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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gut epithelial barrier and systemic inflammation during chronic HIV infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Microbial translocation and innate immune action characterize HIV infection. Continued gut mucosal dysfunction during treatment and its relationship to CD4 T-cell recovery has not been well described.
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Activation of HIV Transcription with Short-Course Vorinostat in HIV-Infected Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence in latently infected resting memory CD4+ T-cells is the major barrier to HIV cure. Cellular histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important in maintaining HIV latency and histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) may reverse latency by activating HIV transcription from latently infected CD4+ T-cells. We performed a single arm, open label, proof-of-concept study in which vorinostat, a pan-HDACi, was administered 400 mg orally once daily for 14 days to 20 HIV-infected individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). The primary endpoint was change in cell associated unspliced (CA-US) HIV RNA in total CD4+ T-cells from blood at day 14. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01365065). Vorinostat was safe and well tolerated and there were no dose modifications or study drug discontinuations. CA-US HIV RNA in blood increased significantly in 18/20 patients (90%) with a median fold change from baseline to peak value of 7.4 (IQR 3.4, 9.1). CA-US RNA was significantly elevated 8 hours post drug and remained elevated 70 days after last dose. Significant early changes in expression of genes associated with chromatin remodeling and activation of HIV transcription correlated with the magnitude of increased CA-US HIV RNA. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma HIV RNA, concentration of HIV DNA, integrated DNA, inducible virus in CD4+ T-cells or markers of T-cell activation. Vorinostat induced a significant and sustained increase in HIV transcription from latency in the majority of HIV-infected patients. However, additional interventions will be needed to efficiently induce virus production and ultimately eliminate latently infected cells.
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Lymphoid fibrosis occurs in long-term nonprogressors and persists with antiretroviral therapy, but may be reversible with curative interventions.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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HIV replication causes lymphoid tissue (LT) fibrosis which causes CD4 depletion. It is unknown if people who spontaneously control HIV replication have LT fibrosis. We measured LT fibrosis and CD4 cells in 25 HIV controllers, 10 non-controllers, 45 on therapy, and 10 HIV negative individuals. Controllers had significant LT fibrosis and CD4 depletion, similar to non-controllers, but the Berlin Patient (cured of HIV) had near normal LT. Thus, LT fibrosis occurs in all HIV-infected subjects and current therapy does not reverse it. Reversal of fibrosis during a curative intervention suggests that ongoing low-level virus production may maintain LT fibrosis.
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Biomarker reveals HIV's hidden reservoir.
Elife
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Determining the total amount of HIV DNA in people undergoing antiretroviral therapy could accelerate the development of novel therapies and potential cures for HIV infection.
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The CD8+ Memory Stem T Cell (TSCM) Subset Is Associated with Improved Prognosis in Chronic HIV-1 Infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Memory stem T cells (TSCM) constitute a long-lived, self-renewing lymphocyte population essential for the maintenance of functional immunity. The hallmarks of HIV-1 pathogenesis are CD4(+) T cell depletion and abnormal cellular activation. We investigated the impact of HIV-1 infection on the TSCM compartment, as well as any protective role these cells may have in disease progression, by characterizing this subset in a cohort of 113 subjects with various degrees of viral control on and off highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We observed that the frequency of CD8(+) TSCM was decreased in all individuals with chronic, untreated HIV-1 infection and that HAART had a restorative effect on this subset. In contrast, natural controllers of HIV-1 had the highest absolute number of CD4(+) TSCM cells among all of the infected groups. The frequency of CD4(+) TSCM predicted higher CD8(+) TSCM frequencies, consistent with a role for the CD4(+) subset in helping to maintain CD8(+) memory T cells. In addition, TSCM appeared to be progenitors for effector T cells (TEM), as these two compartments were inversely correlated. Increased frequencies of CD8(+) TSCM predicted lower viral loads, higher CD4(+) counts, and less CD8(+) T cell activation. Finally, we found that TSCM express the mucosal homing integrin ?4?7 and can be identified in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). The frequency of mucosal CD4(+) TSCM was inversely correlated with that in the blood, potentially reflecting the ability of these self-renewing cells to migrate to a crucial site of ongoing viral replication and CD4(+) T cell depletion.
