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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of millimetre waves on phosphatidylcholine membrane models: a non-thermal mechanism of interaction.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The nonthermal biological effects of millimeter waves have been mainly attributed to the interaction with biological membranes. Several data on biomimetic membrane systems seem to support this conclusion. In this paper a mechanistic hypothesis is evaluated to explain such an interaction taking into account experimental NMR data on deuterium-labeled phospholipid vesicles. These data showed that millimeter waves induce a time and a hydration-dependent reduction of the water ordering around the phosphocholine headgroups. This effect is here interpreted as a change in membrane water partitioning, due to the coupling of the radiation with the fast rotational dynamics of bound water molecules, that results in a measurable relocation of water molecules from the inner to the outer binding regions of the membrane interface. When millimeter wave exposure is performed in the vicinity of the transition point, this effect can lead to an upward shift of the membrane phase transition temperature from the fluid to the gel phase. At a macroscopic level, this unique sensitivity may be explained by the universal dynamic behaviour of the membranes in the vicinity of the transition point, where a pretransitional increase of membrane area fluctuations, i.e., of the mean area per phospholipid headgroup, is observed. Exposure to millimeter waves increases the above fluctuations and enhances the second order character of the transition.
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Growth inhibition, cell-cycle alteration and apoptosis in stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes by multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Aim: This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper (BP) in stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Methods & results: BP treatment led to a delay in the cell growth, as proven by a minor increase in the cell number over time relative to that seen in untreated cells, assessed by trypan blue, resazurin and neutral red assays. The analysis of cell-cycle profile, by propidium iodide staining, indicated that BP treatment blocked cell-cycle progression by arresting cells at the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, increased apoptosis was also recorded by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining. Conclusion: The results presented here demonstrate an inhibitor effect of BP on cell growth that was likely through cytostatic and cytotoxic events. Original submitted 21 June 2013; Revised submitted 10 January 2014.
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Induced movements of giant vesicles by millimeter wave radiation.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Our previous study of interaction between low intensity radiation at 53.37GHz and cell-size system - such as giant vesicles - indicated that a vectorial movement of vesicles was induced. This effect among others, i.e. elongation, induced diffusion of fluorescent dye di-8-ANEPPS, and increased attractions between vesicles was attributed to the action of the field on charged and dipolar residues located at the membrane-water interface. In an attempt to improve the understanding on how millimeter wave radiation (MMW) can induce this movement we report here a real time evaluation of changes induced on the movement of giant vesicles. Direct optical observations of vesicles subjected to irradiation enabled the monitoring in real time of the response of vesicles. Changes of the direction of vesicle movement are demonstrated, which occur only during irradiation with a "switch on" of the effect. This MMW-induced effect was observed at a larger extent on giant vesicles prepared with negatively charged phospholipids. The monitoring of induced-by-irradiation temperature variation and numerical dosimetry indicate that the observed effects in vesicle movement cannot be attributed to local heating.
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Proteomic analysis of Populus × euramericana (clone I-214) roots to identify key factors involved in zinc stress response.
J. Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Contamination of soil and water by heavy metals has become a widespread problem; environmental pollution by high zinc (Zn) concentration occurs frequently. Although poplar (Populus spp.) has been identified as suitable for phytoremediation approaches, its response to high Zn concentrations are still not clearly understood. For this reason, we investigated the effects of Zn in Populus×euramericana clone I-214 roots by proteomic analysis. Comparative experiments were conducted on rooted woody cuttings grown in nutrient solutions containing 1mM (treatment) or 1?M (control) Zn concentrations. A gel-based proteomic approach coupled with morphological and chemical analysis was used to identify differentially represented proteins in treated roots and to investigate the effect of Zn treatment on the poplar root system. Data shows that Zn was accumulated preferentially in roots, that the antioxidant system, the carbohydrate/energy and amino acid metabolisms were the main pathways modulated by Zn excess, and that mitochondria and vacuoles were the cellular organelles predominately affected by Zn stress. A coordination between cell death and proliferation/growth seems to occur under this condition to counteract the Zn-induced damage.
