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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multisystem Physiologic Impairments and Changes in Gait Speed of Older Adults.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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Slowed gait is an important health indicator in older adults but a single identifiable cause is often lacking. We assessed whether a summary index measuring impairments across multiple physiologic systems was associated with slowed gait in older individuals.
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Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations Predict Incident Depression in Well-Functioning Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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Cross-sectional studies suggest that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) may be a risk factor for depression; however, there are few prospective studies. We examined the association between 25(OH)D and depressive symptoms in community-dwelling persons aged 70-79 years in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study (n = 2598).
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Sensory and Motor Peripheral Nerve Function and Longitudinal Changes in Quadriceps Strength.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Poor peripheral nerve function is common in older adults and may be a risk factor for strength decline, although this has not been assessed longitudinally.
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Age-related variations in the methylome associated with gene expression in human monocytes and T cells.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Age-related variations in DNA methylation have been reported; however, the functional relevance of these differentially methylated sites (age-dMS) are unclear. Here we report potentially functional age-dMS, defined as age- and cis-gene expression-associated methylation sites (age-eMS), identified by integrating genome-wide CpG methylation and gene expression profiles collected ex vivo from circulating T cells (227 CD4+ samples) and monocytes (1,264 CD14+ samples, age range: 55-94 years). None of the age-eMS detected in 227 T-cell samples are detectable in 1,264 monocyte samples, in contrast to the majority of age-dMS detected in T cells that replicated in monocytes. Age-eMS tend to be hypomethylated with older age, located in predicted enhancers and preferentially linked to expression of antigen processing and presentation genes. These results identify and characterize potentially functional age-related methylation in human T cells and monocytes, and provide novel insights into the role age-dMS may have in the aging process.
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Strength and Function Response to Clinical Interventions of Older Women Categorized by Weakness and Low Lean Mass Using Classifications From the Foundation for the National Institute of Health Sarcopenia Project.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project developed data-driven cut-points for clinically meaningful weakness and low lean body mass. This analysis describes strength and function response to interventions based on these classifications.
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Vitamin D Insufficiency and Abnormal Hemoglobin A1c in Black and White Older Persons.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Although vitamin D has been mechanistically linked to insulin secretion and sensitivity, it remains unclear whether low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels confer an increased risk of impaired glucose metabolism. We evaluated the relationship between vitamin D insufficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D < 20ng/mL) and abnormal hemoglobin A1c (A1c) (?6.5%) in community-dwelling older persons and examined whether this relationship differed according to race.
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Respirometric Profiling of Muscle Mitochondria and Blood Cells Are Associated With Differences in Gait Speed Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Gait speed provides an integrated measure of physical ability that is predictive of morbidity, disability, and mortality in older adults. Energy demands associated with walking suggest that mitochondrial bioenergetics may play a role in gait speed. Here, we examined the relationship between gait speed and skeletal muscle mitochondrial bioenergetics, and further evaluated whether blood-based bioenergetic profiling might have similar associations with gait speed.
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Weight change, body composition, and risk of mobility disability and mortality in older adults: a population-based cohort study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To examine associations between weight change, body composition, risk of mobility disability, and mortality in older adults.
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Increased Cardiovascular Stiffness and Impaired Age-related Functional Status.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Our objective was to determine if increased cardiovascular (CV) stiffness is associated with disability in middle-aged and older adults at risk for congestive heart failure. CV stiffness (brachial pulse pressure/left ventricular stroke volume indexed to body surface area) and total disability (the summed assessment of activities of daily living, mobility, and instrumental activities of daily living) were measured in 445 individuals. A subset of 109 randomly selected individuals also underwent physical function testing. Total disability was associated with CV stiffness (p = .01), driven by an association with mobility (p = .005), but not activities of daily living (p = .13) or instrumental activities of daily living (p = .61). After accounting for age, these correlations remained significant for men (p = .04), but not for women. CV stiffness was also associated with increased 400-m walk time (p = .02). In middle-aged and elderly men at risk for congestive heart failure, CV stiffness is associated with decreased mobility and physical function, and increased overall disability.
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Association of vitamin D status with arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk: a mendelian randomisation study.