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Limited HIV infection of central memory and stem cell memory CD4+ T cells is associated with lack of progression in viremic individuals.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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A rare subset of HIV-infected individuals, designated viremic non-progressors (VNP), remain asymptomatic and maintain normal levels of CD4+ T-cells despite persistently high viremia. To identify mechanisms potentially responsible for the VNP phenotype, we compared VNPs (average >9 years of HIV infection) to HIV-infected individuals who have similar CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, but who are likely to progress if left untreated ("putative progressors", PP), thus avoiding the confounding effect of differences related to substantial CD4+ T cell depletion. We found that VNPs, compared to PPs, had preserved levels of CD4+ stem cell memory cells (TSCM (p<0.0001), which was associated with decreased HIV infection of these cells in VNPs (r?=?-0.649, p?=?0.019). In addition, VNPs had decreased HIV infection in CD4+ central memory (TCM) cells (p?=?0.035), and the total number of TCM cells was associated with increased proliferation of memory CD4+ T cells (r?=?0.733, p?=?0.01). Our results suggest that, in HIV-infected VNPs, decreased infection of CD4+ TCM and TSCM, cells are involved in preservation of CD4+ T cell homeostasis and lack of disease progression despite high viremia.
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Levels of circulating myeloid subpopulations and of heme oxygenase-1 do not predict CD4(+) T cell recovery after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV disease.
AIDS Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The level (or frequency) of circulating monocyte subpopulations such as classical (CD14(hi)CD16(-)) and non-classical (CD14(dim)CD16(+)) monocytes varies during the course of HIV disease progression and antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that such variation and/or differences in the degree to which these cells expressed the immunoregulatory enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), would be associated with CD4(+) T cell recovery after the initiation of ART. This hypothesis was tested in a cross-sectional study of four groups of HIV-infected subjects, including those who were seronegative, untreated virologic controllers [detectable viral load (VL) of <1000 copies/mL], untreated virologic non-controllers [VL?>?10,000 copies/mL], and ART-mediated virologic controllers [VL?
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Cutting edge: An antibody recognizing ancestral endogenous virus glycoproteins mediates antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity on HIV-1-infected cells.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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The failure of antiviral vaccines is often associated with rapid viral escape from specific immune responses. In the past, conserved epitope or algorithmic epitope selections, such as mosaic vaccines, have been designed to diversify immunity and to circumvent potential viral escape. An alternative approach is to identify conserved stable non-HIV-1 self-epitopes present exclusively in HIV-1-infected cells. We showed previously that human endogenous retroviral (HERV) mRNA transcripts and protein are found in cells of HIV-1-infected patients and that HERV-K (HML-2)-specific T cells can eliminate HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. In this article, we demonstrate that a human anti-HERV-K (HML-2) transmembrane protein Ab binds specifically to HIV-1-infected cells and eliminates them through an Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity mechanism in vitro. Thus, Abs directed against epitopes other than HIV-1 proteins may have a role in eliminating HIV-1-infected cells and could be targeted in novel vaccine approaches or immunotherapeutic modalities.
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Immunologic strategies for HIV-1 remission and eradication.
Science
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is able to suppress HIV-1 replication indefinitely in individuals who have access to these medications, are able to tolerate these drugs, and are motivated to take them daily for life. However, ART is not curative. HIV-1 persists indefinitely during ART as quiescent integrated DNA within memory CD4(+) T cells and perhaps other long-lived cellular reservoirs. In this Review, we discuss the role of the immune system in the establishment and maintenance of the latent HIV-1 reservoir. A detailed understanding of how the host immune system shapes the size and distribution of the viral reservoir should lead to the development of a new generation of immune-based therapeutics, which may eventually contribute to a curative intervention.
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Markers of inflammation and activation of coagulation are associated with anaemia in antiretroviral-treated HIV disease.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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The objective of this study is to determine the relationship between inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and the presence and type of anaemia among HIV-positive individuals.
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Delayed switch of antiretroviral therapy after virologic failure associated with elevated mortality among HIV-infected adults in Africa.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Routine monitoring of plasma HIV RNA among HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unavailable in many resource-limited settings. Alternative monitoring approaches correlate poorly with virologic failure and can substantially delay switch to second-line therapy. We evaluated the impact of delayed switch on mortality among patients with virologic failure in Africa.
