JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A nonhuman primate toxicology and immunogenicity study evaluating aerosol delivery of AERAS-402/Ad35 Vaccine: Evidence for transient t cell responses in peripheral blood and robust sustained responses in the lungs.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine for the prevention of tuberculosis (TB), provides only limited protection against certain forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. While infection with Mtb can be treated with antibiotics, the therapy is expensive, toxic, and requires several months for treatment. In addition, the emergence of drug resistant strains limits the impact of antibiotics and underlines the importance of developing a more effective vaccine to control this disease. Given that pulmonary TB is the most common form of the disease, a vaccine capable of inducing lung-resident immunity may be advantageous for combating this infection. New advances in pulmonary delivery make this route of vaccination feasible and affordable. Here, we evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an aerosolized Ad35-based vaccine, AERAS-402, delivered to the lungs in nonhuman primates as part of a GLP acute and chronic toxicology and safety study. In this study, animals received three high doses (1 x 10 (11) vp) of AERAS-402 by inhalation via a nebulizer at 1-week intervals. Aerosol delivery of AERAS-402 resulted in an increase in relative lung weights as well as microscopic findings in the lungs, mediastinal lymph nodes, bronchus-associated lymphatic tissue, and the naso-oropharynx that were consistent with the induction of an immune response during the acute phase. These findings resolved by the chronic phase and were considered to be non-adverse. Furthermore, we observed transient vaccine-specific immune responses in the peripheral blood as well as sustained high-level polyfunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of vaccinated nonhuman primates. The data suggest that pulmonary delivery of Ad35-based vaccines can be safe and can induce potent lung-resident immunity.
Related JoVE Video
Ambient particulate matter air pollution in Mpererwe District, Kampala, Uganda: a pilot study.
J Environ Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Air quality in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, has deteriorated significantly in the past two decades. We made spot measurements in Mpererwe district for airborne particulate matter PM2.5 (fine particles) and coarse particles. PM was collected on Teflon-membrane filters and analyzed for mass, 51 elements, 3 anions, and 5 cations. Both fine and coarse particle concentrations were above 100?µg/m(3) in all the samples collected. Markers for crustal/soil (e.g., Si and Al) were the most abundant in the PM2.5 fraction, followed by primary combustion products from biomass burning and incinerator emissions (e.g., K and Cl). Over 90% of the measured PM2.5 mass can be explained by crustal species (41% and 59%) and carbonaceous aerosol (33%-55%). Crustal elements dominated the coarse particles collected from Kampala. The results of this pilot study are indicative of unhealthy air and suggest that exposure to ambient air in Kampala may increase the burden of environmentally induced cardiovascular, metabolic, and respiratory diseases including infections. Greater awareness and more extensive research are required to confirm our findings, to identify personal exposure and pollution sources, and to develop air quality management plans and policies to protect public health.
Related JoVE Video
Variability in bioreactivity linked to changes in size and zeta potential of diesel exhaust particles in human immune cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acting as fuel combustion catalysts to increase fuel economy, cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) nanoparticles have been used in Europe as diesel fuel additives (Envirox™). We attempted to examine the effects of particles emitted from a diesel engine burning either diesel (diesel exhaust particles, DEP) or diesel doped with various concentrations of CeO2 (DEP-Env) on innate immune responses in THP-1 and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Batches of DEP and DEP-Env were obtained on three separate occasions using identical collection and extraction protocols with the aim of determining the reproducibility of particles generated at different times. However, we observed significant differences in size and surface charge (zeta potential) of the DEP and DEP-Env across the three batches. We also observed that exposure of THP-1 cells and PBMC to identical concentrations of DEP and DEP-Env from the three batches resulted in statistically significant differences in bioreactivity as determined by IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IFN-?, and IL-12p40 mRNA (by qRT-PCR) and protein expression (by ELISPOT assays). Importantly, bioreactivity was noted in very tight ranges of DEP size (60 to 120 nm) and zeta potential (-37 to -41 mV). Thus, these physical properties of DEP and DEP-Env were found to be the primary determinants of the bioreactivity measured in this study. Our findings also point to the potential risk of over- or under- estimation of expected bioreactivity effects (and by inference of public health risks) from bulk DEP use without taking into account potential batch-to-batch variations in physical (and possibly chemical) properties.