Karani S Vimaleswaran, Alana Cavadino, Diane J Berry, , Rolf Jorde, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Chen Lu, Alexessander Couto Alves, Hiddo J Lambers Heerspink, Emmi Tikkanen, Joel Eriksson, Andrew Wong, Massimo Mangino, Kathleen A Jablonski, Ilja M Nolte, Denise K Houston, Tarunveer Singh Ahluwalia, Peter J van der Most, Dorota Pasko, Lina Zgaga, Elisabeth Thiering, Veronique Vitart, Ross M Fraser, Jennifer E Huffman, Rudolf A de Boer, Ben Schöttker, Kai-Uwe Saum, Mark I McCarthy, Josée Dupuis, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Sylvain Sebert, Anneli Pouta, Jaana Laitinen, Marcus E Kleber, Gerjan Navis, Mattias Lorentzon, Karen Jameson, Nigel Arden, Jackie A Cooper, Jayshree Acharya, Rebecca Hardy, Olli Raitakari, Samuli Ripatti, Liana K Billings, Jari Lahti, Clive Osmond, Brenda W Penninx, Lars Rejnmark, Kurt K Lohman, Lavinia Paternoster, Ronald P Stolk, Dena G Hernandez, Liisa Byberg, Emil Hagström, Håkan Melhus, Erik Ingelsson, Dan Mellström, Osten Ljunggren, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Stela McLachlan, Evropi Theodoratou, Carla M T Tiesler, Antti Jula, Pau Navarro, Alan F Wright, Ozren Polašek, James F Wilson, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Joachim Heinrich, Harry Campbell, Jacqueline F Price, Magnus Karlsson, Lars Lind, Karl Michaëlsson, Stefania Bandinelli, Timothy M Frayling, Catharina A Hartman, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Bente Lomholt Langdahl, Johan G Eriksson, Jose C Florez, Tim D Spector, Terho Lehtimäki, Diana Kuh, Steve E Humphries, Cyrus Cooper, Claes Ohlsson, Winfried März, Martin H de Borst, Meena Kumari, Mika Kivimäki, Thomas J Wang, Chris Power, Hermann Brenner, Guri Grimnes, Pim van der Harst, Harold Snieder, Aroon D Hingorani, Stefan Pilz, John C Whittaker, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Elina Hyppönen.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration is associated with high arterial blood pressure and hypertension risk, but whether this association is causal is unknown. We used a mendelian randomisation approach to test whether 25(OH)D concentration is causally associated with blood pressure and hypertension risk.
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Sleep-wake disturbances in sedentary community-dwelling elderly adults with functional limitations.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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To evaluate sleep-wake disturbances in sedentary community-dwelling elderly adults with functional limitations.
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Effect of structured physical activity on prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: the LIFE study randomized clinical trial.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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In older adults reduced mobility is common and is an independent risk factor for morbidity, hospitalization, disability, and mortality. Limited evidence suggests that physical activity may help prevent mobility disability; however, there are no definitive clinical trials examining whether physical activity prevents or delays mobility disability.
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Genome-wide association analysis identifies six new loci associated with forced vital capacity.
Daan W Loth, María Soler Artigas, Sina A Gharib, Louise V Wain, Nora Franceschini, Beate Koch, Tess D Pottinger, Albert Vernon Smith, Qing Duan, Chris Oldmeadow, Mi Kyeong Lee, David P Strachan, Alan L James, Jennifer E Huffman, Veronique Vitart, Adaikalavan Ramasamy, Nicholas J Wareham, Jaakko Kaprio, Xin-Qun Wang, Holly Trochet, Mika Kähönen, Claudia Flexeder, Eva Albrecht, Lorna M Lopez, Kim de Jong, Bharat Thyagarajan, Alexessander Couto Alves, Stefan Enroth, Ernst Omenaas, Peter K Joshi, Tove Fall, Ana Viñuela, Lenore J Launer, Laura R Loehr, Myriam Fornage, Guo Li, Jemma B Wilk, Wenbo Tang, Ani Manichaikul, Lies Lahousse, Tamara B Harris, Kari E North, Alicja R Rudnicka, Jennie Hui, Xiangjun Gu, Thomas Lumley, Alan F Wright, Nicholas D Hastie, Susan Campbell, Rajesh Kumar, Isabelle Pin, Robert A Scott, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Ida Surakka, Yongmei Liu, Elizabeth G Holliday, Holger Schulz, Joachim Heinrich, Gail Davies, Judith M Vonk, Mary Wojczynski, Anneli Pouta, Asa Johansson, Sarah H Wild, Erik Ingelsson, Fernando Rivadeneira, Henry Völzke, Pirro G Hysi, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Alanna C Morrison, Jerome I Rotter, Wei Gao, Dirkje S Postma, Wendy B White, Stephen S Rich, Albert Hofman, Thor Aspelund, David Couper, Lewis J Smith, Bruce M Psaty, Kurt Lohman, Esteban G Burchard, André G Uitterlinden, Melissa Garcia, Bonnie R Joubert, Wendy L McArdle, A Bill Musk, Nadia Hansel, Susan R Heckbert, Lina Zgaga, Joyce B J van Meurs, Pau Navarro, Igor Rudan, Yeon-Mok Oh, Susan Redline, Deborah L Jarvis, Jing Hua Zhao, Taina Rantanen, George T O'Connor, Samuli Ripatti, Rodney J Scott, Stefan Karrasch, Harald Grallert, Nathan C Gaddis, John M Starr, Cisca Wijmenga, Ryan L Minster, David J Lederer, Juha Pekkanen, Ulf Gyllensten, Harry Campbell, Andrew P Morris, Sven Gläser, Christopher J Hammond, Kristin M Burkart, John Beilby, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Vilmundur Gudnason, Dana B Hancock, O Dale Williams, Ozren Polašek, Tatijana Zemunik, Ivana Kolčić, Marcy F Petrini, Matthias Wjst, Woo Jin Kim, David J Porteous, Generation Scotland, Blair H Smith, Anne Viljanen, Markku Heliövaara, John R Attia, Ian Sayers, Regina Hampel, Christian Gieger, Ian J Deary, H Marike Boezen, Anne Newman, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, James F Wilson, Lars Lind, Bruno H Stricker, Alexander Teumer, Timothy D Spector, Erik Melén, Marjolein J Peters, Leslie A Lange, R Graham Barr, Ken R Bracke, Fien M Verhamme, Joohon Sung, Pieter S Hiemstra, Patricia A Cassano, Akshay Sood, Caroline Hayward, Josée Dupuis, Ian P Hall, Guy G Brusselle, Martin D Tobin, Stephanie J London.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Forced vital capacity (FVC), a spirometric measure of pulmonary function, reflects lung volume and is used to diagnose and monitor lung diseases. We performed genome-wide association study meta-analysis of FVC in 52,253 individuals from 26 studies and followed up the top associations in 32,917 additional individuals of European ancestry. We found six new regions associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) with FVC in or near EFEMP1, BMP6, MIR129-2-HSD17B12, PRDM11, WWOX and KCNJ2. Two loci previously associated with spirometric measures (GSTCD and PTCH1) were related to FVC. Newly implicated regions were followed up in samples from African-American, Korean, Chinese and Hispanic individuals. We detected transcripts for all six newly implicated genes in human lung tissue. The new loci may inform mechanisms involved in lung development and the pathogenesis of restrictive lung disease.