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Decreased HIV Type 1 Transcription in CCR5-?32 Heterozygotes During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Individuals who are heterozygous for the CCR5-?32 mutation provide a natural model to examine the effects of reduced CCR5 expression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence. We evaluated the HIV reservoir in 18 CCR5-?32 heterozygotes and 54 CCR5 wild-type individuals during suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Cell-associated HIV RNA levels (P = .035), RNA to DNA transcriptional ratios (P = .013), and frequency of detectable HIV 2-long terminal repeat circular DNA (P = .013) were significantly lower in CD4(+) T cells from CCR5-?32 heterozygotes. Cell-associated HIV RNA was significantly correlated with CCR5 surface expression on CD4(+) T cells (r(2) = 0.136; P = .002). Our findings suggest that curative strategies should further explore manipulation of CCR5.
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A chronic kidney disease risk score to determine tenofovir safety in a prospective cohort of HIV-positive male veterans.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a widely used antiretroviral for HIV infection that has been associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our objective was to derive a scoring system to predict 5-year risk of developing CKD in HIV-infected individuals and to estimate difference in risk associated with tenofovir use.
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Programmed death-1 expression on CD4? and CD8? T cells in treated and untreated HIV disease.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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There is intense interest in the role of programmed death 1 (PD-1) in causing persistent T-cell dysfunction in HIV infection. However, the impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment (ART) on the expression of PD-1 on T cells is still poorly defined.
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Galectin-9 is rapidly released during acute HIV-1 infection and remains sustained at high levels despite viral suppression even in elite controllers.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a ?-galactosidase-binding lectin that promotes apoptosis, tissue inflammation, and T cell immune exhaustion, and alters HIV infection in part through engagement with the T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) receptor and protein disulfide isomerases (PDI). Gal-9 was initially thought to be an eosinophil attractant, but is now known to mediate multiple complex signaling events that affect T cells in both an immunosuppressive and inflammatory manner. To understand the kinetics of circulating Gal-9 levels during HIV infection we measured Gal-9 in plasma during HIV acquisition, in subjects with chronic HIV infection with differing virus control, and in uninfected individuals. During acute HIV infection, circulating Gal-9 was detected as early as 5 days after quantifiable HIV RNA and tracked plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and IL-1?. In chronic HIV infection, Gal-9 levels positively correlated with plasma HIV RNA levels (r=0.29; p=0.023), and remained significantly elevated during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (median: 225.3?pg/ml) and in elite controllers (263.3?pg/ml) compared to age-matched HIV-uninfected controls (54?pg/ml). Our findings identify Gal-9 as a novel component of the first wave of the cytokine storm in acute HIV infection that is sustained at elevated levels in virally suppressed subjects and suggest that Gal-9:Tim-3 crosstalk remains active in elite controllers and antiretroviral (ARV)-suppressed subjects, potentially contributing to ongoing inflammation and persistent T cell dysfunction.
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Sevelamer Does Not Decrease Lipopolysaccharide or Soluble CD14 Levels But Decreases Soluble Tissue Factor, Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol, and Oxidized LDL Cholesterol Levels in Individuals With Untreated HIV Infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits.
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HIV-infected individuals with low CD4/CD8 ratio despite effective antiretroviral therapy exhibit altered T cell subsets, heightened CD8+ T cell activation, and increased risk of non-AIDS morbidity and mortality.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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A low CD4/CD8 ratio in elderly HIV-uninfected adults is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A subset of HIV-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) fails to normalize this ratio, even after they achieve normal CD4+ T cell counts. The immunologic and clinical characteristics of this clinical phenotype remain undefined. Using data from four distinct clinical cohorts and three clinical trials, we show that a low CD4/CD8 ratio in HIV-infected adults during otherwise effective ART (after CD4 count recovery above 500 cells/mm3) is associated with a number of immunological abnormalities, including a skewed T cell phenotype from naïve toward terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells, higher levels of CD8+ T cell activation (HLADR+CD38+) and senescence (CD28- and CD57+CD28-), and higher kynurenine/tryptophan ratio. Changes in the peripheral CD4/CD8 ratio are also reflective of changes in gut mucosa, but not in lymph nodes. In a longitudinal study, individuals who initiated ART within six months of infection had greater CD4/CD8 ratio increase compared to later initiators (>2 years). After controlling for age, gender, ART duration, nadir and CD4 count, the CD4/CD8 ratio predicted increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Hence, a persistently low CD4/CD8 ratio during otherwise effective ART is associated with increased innate and adaptive immune activation, an immunosenescent phenotype, and higher risk of morbidity/mortality. This ratio may prove useful in monitoring response to ART and could identify a unique subset of individuals needed of novel therapeutic interventions.