Related JoVE Video
High-resolution analytical electron microscopy reveals cell culture media-induced changes to the chemistry of silver nanowires.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is a growing concern about the potential adverse effects on human health upon exposure to engineered silver nanomaterials (particles, wires, and plates). However, the majority of studies testing the toxicity of silver nanomaterials have examined nominally "as-synthesized" materials without considering the fate of the materials in biologically relevant fluids. Here, in-house silver nanowires (AgNWs) were prepared by a modified polyol process and were incubated in three cell culture media (DMEM, RPMI-1640, and DCCM-1) to examine the impact of AgNW-medium interactions on the physicochemical properties of the AgNWs. High-resolution analytical transmission electron microscopy revealed that Ag2S crystals form on the surface of AgNWs within 1 h of incubation in DCCM-1. In contrast, the incubation of AgNWs in RPMI-1640 or DMEM did not lead to sulfidation. When the DCCM-1 cell culture medium was separated into its small molecule solutes and salts and protein components, the AgNWs were found to sulfidize in the fraction containing small molecule solutes and salts but not in the fraction containing the protein component of the media. Further investigation showed the AgNWs did not readily sulfidize in the presence of isolated sulfur containing amino acids or proteins, such as cysteine or bovine serum albumin (BSA). The results demonstrate that the AgNWs can be transformed by the media before and during the incubation with cells, and therefore, the effects of cell culture media must be considered in the analysis of toxicity assays. Appropriate media and material controls must be in place to allow accurate predictions about the toxicity and, ultimately, the health risk of this commercially relevant class of nanomaterial.
Related JoVE Video
Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NO(x) (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NO(x), our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions.
Related JoVE Video
The stability of silver nanoparticles in a model of pulmonary surfactant.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The growing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in consumer products has raised concerns about their potential impact on the environment and human health. Whether AgNPs dissolve and release Ag(+) ions, or coarsen to form large aggregates, is critical in determining their potential toxicity. In this work, the stability of AgNPs in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), the major component of pulmonary surfactant, was investigated as a function of pH. Spherical, citrate-capped AgNPs with average diameters of 14 ± 1.6 nm (n = 200) were prepared by a chemical bath reduction. The kinetics of Ag(+) ion release was strongly pH-dependent. After 14 days of incubation in sodium perchlorate (NaClO4) or perchloric acid (HClO4) solutions, the total fraction of AgNPs dissolved varied from ?10% at pH 3, to ?2% at pH 5, with negligible dissolution at pH 7. A decrease in pH from 7 to 3 also promoted particle aggregation and coarsening. DPPC (100 mg·L(-1)) delayed the release of Ag(+) ions, but did not significantly alter the total amount of Ag(+) released after two weeks. In addition, DPPC improved the dispersion of the AgNPs and inhibited aggregation and coarsening. TEM images revealed that the AgNPs were coated with a DPPC layer serving as a semipermeable layer. Hence, lung lining fluid, particularly DPPC, can modify the aggregation state and kinetics of Ag(+) ion release of inhaled AgNPs in the lung. These observations have important implications for predicting the potential reactivity of AgNPs in the lung and the environment.
Related JoVE Video
Exercise and sleep deprivation do not change cytokine expression levels in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A major hypothesis regarding the cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is immune dysregulation, thought to be reflected in upregulated proinflammatory cytokines leading to the symptoms that are characteristic of this illness. Because the symptoms worsen with physical exertion or sleep loss, we hypothesized that we could use these stressors to magnify the underlying potential pathogenic abnormalities in the cytokine systems of people with CFS. We conducted repeat blood sampling for cytokine levels from healthy subjects and CFS patients during both postexercise and total sleep deprivation nights and assayed for protein levels in the blood samples, mRNA activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), and function in resting and stimulated PBLs. We found that these environmental manipulations did not produce clinically significant upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines. These data do not support an important role of immune dysregulation in the genesis of stress-induced worsening of CFS.
