A missense mutation in ATP2A1 gene, encoding SERCA1 protein, causes Chianina cattle congenital pseudomyotonia, an exercise induced impairment of muscle relaxation. Skeletal muscles of affected cattle are characterized by a selective reduction of SERCA1 in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes. In this paper we provide evidence that the ubiquitin proteasome system is involved in the reduced density of mutated SERCA1. The treatment with MG132, an inhibitor of ubiquitin proteasome system, rescues the expression level and membrane localization of the SERCA1 mutant in a heterologous cellular model. Cells cotransfected with the Ca2+ sensitive probe aequorin, show that the rescued SERCA1 mutant exhibits the same ability of wild-type to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis within cells. These data have been confirmed by those obtained ex vivo on adult skeletal muscle fibers from a biopsy from a pseudomyotonia affected subject. Our data show that the mutation generates a protein most likely corrupted in proper folding but not in catalytic activity. Rescue of mutated SERCA1 to sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane can re-establish resting cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and prevent the appearance of pathological signs of cattle pseudomyotonia.
We describe the ultrasonographic diagnosis of diplomyelia in a 40-day-old calf. The acoustic window was the lumbosacral junction, which, in cattle, corresponds to the L6-S1 intervertebral space and enables the evaluation of approximately 1 cm of the length of the spinal cord. Despite this limited length, this acoustic window yields good anatomic details and can be helpful in assessing anomalies of the caudal aspect of the spinal cord.
Herein, we describe a calf affected by cerebellar displacement and spina bifida, diagnosed by ultrasonography. A full-term, newborn female calf with paralysis of the pelvic limbs was examined. The dorsal skin at the sacral level contained a circular defect; this was subsequently diagnosed as spina bifida. Cerebellar displacement into the cervical vertebral canal was suspected because of the frequent association of these anomalies. Spinal ultrasound examination carried out at the level of the craniocervical junction allowed identification of herniation of the cerebellum, the caudal part of brain stem, and part of an occipital lobe into the cervical vertebral canal. The ultrasonographic diagnosis was confirmed as post mortem examination. This type of brain defect, associated with spina bifida, resembles the Arnold-Chiari malformation in humans.
Arachnomelia is a monogenic recessive defect of skeletal development in cattle. The causative mutation was previously mapped to a ?7 Mb interval on chromosome 5. Here we show that array-based sequence capture and massively parallel sequencing technology, combined with the typical family structure in livestock populations, facilitates the identification of the causative mutation. We re-sequenced the entire critical interval in a healthy partially inbred cow carrying one copy of the critical chromosome segment in its ancestral state and one copy of the same segment with the arachnomelia mutation, and we detected a single heterozygous position. The genetic makeup of several partially inbred cattle provides extremely strong support for the causality of this mutation. The mutation represents a single base insertion leading to a premature stop codon in the coding sequence of the SUOX gene and is perfectly associated with the arachnomelia phenotype. Our findings suggest an important role for sulfite oxidase in bone development.
Arachnomelia in Brown Swiss cattle is a monogenic autosomal recessive inherited congenital disorder of the skeletal system giving affected calves a spidery look (OMIA ID 000059). Over a period of 20 years 15 cases were sampled in the Swiss and Italian Brown cattle population. Pedigree data revealed that all affected individuals trace back to a single acknowledged carrier founder sire. A genome scan using 240 microsatellites spanning the 29 bovine autosomes showed homozygosity at three adjacent microsatellite markers on bovine Chr 5 in all cases. Linkage analysis confirmed the localization of the arachnomelia mutation in the region of the marker ETH10. Fine-mapping and haplotype analysis using a total of 34 markers in this region refined the critical region of the arachnomelia locus to a 7.19-Mb interval on bovine Chr 5. The disease-associated IBD haplotype was shared by 36 proven carrier animals and allows marker-assisted selection. As the corresponding human and mouse chromosome segments do not contain any clear functional candidate genes for this disorder, the mutation causing arachnomelia in the Brown Swiss cattle might help to identify an unknown gene in bone development.