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Soluble markers of inflammation and coagulation but not T-cell activation predict non-AIDS-defining morbid events during suppressive antiretroviral treatment.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Defining the association of non-AIDS-defining events with inflammation and immune activation among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with antiretroviral therapy (ART)-associated virological suppression is critical to identifying interventions to decrease the occurrence of these events.
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Dependence on the CCR5 coreceptor for viral replication explains the lack of rebound of CXCR4-predicted HIV variants in the Berlin patient.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The "Berlin patient" is the first patient cured of HIV-1 infection after allogeneic transplantation with nonfunctional CCR5 coreceptor stem cells. We demonstrate that CXCR4-predicted minority viruses present prior to transplantation were unable to rebound after transplantation due to their dependence on CCR5 for replication and high genetic barrier toward CXCR4 usage.
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Lymphoma immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the center for AIDS research network of integrated clinical systems cohort.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Lymphoma incidence is increased among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals soon after antiretroviral therapy (ART), perhaps due to unmasking immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Clinical characteristics and survival for unmasking lymphoma IRIS have not been described.
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Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction and innate immune activation predict mortality in treated HIV infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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While inflammation predicts mortality in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the prognostic significance of gut barrier dysfunction and phenotypic T-cell markers remains unclear.
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Exogenous and endogenous hyaluronic acid reduces HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Preventing mucosal transmission of HIV is critical to halting the HIV epidemic. Novel approaches to preventing mucosal transmission are needed. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major extracellular component of mucosa and the primary ligand for the cell surface receptor CD44. CD44 enhances HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells, but the role of HA in this process is not clear. To study this, virions were generated with CD44 (HIVCD44) or without CD44 (HIVmock). Exogenous HA reduced HIV infection of unstimulated CD4(+) T cells in a CD44-dependent manner. Conversely, hyaluronidase-mediated reduction of endogenous HA on the cell surface enhanced HIV binding to and infection of unstimulated CD4(+) T cells. Exogenous HA treatment reduced activation of protein kinase C alpha via CD44 on CD4(+) T cells during infection with HIVCD44. These results reveal new roles for HA during the interaction of HIV with CD4(+) T cells that may be relevant to mucosal HIV transmission and could be exploitable as a future strategy to prevent HIV infection.
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LILRB2 interaction with HLA class I correlates with control of HIV-1 infection.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Natural progression of HIV-1 infection depends on genetic variation in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I locus, and the CD8+ T cell response is thought to be a primary mechanism of this effect. However, polymorphism within the MHC may also alter innate immune activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by changing interactions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR), a group of immunoregulatory receptors mainly expressed on myelomonocytic cells including dendritic cells (DCs). We used previously characterized HLA allotype-specific binding capacities of LILRB1 and LILRB2 as well as data from a large cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals (N = 5126) to test whether LILR-HLA class I interactions influence viral load in HIV-1 infection. Our analyses in persons of European descent, the largest ethnic group examined, show that the effect of HLA-B alleles on HIV-1 control correlates with the binding strength between corresponding HLA-B allotypes and LILRB2 (p = 10(-2)). Moreover, overall binding strength of LILRB2 to classical HLA class I allotypes, defined by the HLA-A/B/C genotypes in each patient, positively associates with viral replication in the absence of therapy in patients of both European (p = 10(-11)-10(-9)) and African (p = 10(-5)-10(-3)) descent. This effect appears to be driven by variations in LILRB2 binding affinities to HLA-B and is independent of individual class I allelic effects that are not related to the LILRB2 function. Correspondingly, in vitro experiments suggest that strong LILRB2-HLA binding negatively affects antigen-presenting properties of DCs. Thus, we propose an impact of LILRB2 on HIV-1 disease outcomes through altered regulation of DCs by LILRB2-HLA engagement.