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Combining neuroprotectants in a model of retinal degeneration: no additive benefit.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The central nervous system undergoing degeneration can be stabilized, and in some models can be restored to function, by neuroprotective treatments. Photobiomodulation (PBM) and dietary saffron are distinctive as neuroprotectants in that they upregulate protective mechanisms, without causing measurable tissue damage. This study reports a first attempt to combine the actions of PBM and saffron. Our working hypothesis was that the actions of PBM and saffron in protecting retinal photoreceptors, in a rat light damage model, would be additive. Results confirmed the neuroprotective potential of each used separately, but gave no evidence that their effects are additive. Detailed analysis suggests that there is actually a negative interaction between PBM and saffron when given simultaneously, with a consequent reduction of the neuroprotection. Specific testing will be required to understand the mechanisms involved and to establish whether there is clinical potential in combining neuroprotectants, to improve the quality of life of people affected by retinal pathology, such as age-related macular degeneration, the major cause of blindness and visual impairment in older adults.
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Eyes as gateways for environmental light to the substantia nigra: relevance in Parkinson's disease.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent data indicates that prolonged bright light exposure of rats induces production of neuromelanin and reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase positive neurons in the substantia nigra. This effect was the result of direct light reaching the substantia nigra and not due to alteration of circadian rhythms. Here, we measured the spectrum of light reaching the substantia nigra in rats and analysed the pathway that light may take to reach this deep brain structure in humans. Wavelength range and light intensity, emitted from a fluorescent tube, were measured, using a stereotaxically implanted optical fibre in the rat mesencephalon. The hypothetical path of environmental light from the eye to the substantia nigra in humans was investigated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Light with wavelengths greater than 600?nm reached the rat substantia nigra, with a peak at 709?nm. Eyes appear to be the gateway for light to the mesencephalon since covering the eyes with aluminum foil reduced light intensity by half. Using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of a human head, we identified the eye and the superior orbital fissure as possible gateways for environmental light to reach the mesencephalon.
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Adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields: resistance to ionizing radiation-induced damage.
J. Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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The aim of this preliminary investigation was to assess whether human peripheral blood lymphocytes which have been pre-exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields exhibit an adaptive response (AR) by resisting the induction of genetic damage from subsequent exposure to ionizing radiation. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from four healthy donors were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin for 24 h and then exposed for 20 h to 1950 MHz radiofrequency fields (RF, adaptive dose, AD) at an average specific absorption rate of 0.3 W/kg. At 48 h, the cells were subjected to a challenge dose (CD) of 1.0 or 1.5 Gy X-irradiation (XR, challenge dose, CD). After a 72 h total culture period, cells were collected to examine the incidence of micronuclei (MN). There was a significant decrease in the number of MN in lymphocytes exposed to RF + XR (AD + CD) as compared with those subjected to XR alone (CD). These observations thus suggested a RF-induced AR and induction of resistance to subsequent damage from XR. There was variability between the donors in RF-induced AR. The data reported in our earlier investigations also indicated a similar induction of AR in human blood lymphocytes that had been pre-exposed to RF (AD) and subsequently treated with a chemical mutagen, mitomycin C (CD). Since XR and mitomycin-C induce different kinds of lesions in cellular DNA, further studies are required to understand the mechanism(s) involved in the RF-induced adaptive response.
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Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reverts muscarinic receptor down-regulation induced by pilocarpine- and kainic acid-evoked seizures in rat fronto-parietal cortex.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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We investigated how nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor modulates muscarinic receptor expression in epileptic rats. We found that subchronic treatment (4 days) with N?-nitro-l-arginine reduced the down-regulation of muscarinic receptors induced by pilocarpine and kainic acid in rat fronto-parietal cortex, notwithstanding the dramatic potentiation of seizures induced by both convulsants. Furthermore, functional experiments in fronto-parietal cortex slices, showed that N?-nitro-l-arginine reduces the down-regulating effect of pilocarpine on carbachol-induced phosphoinositol hydrolysis. Finally, N?-nitro-l-arginine greatly potentiated the induction of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) by pilocarpine. These data suggest a potential role of NO in a regulatory feedback loop to control muscarinic receptor signal during seizures. The dramatic potentiation of convulsions by NO synthase inhibitors in some animal models of seizures could derive from preventing this feedback loop.