Related JoVE Video
Sulfidation of silver nanowires inside human alveolar epithelial cells: a potential detoxification mechanism.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Silver nanowires (AgNWs) are being developed for use in optoelectronics. However before widespread usage, it is crucial to determine their potential effects on human health. It is accepted that Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) exert toxic effects by releasing Ag(+) ions, but much less is known about whether Ag(+) reacts with compounds, or any downstream bioactive effects of transformed AgNPs. Analytical high-resolution transmission electron microscopy has been employed to elucidate cellular uptake and reactivity of AgNWs inside human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cells. AgNWs were observed in the cytoplasm and membrane-bound vesicles, and precipitation of Ag2S within the cell occurred after 1 h exposure. Cell viability studies showed no evidence of cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species were not observed on exposure of cells to AgNWs. We suggest that Ag2S formation acts as a trap for free Ag(+), significantly limiting short-term toxicological effects - with important consequences for the safety of Ag-nanomaterials to human health.
Related JoVE Video
Human lung immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: insights into pathogenesis and protection.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study of human pulmonary immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) provides a unique window into the biological interactions between the human host and M.tb within the broncho-alveolar microenvironment, the site of natural infection. Studies of bronchoalveolar cells (BACs) and lung tissue evaluate innate, adaptive, and regulatory immune mechanisms that collectively contribute to immunological protection or its failure. In aerogenically M.tb-exposed healthy persons lung immune responses reflect early host pathogen interactions that may contribute to sterilization, the development of latent M.tb infection, or progression to active disease. Studies in these persons may allow the identification of biomarkers of protective immunity before the initiation of inflammatory and disease-associated immunopathological changes. In healthy close contacts of patients with tuberculosis (TB) and during active pulmonary TB, immune responses are compartmentalized to the lungs and characterized by an exuberant helper T-cell type 1 response, which as suggested by recent evidence is counteracted by local suppressive immune mechanisms. Here we discuss how exploring human lung immunity may provide insights into disease progression and mechanisms of failure of immunological protection at the site of the initial host-pathogen interaction. These findings may also aid in the identification of new biomarkers of protective immunity that are urgently needed for the development of new and the improvement of current TB vaccines, adjuvant immunotherapies, and diagnostic technologies. To facilitate further work in this area, methodological and procedural approaches for bronchoalveolar lavage studies and their limitations are also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
The immunology of tuberculosis: from bench to bedside.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is an international public health priority and kills almost two million people annually. TB is out of control in Africa due to increasing poverty and HIV coinfection, and drug-resistant TB threatens to destabilize TB control efforts in several regions of the world. Existing diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions for TB are suboptimal. Thus, new vaccines, immunotherapeutic interventions and diagnostic tools are urgently required to facilitate TB control efforts. An improved understanding of the immunopathogenesis of TB can facilitate the identification of correlates of immune protection, the design of effective vaccines, the rational selection of immunotherapeutic agents, the evaluation of new drug candidates, and drive the development of new immunodiagnostic tools. Here we review the immunology of TB with a focus on aspects that are clinically and therapeutically relevant. An immunologically orientated approach to tackling TB can only succeed with concurrent efforts to alleviate poverty and reduce the global burden of HIV.
Related JoVE Video
Cytokines across the night in chronic fatigue syndrome with and without fibromyalgia.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) are consistent with cytokine dysregulation. This has led to the hypothesis of immune dysregulation as the cause of this illness. To further test this hypothesis, we did repeated blood sampling for cytokines while patients and matched healthy controls slept in the sleep lab. Because no one method for assaying cytokines is acknowledged to be better than another, we assayed for protein in serum, message in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs), and function in resting and stimulated PBLs. We found no evidence of proinflammatory cytokine upregulation. Instead, in line with some of our earlier studies, we did find some evidence to support a role for an increase in interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Although the changes were small, they may contribute to the common complaint in CFS patients of disrupted sleep.