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The kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism, CD4+ T-cell recovery, and mortality among HIV-infected Ugandans initiating antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection-induced indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO) expression in activated monocytes and dendritic cells catabolizes tryptophan to kynurenine and other downstream catabolites that inhibit T-cell proliferation and interleukin 17 (IL-17) production. The prognostic significance of this pathway in treated HIV disease is unknown.
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Low proportions of CD28- CD8+ T cells expressing CD57 can be reversed by early ART initiation and predict mortality in treated HIV infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Unlike cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and aging, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreases the proportion of CD28(-)CD8(+) T cells expressing CD57. Whether this abnormality predicts mortality in treated HIV infection and can be reversed by early antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains unknown.
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Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine are associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension in HIV infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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To examine the relationship between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).
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Trans-activation, post-transcriptional maturation, and induction of antibodies to HERV-K (HML-2) envelope transmembrane protein in HIV-1 infection.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Human Endogenous Retroviruses (HERVs) comprise about 8% of the human genome and have lost their ability to replicate or to produce infectious particles after having accumulated mutations over time. We assessed the kinetics of expression of HERV-K (HML-2) Envelope mRNA transcript and surface unit (SU) and transmembrane (TM) subunit proteins during HIV-1 infection. We also mapped the specificity of the humoral response to HERV-K (HML-2) Envelope protein in HIV-1 infected subjects at different stages of disease, and correlated the response with plasma viral load.
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HIV antibody characterization as a method to quantify reservoir size during curative interventions.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Quantitative humoral profiling of recent samples from a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adult who was cured following a delta32/delta32 CCR5 stem cell transplant in 2007 revealed no antibodies against p24, matrix, nucleocapsid, integrase, protease, and gp120, but low levels of antibodies against reverse transcriptase, tat, and gp41. Antibody levels to these HIV proteins persisted at high and stable levels in most noncontrollers, elite controllers, and antiretroviral-treated subjects, but a rare subset of controllers had low levels of antibodies against matrix, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and/or protease. Comprehensive HIV antibody profiles may prove useful for monitoring curative interventions.
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Towards an HIV cure.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Given the challenge of delivering complex, expensive and potentially harmful antiretroviral therapy (ART) on a global level, there is intense interest in the development of short-term, well-tolerated regimens that allow individuals to interrupt therapy indefinitely without experiencing a rebound in viremia. This so-called "cure" or "remission" might be due to complete eradication of all replication-competent HIV during ART or durable host-mediated control of persistent virus in absence of ART. Recent heroic interventions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplant and very early initiation of antiretroviral therapy suggest that dramatic reductions in the reservoir size can be achieved, but that complete eradication will be difficult if not impossible to achieve. Most attempts to stimulate effective host-mediated control of HIV have failed. It is likely that for a true cure to be achieved, both approaches - reductions in the reservoir size and durable immune surveillance - will be needed, a state that is similar to that observed in "elite" controllers and post-treatment controllers. The implications for recent advances and setbacks in achieving HIV remission for future research priorities will be discussed.
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CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Activation Are Associated with HIV DNA in Resting CD4+ T Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The association between the host immune environment and the size of the HIV reservoir during effective antiretroviral therapy is not clear. Progress has also been limited by the lack of a well-accepted assay for quantifying HIV during therapy. We examined the association between multiple measurements of HIV and T cell activation (as defined by markers including CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5 and PD-1) in 30 antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected adults. We found a consistent association between the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing HLA-DR and the frequency of resting CD4+ T cells containing HIV DNA. This study highlights the need to further examine this relationship and to better characterize the biology of markers commonly used in HIV studies. These results may also have implications for reactivation strategies.