Recently, a muscular disorder defined as "congenital pseudomyotonia" was described in Chianina cattle, one of the most important Italian cattle breeds for quality meat and leather. The clinical phenotype of this disease is characterized by an exercise-induced muscle contracture that prevents animals from performing muscular activities. On the basis of clinical symptoms, Chianina pseudomyotonia appeared related to human Brodys disease, a rare inherited disorder of skeletal muscle function that results from a sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA1) deficiency caused by a defect in the ATP2A1 gene that encodes SERCA1. SERCA1 is involved in transporting calcium from the cytosol to the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Recently, we identified the genetic defect underlying Chianina cattle pseudomyotonia. A missense mutation in exon 6 of the ATP2A1 gene, leading to an R164H substitution in the SERCA1 protein, was found. In this study, we provide biochemical evidence for a selective deficiency in SERCA1 protein levels in sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes from affected muscles, although mRNA levels are unaffected. The reduction of SERCA1 levels accounts for the reduced Ca(2+)-ATPase activity without any significant change in Ca(2+)-dependency. The loss of SERCA1 is not compensated for by the expression of the SERCA2 isoform. We believe that Chianina cattle pseudomyotonia might, therefore, be the true counterpart of human Brodys disease, and that bovine species might be used as a suitable animal model.
Bovine congenital pseudomyotonia (PMT) is an impairment of muscle relaxation induced by exercise preventing animals from performing rapid movements. Forms of recessively inherited PMT have been described in different cattle breeds caused by two independent mutations in ATP2A1 encoding a skeletal-muscle Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). We observed symptoms of congenital PMT in four related Romagnola beef cattle from Italy and evaluated SERCA1 activity and scanned ATP2A1 for possible causative mutations.
In the last decade breeders of Romagnola cattle observed an outbreak of a new congenital anomaly. This lethal multi-organ developmental dysplasia is mainly characterized by facial deformities, ascites and hepatic fibrosis. Affected stillborn calves were inbred to a single founder sire suggesting autosomal monogenic recessive inheritance. We localized the causative mutation to a 1.2 Mb interval on BTA 17 by genome-wide association and identical by descent mapping. A solution-based method for targeted DNA capture combined with massively parallel sequencing was used to analyze the entire critical region containing 24 genes. Homozygosity for two non-synonymous coding sequence variants affecting the RNF34 and KDM2B genes was detected by evaluating one affected calf. Here we show that the disease phenotype is associated with a KDM2B missense mutation (c.2503G>A) leading to an amino acid exchange (p.D835N) in an evolutionary strongly conserved domain. In addition, the genetic makeup of three inbred cattle strongly supports the causality of the KDM2B mutation. This report of a naturally-occurring spontaneous mutation of a JmjC domain containing histone demethylase gene provides evidence for their important role in the endo- and mesodermal organ development.
Tendon injuries, degenerative tendinopathies, and overuse tendinitis are common in races horses. Novel therapies aim to restore tendon functionality by means of cell-based therapy, growth factor delivery, and tissue engineering approaches. This study examined the use of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells derived from peripheral blood (PB-MSCs), platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and a combination of both for ameliorating experimental lesions on deep digital flexor tendons (DDFT) of Bergamasca sheep. In particular, testing the combination of blood-derived MSCs and PRP in an experimental animal model represents one of the few studies exploring a putative synergistic action of these treatments. Effectiveness of treatments was evaluated at 30 and 120 days comparing clinical, ultrasonographic, and histological features together with immunohistochemical expression of collagen types 1 and 3, and cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). Significant differences were found between treated groups and their corresponding controls (placebo) regarding tendon morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) composition. However, our results indicate that the combined use of PRP and MSCs did not produce an additive or synergistic regenerative response and highlighted the predominant effect of MSCs on tendon healing, enhanced tissue remodeling and improved structural organization.
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