Related JoVE Video
Differential expression of Toll-like receptors on human alveolar macrophages and autologous peripheral monocytes.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are critical components in the regulation of pulmonary immune responses and the recognition of respiratory pathogens such as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (M.tb). Through examination of human alveolar macrophages this study attempts to better define the expression profiles of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 in the human lung compartment which are as yet still poorly defined.
Related JoVE Video
Compartmentalized bronchoalveolar IFN-gamma and IL-12 response in human pulmonary tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human tuberculosis (TB) principally involves the lungs, where local immunity impacts on the load of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). Because concomitants of local Th1 immunity are still under-explored in humans, we characterized immune responses in bronchoalveolar cells (BACs) and systemically in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in persons with active pulmonary TB and in healthy community controls. PPD- and live M.tb-induced IFN-gamma-production were observed in CD4(+), CD8(+), gammadeltaTCR(+), and CD56(+) alveolar T cell subpopulations and NK cells (CD3(-)CD56(+)). IFN-gamma-producing CD4(+) T cells (mostly CD45RO(+)) were more abundant (p<0.05). M.tb-induced IL-12p70, but interestingly also IL-4, was increased (p<0.05) in BACs from TB patients. Constitutive expression of IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2 mRNA in BACs and PBMCs and IFN-gammaR1 in BACs was similar in both study groups. Data were normalized to account for differences in proportions of alveolar T cells and macrophages in the study groups. IFN-gamma-production and its induction by IL-12R engagement occur virtually unimpaired in the bronchoalveolar spaces of patients with pulmonary TB. The reasons for the apparent failure to control M. tuberculosis growth during active pulmonary TB disease is unknown but could be the expression of locally acting immunosuppressive mechanisms that subvert the antimycobacterial effects of IFN-gamma.
Related JoVE Video
Suppression of the NF-?B pathway by diesel exhaust particles impairs human antimycobacterial immunity.
J. Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological studies suggest that chronic exposure to air pollution increases susceptibility to respiratory infections, including tuberculosis in humans. A possible link between particulate air pollutant exposure and antimycobacterial immunity has not been explored in human primary immune cells. We hypothesized that exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP), a major component of urban fine particulate matter, suppresses antimycobacterial human immune effector cell functions by modulating TLR-signaling pathways and NF-?B activation. We show that DEP and H37Ra, an avirulent laboratory strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, were both taken up by the same peripheral human blood monocytes. To examine the effects of DEP on M. tuberculosis-induced production of cytokines, PBMC were stimulated with DEP and M. tuberculosis or purified protein derivative. The production of M. tuberculosis and purified protein derivative-induced IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 was reduced in a DEP dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 remained unchanged. Furthermore, DEP stimulation prior to M. tuberculosis infection altered the expression of TLR3, -4, -7, and -10 mRNAs and of a subset of M. tuberculosis-induced host genes including inhibition of expression of many NF-?B (e.g., CSF3, IFNG, IFNA, IFNB, IL1A, IL6, and NFKBIA) and IFN regulatory factor (e.g., IFNG, IFNA1, IFNB1, and CXCL10) pathway target genes. We propose that DEP downregulate M. tuberculosis-induced host gene expression via MyD88-dependent (IL6, IL1A, and PTGS2) as well as MyD88-independent (IFNA, IFNB) pathways. Prestimulation of PBMC with DEP suppressed the expression of proinflammatory mediators upon M. tuberculosis infection, inducing a hyporesponsive cellular state. Therefore, DEP alters crucial components of antimycobacterial host immune responses, providing a possible mechanism by which air pollutants alter antimicrobial immunity.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.