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Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain diffusion tensor imaging in adults over 80 years of age.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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A positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and white matter integrity has been consistently reported in older adults. However, it is unknown whether this association exists in adults over 80 with a range of chronic disease conditions and low physical activity participation, which can influence both CRF and brain health. This study examined whether higher CRF was associated with greater microstructural integrity of gray and white matter in areas related to memory and information processing in adults over 80 and examined moderating effects of chronic diseases and physical activity. CRF was measured as time to walk 400m as quickly as possible with concurrent 3T diffusion tensor imaging in 164 participants (57.1% female, 40.3% black). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was computed for cingulum, uncinate and superior longitudinal fasciculi. Mean diffusivity (MD) was computed for dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, parahippocampus, and entorhinal cortex. Moderating effects were tested using hierarchical regression models. Higher CRF was associated with higher FA in cingulum and lower MD in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (?, sex-adjusted p: -0.182, 0.019; 0.165, 0.035; and 0.220, 0.006, respectively). Hypertension attenuated the association with MD in entorhinal cortex. Moderating effects of chronic diseases and physical activity in walking and climbing stairs on these associations were not significant. The association of higher CRF with greater microstructural integrity in selected subcortical areas appears robust, even among very old adults with a range of chronic diseases. Intervention studies should investigate whether increasing CRF can preserve memory and information processing by improving microstructure and potential effects of hypertension management.
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Can change in prolonged walking be inferred from a short test of gait speed among older adults who are initially well-functioning?
Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The ability to walk for short and prolonged periods of time is often measured with separate walking tests. It is unclear whether decline in the 2-minute walk coincides with decline in a shorter 20-m walk among older adults.
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Pathways linking regional hyperintensities in the brain and slower gait.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are involved in the evolution of impaired mobility and executive functions. Executive functions and mobility are also associated. Thus, WMHs may impair mobility directly, by disrupting mobility-related circuits, or indirectly, by disrupting circuits responsible for executive functions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying impaired mobility in late life will increase our capacity to develop effective interventions.
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Criteria for clinically relevant weakness and low lean mass and their longitudinal association with incident mobility impairment and mortality: the foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) sarcopenia project.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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This analysis sought to determine the associations of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project criteria for weakness and low lean mass with likelihood for mobility impairment (gait speed ? 0.8 m/s) and mortality. Providing validity for these criteria is essential for research and clinical evaluation.
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Cutpoints for low appendicular lean mass that identify older adults with clinically significant weakness.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Low lean mass is potentially clinically important in older persons, but criteria have not been empirically validated. As part of the FNIH (Foundation for the National Institutes of Health) Sarcopenia Project, this analysis sought to identify cutpoints in lean mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry that discriminate the presence or absence of weakness (defined in a previous report in the series as grip strength <26kg in men and <16kg in women).
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Grip strength cutpoints for the identification of clinically relevant weakness.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Weakness is common and contributes to disability, but no consensus exists regarding a strength cutpoint to identify persons at high risk. This analysis, conducted as part of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project, sought to identify cutpoints that distinguish weakness associated with mobility impairment, defined as gait speed less than 0.8 m/s.
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The FNIH sarcopenia project: rationale, study description, conference recommendations, and final estimates.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Low muscle mass and weakness are common and potentially disabling in older adults, but in order to become recognized as a clinical condition, criteria for diagnosis should be based on clinically relevant thresholds and independently validated. The Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Biomarkers Consortium Sarcopenia Project used an evidence-based approach to develop these criteria. Initial findings were presented at a conference in May 2012, which generated recommendations that guided additional analyses to determine final recommended criteria. Details of the Project and its findings are presented in four accompanying manuscripts.
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Graph theory analysis of functional brain networks and mobility disability in older adults.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The brain's structural integrity is associated with mobility function in older adults. Changes in function may be evident earlier than changes in structure and may be more directly related to mobility. Therefore, we assessed whether functional brain networks varied with mobility function in older adults.
