Because vaccinations are common, even a small increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) or other acquired central nervous system demyelinating syndromes (CNS ADS) could have a significant effect on public health.
The incidence of early stage renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is increasing and observational studies have shown equivalent oncological outcomes of partial versus radical nephrectomy for stage I tumours. Population studies suggest that compared with radical nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy is associated with decreased mortality and a lower rate of postoperative decline in kidney function. However, rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in patients who have undergone nephrectomy might be higher than in the general population. The risks of new-onset or accelerated CKD and worsened survival after nephrectomy might be linked, as kidney insufficiency is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Nephron-sparing approaches have, therefore, been proposed as the standard of care for patients with type 1a tumours and as a viable option for those with type 1b tumours. However, prospective data on the incidence of de novo and accelerated CKD after cancer nephrectomy is lacking, and the only randomized trial to date was closed prematurely. Intrinsic abnormalities in non-neoplastic kidney parenchyma and comorbid conditions (including diabetes mellitus and hypertension) might increase the risks of CKD and RCC. More research is needed to better understand the risk of CKD post-nephrectomy, to develop and validate predictive scores for risk-stratification, and to optimize patient management.
Maternal nutrient restriction causes the development of adult onset chronic diseases in the intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) fetus. Investigations in mice have shown that either protein or calorie restriction during pregnancy leads to glucose intolerance, increased fat mass, and hypercholesterolemia in adult male offspring. Some of these phenotypes are shown to persist in successive generations. The molecular mechanisms underlying IUGR remain unclear. The placenta is a critical organ for mediating changes in the environment and the development of embryos. To shed light on molecular mechanisms that might affect placental responses to differing environments we examined placentas from mice that had been exposed to different diets. We measured gene expression and whole genome DNA methylation in both male and female placentas of mice exposed to either caloric restriction or ad libitum diets. We observed several differentially expressed pathways associated with IUGR phenotypes and, most importantly, a significant decrease in the overall methylation between these groups as well as sex-specific effects that are more pronounced in males. In addition, a set of significantly differentially methylated genes that are enriched for known imprinted genes were identified, suggesting that imprinted loci may be particularly susceptible to diet effects. Lastly, we identified several differentially methylated microRNAs that target genes associated with immunological, metabolic, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological chronic diseases, as well as genes responsible for transplacental nutrient transfer and fetal development.
We performed a comparative analysis of the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles from three human embryonic stem cell (HESC) lines. It had previously been shown that HESC lines had significantly higher non-CG methylation than differentiated cells, and we therefore asked whether these sites were conserved across cell lines.
The identification of small molecule aminohydantoins as potent and selective human ?-secretase inhibitors is reported. These analogs exhibit good brain permeability (40-70%), low nanomolar potency for BACE1, and demonstrate >100-fold selectivity for the structurally related aspartyl proteases cathepsin D, renin and pepsin. Alkyl and alkoxy groups at the meta-position of the P1 phenyl, which extend toward the S3 region of the enzyme, have contributed to the ligands reduced affinity for the efflux transporter protein P-gp, and decreased topological polar surface area, thus resulting in enhanced brain permeability. A fluorine substitution at the para-position of the P1 phenyl has contributed to 100-fold decrease of CYP3A4 inhibition and enhancement of compound metabolic stability. The plasma and brain protein binding properties of these new analogs are affected by substitutions at the P1 phenyl moiety. Higher compound protein binding was observed in the brain than in the plasma. Two structurally diverse potent BACE1 inhibitors (84 and 89) reduced 30% plasma A?40 in the Tg2576 mice in vivo model at 30 mg/kg p.o..
8,8-Diphenyl-2,3,4,8-tetrahydroimidazo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-6-amine (1) was identified through HTS, as a weak (micromolar) inhibitor of BACE1. X-Ray crystallographic studies indicate the 2-aminoimidazole ring forms key H-bonding interactions with Asp32 and Asp228 in the catalytic site of BACE1. Lead optimization using structure-based focused libraries led to the identification of low nanomolar BACE1 inhibitors such as 20b with substituents which extend from the S(1) to the S(3) pocket.
Neurofilament proteins (Nf) are highly specific biomarkers for neuronal death and axonal degeneration. As these markers become more widely used, an inter-laboratory validation study is required to identify assay criteria for high quality performance.
A high-resolution map of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis has recently been generated using high-throughput sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA. This detailed profile measures the methylation state of most of the cytosines in the Arabidopsis genome, and allows us for the first time to address questions regarding the conservation of methylation across duplicated regions of the genome. To address these questions we measured the degree to which methylation is conserved in both duplicated genes and duplicated non-coding regions of the genome. Methylation is controlled by different mechanisms and methyltransferases depending on the genomic location. Methylation in genes occurs primarily at CG sites and is controlled by the maintenance methyltransferase MET1. In contrast, an RNAi mediated methylation pathway that leads to de novo methylation of asymmetric CHH sites along with CG and CHG sites by the methyltransferase DRM2, drives methylation at tandem and inverted repeats. We find that the cytosine methylation profile is strongly preserved between duplicated genes and repeat regions. The highest level of conservation can be found at CG sites in genes and CHH sites in repeat regions. By constructing substitution matrices between aligned genes we see that methylated cytosines often pair with thymines, which may be explained by the spontaneous deamination of methyl-cytosine to thymine. Despite this observation, we find that methylated cytosines are less often paired with other nucleotides than non-methylated cytosines within gene bodies indicating that they may play an important functional role.
In eukaryotic cells, environmental and developmental signals alter chromatin structure and modulate gene expression. Heterochromatin constitutes the transcriptionally inactive state of the genome and in plants and mammals is generally characterized by DNA methylation and histone modifications such as histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation. In Arabidopsis thaliana, DNA methylation and H3K9 methylation are usually colocated and set up a mutually self-reinforcing and stable state. Here, in contrast, we found that SUVR5, a plant Su(var)3-9 homolog with a SET histone methyltransferase domain, mediates H3K9me2 deposition and regulates gene expression in a DNA methylation-independent manner. SUVR5 binds DNA through its zinc fingers and represses the expression of a subset of stimulus response genes. This represents a novel mechanism for plants to regulate their chromatin and transcriptional state, which may allow for the adaptability and modulation necessary to rapidly respond to extracellular cues.
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