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Regulatory B cells inhibit cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity and elimination of infected CD4 T cells after in vitro reactivation of HIV latent reservoirs.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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During HIV infection, IL-10/IL-10 receptor and programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-1-ligand (PD-L1) interactions have been implicated in the impairment of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), attenuated anti-HIV CTL functions present a major hurdle towards curative measures requiring viral eradication. Therefore, deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying impaired CTL is crucial before HIV viral eradication is viable. The generation of robust CTL activity necessitates interactions between antigen-presenting cells (APC), CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We have shown that in vitro, IL-10hiPD-L1hi regulatory B cells (Bregs) directly attenuate HIV-specific CD8+-mediated CTL activity. Bregs also modulate APC and CD4+ T cell function; herein we characterize the Breg compartment in uninfected (HIVNEG), HIV-infected "elite controllers" (HIVEC), ART-treated (HIVART), and viremic (HIVvir), subjects, and in vitro, assess the impact of Bregs on anti-HIV CTL generation and activity after reactivation of HIV latent reservoirs using suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). We find that Bregs from HIVEC and HIVART subjects exhibit comparable IL-10 expression levels significantly higher than HIVNEG subjects, but significantly lower than HIVVIR subjects. Bregs from HIVEC and HIVART subjects exhibit comparable PD-L1 expression, significantly higher than in HIVVIR and HIVNEG subjects. SAHA-treated Breg-depleted PBMC from HIVEC and HIVART subjects, displayed enhanced CD4+ T-cell proliferation, significant upregulation of antigen-presentation molecules, increased frequency of CD107a+ and HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, associated with efficient elimination of infected CD4+ T cells, and reduction in integrated viral DNA. Finally, IL-10-R and PD-1 antibody blockade partially reversed Breg-mediated inhibition of CD4+ T-cell proliferation. Our data suggest that, possibly, via an IL-10 and PD-L1 synergistic mechanism; Bregs likely inhibit APC function and CD4+ T-cell proliferation, leading to anti-HIV CTL attenuation, hindering viral eradication.
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Impact of HIV on CD8+ T cell CD57 expression is distinct from that of CMV and aging.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic antigenic stimulation by cytomegalovirus (CMV) is thought to increase "immunosenesence" of aging, characterized by accumulation of terminally differentiated CD28- CD8+ T cells and increased CD57, a marker of proliferative history. Whether chronic HIV infection causes similar effects is currently unclear.
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Composition and function of T cell subpopulations are slow to change despite effective antiretroviral treatment of HIV disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The ability to reconstitute a normal immune system with antiretroviral therapy in the setting of HIV infection remains uncertain. This study aimed to characterize quantitative and qualitative aspects of various T cell subpopulations that do not improve despite effective ART. CD4?CD8 ratio was evaluated in HIV-infected subjects with viral loads >10,000 copies/µl ("non-controllers", n?=?42), those with undetectable viral loads on ART ("ART-suppressed", n?=?53), and HIV-uninfected subjects (n?=?22). In addition, T cell phenotype and function were examined in 25 non-controllers, 18 ART-suppressed, and 7 HIV-uninfected subjects. CD4?CD8 ratio in non-controllers, ART-suppressed, and HIV-uninfected subjects was 0.25, 0.48, and 1.95 respectively (P<0.0001 for all comparisons). The increased ratio in ART-suppressed compared to non-controllers was driven by an increase of CD4+ T cells, with no change in the expanded CD8+ T cell population. Expansion of differentiated (CD28-CD27-CD45RA+/-CCR7-) T cell subpopulations persisted despite ART and minimal changes were noted in naïve T cell frequencies over time. Increased number of CD8+CD28- T cells and increased CD8+ CMV-specific T cell responses were associated with a decreased CD4?CD8 ratio. Measures of T cell function demonstrated persistence of high frequencies of CD8+ T cells producing IFN-?. Lastly, though all CD8+ subpopulations demonstrated significantly lower Ki67 expression in ART-suppressed subjects, CD4+ T cell subpopulations did not consistently show this decrease, thus demonstrating different proliferative responses in the setting of T cell depletion. In summary, this study demonstrated that CD4?CD8 ratios remained significantly decreased and naïve T cell numbers were slow to increase despite long-term viral suppression on ART. In addition, there is a evidence of differential regulation of the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subpopulations, suggesting independent homeostatic regulation of the two compartments.