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Respiratory impairment and dyspnea and their associations with physical inactivity and mobility in sedentary community-dwelling older persons.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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To evaluate the prevalence of respiratory impairment and dyspnea and their associations with objectively measured physical inactivity and performance-based mobility in sedentary older persons.
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Relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cognitive function in older adults: the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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To examine the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and cognitive performance over time in older adults in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.
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Serum bicarbonate concentrations and kidney disease progression in community-living elders: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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In populations with prevalent chronic kidney disease (CKD), lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with more rapid CKD progression, but whether lower bicarbonate levels also are associated with risk of incident estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and CKD progression among community-living persons with predominantly preserved kidney function is unknown.
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Long-term impact of behavioral weight loss intervention on cognitive function.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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It is unknown whether intentional weight loss provides long-term benefits for cognitive function.
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Calcium/vitamin D supplementation, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and cholesterol profiles in the Women's Health Initiative calcium/vitamin D randomized trial.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate whether increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) concentrations, in response to calcium/vitamin D (CaD) supplementation, are associated with improved lipids in postmenopausal women.
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Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of LDL cholesterol response to statins.
Iris Postmus, Stella Trompet, Harshal A Deshmukh, Michael R Barnes, Xiaohui Li, Helen R Warren, Daniel I Chasman, Kaixin Zhou, Benoit J Arsenault, Louise A Donnelly, Kerri L Wiggins, Christy L Avery, Paula Griffin, QiPing Feng, Kent D Taylor, Guo Li, Daniel S Evans, Albert V Smith, Catherine E de Keyser, Andrew D Johnson, Anton J M de Craen, David J Stott, Brendan M Buckley, Ian Ford, Rudi G J Westendorp, P Eline Slagboom, Naveed Sattar, Patricia B Munroe, Peter Sever, Neil Poulter, Alice Stanton, Denis C Shields, Eoin O'Brien, Sue Shaw-Hawkins, Y-D Ida Chen, Deborah A Nickerson, Joshua D Smith, Marie Pierre Dubé, S Matthijs Boekholdt, G Kees Hovingh, John J P Kastelein, Paul M McKeigue, John Betteridge, Andrew Neil, Paul N Durrington, Alex Doney, Fiona Carr, Andrew Morris, Mark I McCarthy, Leif Groop, Emma Ahlqvist, , Joshua C Bis, Kenneth Rice, Nicholas L Smith, Thomas Lumley, Eric A Whitsel, Til Stürmer, Eric Boerwinkle, Julius S Ngwa, Christopher J O'Donnell, Ramachandran S Vasan, Wei-Qi Wei, Russell A Wilke, Ching-Ti Liu, Fangui Sun, Xiuqing Guo, Susan R Heckbert, Wendy Post, Nona Sotoodehnia, Alice M Arnold, Jeanette M Stafford, Jingzhong Ding, David M Herrington, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Leonore J Launer, Tamara B Harris, Audrey Y Chu, Franco Giulianini, Jean G MacFadyen, Bryan J Barratt, Fredrik Nyberg, Bruno H Stricker, André G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Fernando Rivadeneira, Valur Emilsson, Oscar H Franco, Paul M Ridker, Vilmundur Gudnason, Yongmei Liu, Joshua C Denny, Christie M Ballantyne, Jerome I Rotter, L Adrienne Cupples, Bruce M Psaty, Colin N A Palmer, Jean-Claude Tardif, Helen M Colhoun, Graham Hitman, Ronald M Krauss, J Wouter Jukema, Mark J Caulfield.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated subjects. We validate the most promising signals in a further 22,318 statin recipients and identify two loci, SORT1/CELSR2/PSRC1 and SLCO1B1, not previously identified in GWAS. Moreover, we confirm the previously described associations with APOE and LPA. Our findings advance the understanding of the pharmacogenetic architecture of statin response.
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Physical activity predicts microstructural integrity in memory-related networks in very old adults.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Although the beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) on memory and executive function are well established in older adults, little is known about the relationship between PA and brain microstructure and the contributions of physical functional limitations and chronic diseases. This study examined whether higher PA would be longitudinally associated with greater microstructural integrity in memory- and executive function-related networks and whether these associations would be independent of physical function and chronic diseases.
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Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) as risk markers for heart failure in older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Kidney damage and reduced kidney function are potent risk factors for heart failure, but existing studies are limited to assessing albuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We evaluated the associations of levels of urinary biomarkers of kidney tubular injury (interleukin 18 [IL-18] and kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1]) with future risk of heart failure.
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Incident heart failure in relation to vascular disease: insights from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The contribution of heart failure (HF) unrelated to vascular disease to the overall HF burden in older adults is not well characterized. This was investigated in this study.
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Macular pigment optical density is related to cognitive function in older people.
Age Ageing
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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the xanthophylls lutein (L) and zeaxanthin (Z) exist in relatively high concentration in multiple central nervous tissues (e.g. cortex and neural retina). L + Z in macula (i.e. macular pigment, MP) are thought to serve multiple functions, including protection and improvement of visual performance. Also, L + Z in the macula are related to L + Z in the cortex.