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Water influx and cell swelling after nanosecond electropermeabilization.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Pulsed electric fields are used to permeabilize cell membranes in biotechnology and the clinic. Although molecular and continuum models provide compelling representations of the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, a clear structural link between the biomolecular transformations displayed in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and the micro- and macroscale cellular responses observed in the laboratory has not been established. In this paper, plasma membrane electropermeabilization is characterized by exposing Jurkat T lymphoblasts to pulsed electric fields less than 10ns long (including single pulse exposures), and by monitoring the resulting osmotically driven cell swelling as a function of pulse number and pulse repetition rate. In this way, we reduce the complexity of the experimental system and lay a foundation for gauging the correspondence between measured and simulated values for water and ion transport through electropermeabilized membranes. We find that a single 10MV/m pulse of 5ns duration produces measurable swelling of Jurkat T lymphoblasts in growth medium, and we estimate from the swelling kinetics the ion and water flux that follows the electropermeabilization of the membrane. From these observations we set boundaries on the net conductance of the permeabilized membrane, and we show how this is consistent with model predictions for the conductance and areal density of nanoelectropulse-induced lipid nanopores.
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Bright light exposure reduces TH-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in Parkinsons disease epidemiology.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinsons disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution.
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The time course of action of two neuroprotectants, dietary saffron and photobiomodulation, assessed in the rat retina.
Am J Neurodegener Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Dietary saffron and photobiomodulation (low-level infrared radiation, PBM) are emerging as therapeutically promising protectants for neurodegenerative conditions, such as the retinal dystrophies. In animal models, saffron and PBM, given in limited daily doses, protect retina and brain from toxin- or light-induced stress. This study addresses the rate at which saffron and PBM, given in daily doses, induce neuroprotection, using a light damage model of photoreceptor degeneration in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats.
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DNA electrophoretic migration patterns change after exposure of Jurkat cells to a single intense nanosecond electric pulse.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2011
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Intense nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) interact with cellular membranes and intracellular structures. Investigating how cells respond to nanosecond pulses is essential for a) development of biomedical applications of nsPEFs, including cancer therapy, and b) better understanding of the mechanisms underlying such bioelectrical effects. In this work, we explored relatively mild exposure conditions to provide insight into weak, reversible effects, laying a foundation for a better understanding of the interaction mechanisms and kinetics underlying nsPEF bio-effects. In particular, we report changes in the nucleus of Jurkat cells (human lymphoblastoid T cells) exposed to single pulses of 60 ns duration and 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 MV/m amplitudes, which do not affect cell growth and viability. A dose-dependent reduction in alkaline comet-assayed DNA migration is observed immediately after nsPEF exposure, accompanied by permeabilization of the plasma membrane (YO-PRO-1 uptake). Comet assay profiles return to normal within 60 minutes after pulse delivery at the highest pulse amplitude tested, indicating that our exposure protocol affects the nucleus, modifying DNA electrophoretic migration patterns.
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Induction of adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency fields: influence of cell cycle.
Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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To investigate the influence of cell cycle on the adaptive response (AR) induced by the exposure of human blood lymphocytes to radiofrequency fields (RF).
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Modified Blumlein pulse-forming networks for bioelectrical applications.
J. Membr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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Intense nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have been shown to induce, on intracellular structures, interesting effects dependent on electrical exposure conditions (pulse length and amplitude, repetition frequency and number of pulses), which are known in the literature as "bioelectrical effects" (Schoenbach et al., IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 30:293-300, 2002). In particular, pulses with a shorter width than the plasma membrane charging time constant (about 100 ns for mammalian cells) can penetrate the cell and trigger effects such as permeabilization of intracellular membranes, release of Ca(2+) and apoptosis induction. Moreover, the observed effects have led to exploration of medical applications, like the treatment of melanoma tumors (Nuccitelli et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun 343:351-360, 2006). Pulsed electric fields allowing such effects usually range from several tens to a few hundred nanoseconds in duration and from a few to several tens of megavolts per meter in amplitude (Schoenbach et al., IEEE Trans Diel Elec Insul 14:1088-1109, 2007); however, the biological effects of subnanosecond pulses have been also investigated (Schoenbach et al., IEEE Trans Plasma Sci 36:414-422, 2008). The use of such a large variety of pulse parameters suggests that highly flexible pulse-generating systems, able to deliver wide ranges of pulse durations and amplitudes, are strongly required in order to explore effects and applications related to different exposure conditions. The Blumlein pulse-forming network is an often-employed circuit topology for the generation of high-voltage electric pulses with fixed pulse duration. An innovative modification to the Blumlein circuit has been recently devised which allows generation of pulses with variable amplitude, duration and polarity. Two different modified Blumlein pulse-generating systems are presented in this article, the first based on a coaxial cable configuration, matching microscopic slides as a pulse-delivery system, and the other based on microstrip transmission lines and designed to match cuvettes for the exposure of cell suspensions.
