophic growth in the absence of an enhanced CO(2) concentration is characteristic for A. ferrooxidans. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of the order Acidomicrobiales, and the 2,158,157 bp long single replicon genome with its 2038 protein coding and 54 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of Desulfomicrobium baculatum type strain (X).
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Desulfomicrobium baculatum is the type species of the genus Desulfomicrobium, which is the type genus of the family Desulfomicrobiaceae. It is of phylogenetic interest because of the isolated location of the family Desulfomicrobiaceae within the order Desulfovibrionales. D. baculatum strain X(T) is a Gram-negative, motile, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from water-saturated manganese carbonate ore. It is strictly anaerobic and does not require NaCl for growth, although NaCl concentrations up to 6% (w/v) are tolerated. The metabolism is respiratory or fermentative. In the presence of sulfate, pyruvate and lactate are incompletely oxidized to acetate and CO(2). Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. This is the first completed genome sequence of a member of the deltaproteobacterial family Desulfomicrobiaceae, and this 3,942,657 bp long single replicon genome with its 3494 protein-coding and 72 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Complete genome sequence of the sulfate-reducing firmicute Desulfotomaculum ruminis type strain (DL(T)).
Stand Genomic Sci
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Desulfotomaculum ruminis Campbell and Postgate 1965 is a member of the large genus Desulfotomaculum which contains 30 species and is contained in the family Peptococcaceae. This species is of interest because it represents one of the few sulfate-reducing bacteria that have been isolated from the rumen. Here we describe the features of D. ruminis together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,969,014 bp long chromosome with a total of 3,901 protein-coding and 85 RNA genes is the second completed genome sequence of a type strain of the genus Desulfotomaculum to be published, and was sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Community Sequencing Program 2009.
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Desulfotomaculum defluvii sp. nov., a sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from the subsurface environment of a landfill.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
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A novel sulfate-reducing, strictly anaerobic and endospore-forming bacterium, designated strain A5LFS102(T), was isolated from a subsurface landfill sample. The strain was characterized using a polyphasic approach. Optimal growth was observed at 37 °C and pH 7.5 with sulfate as an electron acceptor. Sulfite and thiosulfate were utilized as electron acceptors. The respiratory isoprenoid quinone was menaquinone MK-7. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis assigned strain A5LFS102(T) to the genus Desulfotomaculum. Both 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfate reductase (dsr) genes were compared with those of representative members of the genus Desulfotomaculum. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain A5LFS102(T) was closely related to Desulfotomaculum aeronauticum DSM 10349(T) (94.6% sequence similarity). The G+C content of the DNA was 45.4 mol%. The total cellular fatty acid profile was dominated by C16 fatty acids. These phenotypic and genotypic data showed that strain A5LFS102(T) should be recognized as representative of a novel species of the genus Desulfotomaculum, for which the name Desulfotomaculum defluvii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is A5LFS102(T) (=DSM 23699(T)=JCM 14036(T)=MTCC 7767(T)).
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Complete genome sequences of Desulfosporosinus orientis DSM765T, Desulfosporosinus youngiae DSM17734T, Desulfosporosinus meridiei DSM13257T, and Desulfosporosinus acidiphilus DSM22704T.
J. Bacteriol.
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Desulfosporosinus species are sulfate-reducing bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes. Their genomes will give insights into the genetic repertoire and evolution of sulfate reducers typically thriving in terrestrial environments and able to degrade toluene (Desulfosporosinus youngiae), to reduce Fe(III) (Desulfosporosinus meridiei, Desulfosporosinus orientis), and to grow under acidic conditions (Desulfosporosinus acidiphilus).
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Metallibacterium scheffleri gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkalinizing gammaproteobacterium isolated from an acidic biofilm.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
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A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, facultatively anaerobic, acid-tolerant rod, designated strain DKE6(T), was isolated from an acidic biofilm (pH 2.5) harvested in the pyrite mine Drei Kronen und Ehrt in Germany. The isolate grew optimally at pH 5.5, between 25 and 30 °C and only with casein as the carbon and energy source; although a variety of sugars were tested as growth substrates, none supported growth of the isolate. During casein consumption, strain DKE6(T) produced ammonium, which led to an alkalinization of the medium. This is a possible strategy to raise the pH in the direct vicinity of the cell and hence modulate the pH towards the growth optimum. The predominant fatty acids (>5?%) were iso-C11?:?0 3-OH, iso-C15?:?0, iso-C17?:?0 and iso-C17?:?1?9c. The DNA G+C content was 66.6?%. Strain DKE6(T) was not able to oxidize iron or thiosulfate. Iron reduction was detected. The isolate showed 93.3?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the most closely related cultivable strain, Dokdonella koreensis DS-123(T), but <93.2?% sequence similarity with other type strains of closely related type species of the Gammaproteobacteria. On the basis of physiological and biochemical data, the isolate is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the class Gammaproteobacteria, for which we propose the name Metallibacterium scheffleri gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of the type species is DKE6(T) (?=?DSM 24874(T)?=?JCM 17596(T)).
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Genome sequence of the moderately thermophilic, amino-acid-degrading and sulfur-reducing bacterium Thermovirga lienii type strain (Cas60314(T)).
Stand Genomic Sci
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Thermovirga lienii Dahle and Birkeland 2006 is a member of the genus Thermovirga in the genomically moderately well characterized phylum Synergistetes. Members of this relatively recently proposed phylum Synergistetes are of interest because of their isolated phylogenetic position and their diverse habitats, e.g. from humans to oil wells. The genome of T. lienii Cas60314(T) is the fifth genome sequence (third completed) from this phylum to be published. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 1,999,646 bp long genome (including one plasmid) with its 1,914 protein-coding and 59 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1).
Stand Genomic Sci
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Saprospira grandis Gross 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class Sphingobacteria that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via ixotrophy. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
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