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Large-scale genome-wide association studies and meta-analyses of longitudinal change in adult lung function.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci influencing cross-sectional lung function, but less is known about genes influencing longitudinal change in lung function.
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Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptors and Heart Failure Risk in Older Adults: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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-Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) levels are associated with risk for heart failure (HF). The soluble TNF type-1 (sTNF-R1) and type-2 (sTNF-R2) receptors are elevated in patients with manifest HF, but whether they are associated with risk for incident HF is unclear.
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Biomarker-calibrated protein intake and physical function in the Womens Health Initiative.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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To determine whether preservation of physical function with aging may be partially met through modification in dietary protein intake.
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Partially ordered mixed hidden Markov model for the disablement process of older adults.
J Am Stat Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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At both the individual and societal levels, the health and economic burden of disability in older adults is enormous in developed countries, including the U.S. Recent studies have revealed that the disablement process in older adults often comprises episodic periods of impaired functioning and periods that are relatively free of disability, amid a secular and natural trend of decline in functioning. Rather than an irreversible, progressive event that is analogous to a chronic disease, disability is better conceptualized and mathematically modeled as states that do not necessarily follow a strict linear order of good-to-bad. Statistical tools, including Markov models, which allow bidirectional transition between states, and random effects models, which allow individual-specific rate of secular decline, are pertinent. In this paper, we propose a mixed effects, multivariate, hidden Markov model to handle partially ordered disability states. The model generalizes the continuation ratio model for ordinal data in the generalized linear model literature and provides a formal framework for testing the effects of risk factors and/or an intervention on the transitions between different disability states. Under a generalization of the proportional odds ratio assumption, the proposed model circumvents the problem of a potentially large number of parameters when the number of states and the number of covariates are substantial. We describe a maximum likelihood method for estimating the partially ordered, mixed effects model and show how the model can be applied to a longitudinal data set that consists of N = 2,903 older adults followed for 10 years in the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. We further statistically test the effects of various risk factors upon the probabilities of transition into various severe disability states. The result can be used to inform geriatric and public health science researchers who study the disablement process.
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Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.
Ching-Ti Liu, Keri L Monda, Kira C Taylor, Leslie Lange, Ellen W Demerath, Walter Palmas, Mary K Wojczynski, Jaclyn C Ellis, Mara Z Vitolins, Simin Liu, George J Papanicolaou, Marguerite R Irvin, Luting Xue, Paula J Griffin, Michael A Nalls, Adebowale Adeyemo, Jiankang Liu, Guo Li, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Wei-Min Chen, Fang Chen, Brian E Henderson, Robert C Millikan, Christine B Ambrosone, Sara S Strom, Xiuqing Guo, Jeanette S Andrews, Yan V Sun, Thomas H Mosley, Lisa R Yanek, Daniel Shriner, Talin Haritunians, Jerome I Rotter, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Megan Smith, Lynn Rosenberg, Josyf Mychaleckyj, Uma Nayak, Ida Spruill, W Timothy Garvey, Curtis Pettaway, Sarah Nyante, Elisa V Bandera, Angela F Britton, Alan B Zonderman, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Jingzhong Ding, Kurt Lohman, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Wei Zhao, Patricia A Peyser, Sharon L R Kardia, Edmond Kabagambe, Ulrich Broeckel, Guanjie Chen, Jie Zhou, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Marian L Neuhouser, Evadnie Rampersaud, Bruce Psaty, Charles Kooperberg, JoAnn E Manson, Lewis H Kuller, Heather M Ochs-Balcom, Karen C Johnson, Lara Sucheston, José M Ordovás, Julie R Palmer, Christopher A Haiman, Barbara McKnight, Barbara V Howard, Diane M Becker, Lawrence F Bielak, Yongmei Liu, Matthew A Allison, Struan F A Grant, Gregory L Burke, Sanjay R Patel, Pamela J Schreiner, Ingrid B Borecki, Michele K Evans, Herman Taylor, Michèle M Sale, Virginia Howard, Christopher S Carlson, Charles N Rotimi, Mary Cushman, Tamara B Harris, Alexander P Reiner, L Adrienne Cupples, Kari E North, Caroline S Fox.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6) were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8) for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8) for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8); RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8)). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept that there are fat distribution loci that are independent of generalized adiposity.
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Pericardial adipose tissue and coronary artery calcification in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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To examine the relationship of pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) with coronary artery calcification in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
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Modifiable risk factors for pneumonia requiring hospitalization of community-dwelling older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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To identify novel modifiable risk factors, focusing on oral hygiene, for pneumonia requiring hospitalization of community-dwelling older adults.
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Epidemiology and long-term clinical and biologic risk factors for pneumonia in community-dwelling older Americans: analysis of three cohorts.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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Preventing pneumonia requires better understanding of incidence, mortality, and long-term clinical and biologic risk factors, particularly in younger individuals.
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Association between circulating vitamin K1 and coronary calcium progression in community-dwelling adults: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Animal studies have shown that vitamin K treatment reduced vascular calcification, but human data are limited.