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Scorpion toxins that block transient currents (I(A)) of rat cerebellum granular cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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This communication is a revision of the state-of-the-art knowledge of the field of scorpion toxins specific for the K(+)-channels, responsible for the I(A) currents of granular cells of rat cerebellum, maintained in vitro culture. There are 6 members of the sub-family alpha-KTx15 known to affect the I(A) currents. They are: toxins Aa1 from Androctonus australis Garzoni, BmTx3 from Buthusmartensi Karch, AmmTx3 from Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus, AaTx1 and AaTx2 from A. australis Garzoni and Discrepin from Tityus discrepans. They share high sequence similarity, apart from Discrepin, which causes an irreversible effect on the I(A) currents and is the most thoroughly studied toxin of the sub-family alpha-KTx15. The three-dimensional structure of Discrepin was determined and a series of mutants were synthesized and assayed in the system with the aim of identifying possible amino acids or sequence segments responsible for the irreversible effect found. In this revision some unpublished original data are also included to foster future work on the field, as well as a short discussion on some relevant aspects still pending and possible limitations associated with the strategy proposed.
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Induction of an adaptive response in human blood lymphocytes exposed to radiofrequency fields: influence of the universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS) signal and the specific absorption rate.
Mutat. Res.
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The induction of an adaptive response (AR) was examined in human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields (RF). Cells from nine healthy human volunteers were stimulated for 24h with phytohaemagglutinin and then exposed for 20h to an adaptive dose (AD) of a 1950MHz RF UMTS (universal mobile telecommunication system) signal used for mobile communications, at different specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1.25, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.15W/kg. This was followed by treatment of the cells at 48h with a challenge dose (CD) of 100ng/ml mitomycin C (MMC). Lymphocytes were collected at the end of the 72h total culture period. The cytokinesis-block method was used to record the frequency of micronuclei (MN) as genotoxicity end-point. When lymphocytes from six donors were pre-exposed to RF at 0.3W/kg SAR and then treated with MMC, these cells showed a significant reduction in the frequency of MN, compared with the cells treated with MMC alone; this result is indicative of induction of AR. The results from our earlier study indicated that lymphocytes that were stimulated for 24h, exposed for 20h to a 900MHz RF GSM (global system for mobile communication) signal at 1.25W/kg SAR and then treated with 100ng/ml MMC, also exhibited AR. These overall data suggest that the induction of AR depends on RF frequency, type of the signal and SAR. Further characterization of RF-induced AR is in progress.
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Radiofrequency radiation at 1950 MHz (UMTS) does not affect key cellular endpoints in neuron-like PC12 cells.
Bioelectromagnetics
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In this study, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were exposed, as a model of neuron-like cells, to 1950 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation with a signal used by the 3G wireless technology of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to assess possible adverse effects. RF exposure for 24 h at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 10 W/kg was carried out in a waveguide system under accurately controlled environmental and dosimetric parameters. DNA integrity, cell viability, and apoptosis were investigated as cellular endpoints relevant for carcinogenesis and other diseases of the central nervous system. Very sensitive biological assays were employed to assess the effects immediately after RF exposure and 24 h later, as demonstrated by the cellular response elicited in PC12 cells using positive control treatments provided for each assay. In our experimental conditions, 24 h of RF exposure at a carrier frequency and modulation scheme typical of a UMTS signal was not able to elicit any effect in the selected cellular endpoints in undifferentiated PC12 cells, despite the application of a higher SAR value than those applied in the majority of the studies reported in the literature.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.