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Adipose tissue density, a novel biomarker predicting mortality risk in older adults.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Knowledge of adipose composition in relation to mortality may help delineate inconsistent relationships between obesity and mortality in old age. We evaluated relationships between abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) density, mortality, biomarkers, and characteristics.
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Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants.
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Age-related changes of hyoid bone position in healthy older adults with aspiration.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Aspiration, the passage of a bolus below the vocal folds, increases morbidity and mortality in the elderly by increasing the risk of aspiration pneumonia and other conditions. We hypothesized that altered position of the hyoid bone associated with aging may negatively affect airway protection during swallowing (i.e., aspiration) in older adults.
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Genetic variation in antioxidant enzymes, cigarette smoking, and longitudinal change in lung function.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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Antioxidant enzymes play an important role in the defense against oxidative stress in the lung and in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Sequence variation in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes may alter susceptibility to COPD by affecting longitudinal change in lung function in adults. We genotyped 384 sequence variants in 56 candidate genes in 1281 African American and 1794 European American elderly adults in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study. Single-marker associations and gene-by-smoking interactions with rate of change in FEV? and FEV?/FVC were evaluated using linear mixed-effects models, stratified by race/ethnicity. In European Americans, rs17883901 in GCLC was statistically significantly associated with rate of change in FEV?/FVC; the recessive genotype (TT) was associated with a 0.9% per year steeper decline (P = 4.50 × 10(-5)). Statistically significant gene-by-smoking interactions were observed for variants in two genes in European Americans: the minor allele of rs2297765 in mGST3 attenuated the accelerated decline in FEV?/FVC in smokers by 0.45% per year (P = 1.13 × 10(-4)); for participants with greater baseline smoking pack-years, the minor allele of rs2073192 in IDH3B was associated with an accelerated decline in FEV?/FVC (P = 2.10 × 10(-4)). For both genes, nominally significant interactions (P < 0.01) were observed at the gene level in African Americans (P = 0.007 and 4.60 × 10(-4), respectively). Nominally significant evidence of association was observed for variants in SOD3 and GLRX2 in multiple analyses. This study identifies two novel genes associated with longitudinal lung function phenotypes in both African and European Americans and confirms a prior finding for GCLC. These findings suggest novel mechanisms and molecular targets for future research and advance the understanding of genetic determinants of lung function and COPD risk.
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Geriatric assessment predicts survival for older adults receiving induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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We investigated the predictive value of geriatric assessment (GA) on overall survival (OS) for older adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Consecutive patients ? 60 years with newly diagnosed AML and planned intensive chemotherapy were enrolled at a single institution. Pretreatment GA included evaluation of cognition, depression, distress, physical function (PF) (self-reported and objectively measured), and comorbidity. Objective PF was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, timed 4-m walk, chair stands, standing balance) and grip strength. Cox proportional hazards models were fit for each GA measure as a predictor of OS. Among 74 patients, the mean age was 70 years, and 78.4% had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score ? 1. OS was significantly shorter for participants who screened positive for impairment in cognition and objectively measured PF. Adjusting for age, gender, ECOG score, cytogenetic risk group, myelodysplastic syndrome, and hemoglobin, impaired cognition (Modified Mini-Mental State Exam < 77) and impaired objective PF (SPPB < 9) were associated with worse OS. GA methods, with a focus on cognitive and PF, improve risk stratification and may inform interventions to improve outcomes for older AML patients.
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Impaired aerobic capacity and physical functional performance in older heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction: role of lean body mass.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Exercise intolerance is the primary chronic symptom in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), the most common form of heart failure in older persons, and can result from abnormalities in cardiac, vascular, and skeletal muscle, which can be further worsened by physical deconditioning. However, it is unknown whether skeletal muscle abnormalities contribute to exercise intolerance in HFPEF patients.
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Unhealthy lifestyles do not mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status and incident depressive symptoms: the Health ABC study.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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The relationship between low socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms is well described, also in older persons. Although studies have found associations between low SES and unhealthy lifestyle factors, and between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms, not much is known about unhealthy lifestyles as a potential explanation of socioeconomic differences in depressive symptoms in older persons.
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Associations between body composition and gait-speed decline: results from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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In older adults, every 0.1-m/s slower gait speed is associated with a 12% higher mortality. However, little research has identified risk factors for gait-speed decline.
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Frailty and risk for heart failure in older adults: the health, aging, and body composition study.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the association between frailty and risk for heart failure (HF) in older adults.
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Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin, with no evidence of interaction with select genetic loci, in a meta-analysis of 15 CHARGE Consortium Studies.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with either glycemic traits or magnesium metabolism affect the association between magnesium intake and fasting glucose and insulin. Fifteen studies from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium provided data from up to 52,684 participants of European descent without known diabetes. In fixed-effects meta-analyses, we quantified 1) cross-sectional associations of dietary magnesium intake with fasting glucose (mmol/L) and insulin (ln-pmol/L) and 2) interactions between magnesium intake and SNPs related to fasting glucose (16 SNPs), insulin (2 SNPs), or magnesium (8 SNPs) on fasting glucose and insulin. After adjustment for age, sex, energy intake, BMI, and behavioral risk factors, magnesium (per 50-mg/d increment) was inversely associated with fasting glucose [? = -0.009 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.013, -0.005), P < 0.0001] and insulin [-0.020 ln-pmol/L (95% CI: -0.024, -0.017), P < 0.0001]. No magnesium-related SNP or interaction between any SNP and magnesium reached significance after correction for multiple testing. However, rs2274924 in magnesium transporter-encoding TRPM6 showed a nominal association (uncorrected P = 0.03) with glucose, and rs11558471 in SLC30A8 and rs3740393 near CNNM2 showed a nominal interaction (uncorrected, both P = 0.02) with magnesium on glucose. Consistent with other studies, a higher magnesium intake was associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin. Nominal evidence of TRPM6 influence and magnesium interaction with select loci suggests that further investigation is warranted.
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Vitamin D-responsive SGPP2 variants associated with lung cell expression and lung function.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Vitamin D is associated with lung health in epidemiologic studies, but mechanisms mediating observed associations are poorly understood. This study explores mechanisms for an effect of vitamin D in lung through an in vivo gene expression study, an expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in lung tissue, and a population-based cohort study of sequence variants.
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Resistance training and pioglitazone lead to improvements in muscle power during voluntary weight loss in older adults.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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The prevalence of obesity in older adults is increasing but concerns exist about the effect of weight loss on muscle function. Demonstrating that muscle strength and power are not adversely affected during "intentional" weight loss in older adults is important given the wide-ranging negative health effects of excess adiposity.
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Beyond breast cancer: mammographic features and mortality risk in a population of healthy women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Breast fibroglandular (dense) tissue is a risk factor for breast cancer. Beyond breast cancer, little is known regarding the prognostic significance of mammographic features.
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Lipid peroxidation and depressed mood in community-dwelling older men and women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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It has been hypothesized that cellular damage caused by oxidative stress is associated with late-life depression but epidemiological evidence is limited. In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2? (8-iso-PGF2?), a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, and depressed mood in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults. Participants were selected from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, a community-based longitudinal study of older persons (aged 70-79 years). The present analyses was based on a subsample of 1027 men and 948 women free of mobility disability. Urinary concentration of 8-iso-PGF2? was measured by radioimmunoassay methods and adjusted for urinary creatinine. Depressed mood was defined as a score greater than 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and/or use of antidepressant medications. Depressed mood was present in 3.0% of men and 5.5% of women. Depressed men presented higher urinary concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2? than non-depressed men even after adjustment for multiple sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors (p?=?0.03, Cohens d?=?0.30). This association was not present in women (depressed status-by-sex interaction p?=?0.04). Our study showed that oxidative damage may be linked to depression in older men from a large sample of the general population. Further studies are needed to explore whether the modulation of oxidative stress may break down the link between late-life depression and its deleterious health consequences.
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Association between chromosome 9p21 variants and the ankle-brachial index identified by a meta-analysis of 21 genome-wide association studies.
Joanne M Murabito, Charles C White, Maryam Kavousi, Yan V Sun, Mary F Feitosa, Vijay Nambi, Claudia Lamina, Arne Schillert, Stefan Coassin, Joshua C Bis, Linda Broer, Dana C Crawford, Nora Franceschini, Ruth Frikke-Schmidt, Margot Haun, Suzanne Holewijn, Jennifer E Huffman, Shih-Jen Hwang, Stefan Kiechl, Barbara Kollerits, May E Montasser, Ilja M Nolte, Megan E Rudock, Andrea Senft, Alexander Teumer, Pim van der Harst, Veronique Vitart, Lindsay L Waite, Andrew R Wood, Christina L Wassel, Devin M Absher, Matthew A Allison, Najaf Amin, Alice Arnold, Folkert W Asselbergs, Yurii Aulchenko, Stefania Bandinelli, Maja Barbalic, Mladen Boban, Kristin Brown-Gentry, David J Couper, Michael H Criqui, Abbas Dehghan, Martin den Heijer, Benjamin Dieplinger, Jingzhong Ding, Marcus Dörr, Christine Espinola-Klein, Stephan B Felix, Luigi Ferrucci, Aaron R Folsom, Gustav Fraedrich, Quince Gibson, Robert Goodloe, Grgo Gunjaca, Meinhard Haltmayer, Gerardo Heiss, Albert Hofman, Arne Kieback, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Ivana Kolčić, Iftikhar J Kullo, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Karl J Lackner, Xiaohui Li, Wolfgang Lieb, Kurt Lohman, Christa Meisinger, David Melzer, Emile R Mohler, Ivana Mudnic, Thomas Mueller, Gerjan Navis, Friedrich Oberhollenzer, Jeffrey W Olin, Jeff O'Connell, Christopher J O'Donnell, Walter Palmas, Brenda W Penninx, Astrid Petersmann, Ozren Polašek, Bruce M Psaty, Barbara Rantner, Ken Rice, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jerome I Rotter, Adrie Seldenrijk, Marietta Stadler, Monika Summerer, Toshiko Tanaka, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen, André G Uitterlinden, Wiek H van Gilst, Sita H Vermeulen, Sarah H Wild, Philipp S Wild, Johann Willeit, Tanja Zeller, Tatijana Zemunik, Lina Zgaga, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefan Blankenberg, Eric Boerwinkle, Harry Campbell, John P Cooke, Jacqueline de Graaf, David Herrington, Sharon L R Kardia, Braxton D Mitchell, Anna Murray, Thomas Münzel, Anne B Newman, Ben A Oostra, Igor Rudan, Alan R Shuldiner, Harold Snieder, Cornelia M van Duijn, Uwe Völker, Alan F Wright, H-Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Yongmei Liu, Caroline Hayward, Ingrid B Borecki, Andreas Ziegler, Kari E North, L Adrienne Cupples, Florian Kronenberg.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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Genetic determinants of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remain largely unknown. To identify genetic variants associated with the ankle-brachial index (ABI), a noninvasive measure of PAD, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association study data from 21 population-based cohorts.
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Effects of a 12-month physical activity intervention on prevalence of metabolic syndrome in elderly men and women.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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There is a lack of information on whether exercise training alone can reduce the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in elderly men and women.
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Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and physical function in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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To examine the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and physical function in adults of advanced age.
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The feasibility of inpatient geriatric assessment for older adults receiving induction chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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To test the feasibility and utility of a bedside geriatric assessment (GA) to detect impairment in multiple geriatric domains in older adults initiating chemotherapy for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
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The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Study: design and methods.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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As the number of older adults in the United States rises, maintaining functional independence among older Americans has emerged as a major clinical and public health priority. Older people who lose mobility are less likely to remain in the community; demonstrate higher rates of morbidity, mortality, and hospitalizations; and experience a poorer quality of life. Several studies have shown that regular physical activity improves functional limitations and intermediate functional outcomes, but definitive evidence showing that major mobility disability can be prevented is lacking. A Phase 3 randomized controlled trial is needed to fill this evidence gap.
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Total zinc intake may modify the glucose-raising effect of a zinc transporter (SLC30A8) variant: a 14-cohort meta-analysis.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for ?-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants.
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The effect of intentional weight loss on all-cause mortality in older adults: results of a randomized controlled weight-loss trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Despite the reported benefits, weight loss is not always advised for older adults because some observational studies have associated weight loss with increased mortality. However, the distinction between intentional and unintentional weight loss is difficult to make in an observational context, so the effect of intentional weight loss on mortality may be clarified in the setting of a randomized controlled trial.
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Lower Digit Symbol Substitution Score in the Oldest Old is Related to Magnetization Transfer and Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the White Matter.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Background: Slowing information processing is common among community-dwelling elderly and it predicts greater mortality and disability risk. Slowing information processing is related to brain macro-structural abnormalities. Specifically, greater global atrophy and greater small vessel disease of the white matter (WM) have been associated with slower processing speed. However, community-dwelling elderly with such macro-structural abnormalities can maintain processing speed. The roles of brain micro-structure for slow processing in very old adults living in the community is uncertain, as epidemiological studies relating these brain markers to cognition and in the context of other health characteristics are sparse. Hypothesis: Information processing is cross-sectionally associated with WM micro-structure independent of overt macro-structural abnormalities and also independent of health related characteristics. Methods: Imaging indices of micro-structure diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), macro-structure white matter hyperintensities (WMH), gray matter (GM) volume, digit symbol substitution test (DSST), and health characteristics were measured in 272 elderly (mean age 83?years old, 43% men, 40% black) living in the community. Results: The DTI- and MTI-indices of micro-structure from the normal appearing WM and not from the normal appearing GM were associated with DSST score independent of WMH and GM volumes. Associations were also independent of age, race, gender, mini-mental score, systolic blood pressure, and prevalent myocardial infarction. Interpretation: DTI and MTI-indices of normal appearing WM are indicators of information processing speed in this cohort of very old adults living in the community. Since processing slowing is a potent index of mortality and disability, these indices may serve as biomarkers in prevention or treatment trials of disability.
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Race, socioeconomic resources, and late-life mobility and decline: findings from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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This study examines the relationship between race and mobility over 5 years in initially well-functioning older adults and evaluates how a broad set of socioeconomic status indicators affect this relationship.
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Is age-related decline in lean mass and physical function accelerated by obstructive lung disease or smoking?
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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and aims Cross-sectional studies suggest that obstructive lung disease (OLD) and smoking affect lean mass and mobility. A study was undertaken to investigate whether OLD and smoking accelerate the ageing-related decline in lean mass and physical functioning.
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Effects of liquid type, delivery method, and bolus volume on penetration-aspiration scores in healthy older adults during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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The type of liquid (eg, water or milk) that should be used during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) has received little investigation. Aspiration may vary as a function of the thin liquid type used during FEES.
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Factors influencing bolus dwell times in healthy older adults assessed endoscopically.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Scant data exist on normal bolus dwell time assessed during flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES). The purpose of this study was to examine bolus dwell time in healthy older adults. Because it has been previously reported that some healthy older adults aspirate, we also sought to determine if bolus dwell time varied as a function of aspiration status.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.