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A Pilot Study Assessing the Safety and Latency Reversing Activity of Disulfiram in HIV-1-Infected Adults on Antiretroviral Therapy.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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Background.?Transcriptionally silent HIV-1 DNA persists in resting memory CD4(+) T cells despite antiretroviral therapy. In a primary cell model, the anti-alcoholism drug disulfiram has been shown to induce HIV-1 transcription in latently infected resting memory CD4(+) T cells at concentrations achieved in vivo. Methods.?We conducted a single-arm pilot study to evaluate whether 500 mg of disulfiram administered daily for 14 days to HIV-1-infected individuals on stable suppressive antiretroviral therapy would result in reversal of HIV-1 latency with a concomitant transient increase in residual viremia or depletion of the latent reservoir in resting memory CD4(+) T cells. Findings.?Disulfiram was safe and well tolerated. There was high level of subject-to-subject variability in plasma disulfiram levels. The latent reservoir did not change significantly (+1.16-fold change, 95% confidence interval (CI), .70-1.92-fold, P?=?.56). During disulfiram administration, residual viremia did not change significantly compared to baseline (+1.53-fold, 95% CI, .88-2.69-fold, P?=?.13), although residual viremia was estimated to increase by 1.88-fold compared to baseline during the post-dosing period (95% CI, 1.03-3.43-fold, P?=?.04). In a post-hoc analysis, a rapid and transient increase in viremia was noted in a subset of individuals with immediate post-dose sampling (HIV-1 RNA increase +2.96-fold, 95% CI, 1.29-6.81-fold, P?=?.01, n?=?6). Interpretation.?Administration of disulfiram to patients on antiretroviral therapy does not reduce the size of the latent reservoir. A possible dose-related effect on residual viremia supports future studies assessing the impact of higher doses on HIV-1 production. Disulfiram affects relevant signaling pathways and can be safely administered, supporting future studies of this drug.
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The impact of age on the prognostic capacity of CD8+ T-cell activation during suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To assess whether CD8 T-cell activation predicts risk of AIDS and non-AIDS morbidity during suppressive antiretroviral treatment (ART).
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The HIV-1 reservoir in eight patients on long-term suppressive antiretroviral therapy is stable with few genetic changes over time.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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The source and dynamics of persistent HIV-1 during long-term combinational antiretroviral therapy (cART) are critical to understanding the barriers to curing HIV-1 infection. To address this issue, we isolated and genetically characterized HIV-1 DNA from naïve and memory T cells from peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) from eight patients after 4-12 y of suppressive cART. Our detailed analysis of these eight patients indicates that persistent HIV-1 in peripheral blood and GALT is found primarily in memory CD4(+) T cells [CD45RO(+)/CD27((+/-))]. The HIV-1 infection frequency of CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood and GALT was higher in patients who initiated treatment during chronic compared with acute/early infection, indicating that early initiation of therapy results in lower HIV-1 reservoir size in blood and gut. Phylogenetic analysis revealed an HIV-1 genetic change between RNA sequences isolated before initiation of cART and intracellular HIV-1 sequences from the T-cell subsets after 4-12 y of suppressive cART in four of the eight patients. However, evolutionary rate analyses estimated no greater than three nucleotide substitutions per gene region analyzed during all of the 4-12 y of suppressive therapy. We also identified a clearly replication-incompetent viral sequence in multiple memory T cells in one patient, strongly supporting asynchronous cell replication of a cell containing integrated HIV-1 DNA as the source. This study indicates that persistence of a remarkably stable population of infected memory cells will be the primary barrier to a cure, and, with little evidence of viral replication, this population could be maintained by homeostatic cell proliferation or other processes.
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Genetic interplay between HLA-C and MIR148A in HIV control and Crohn disease.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Variation in the 3 untranslated region (3UTR) of the HLA-C locus determines binding of the microRNA Hsa-miR-148a, resulting in lower cell surface expression of alleles that bind miR-148a relative to those alleles that escape its binding. The HLA-C 3UTR variant was shown to associate with HIV control, but like the vast majority of disease associations in a region dense with causal candidates, a direct effect of HLA-C expression level on HIV control was not proven. We demonstrate that a MIR148A insertion/deletion polymorphism associates with its own expression levels, affecting the extent to which HLA-C is down-regulated, the level of HIV control, and the risk of Crohn disease only among those carrying an intact miR-148a binding site in the HLA-C 3UTR. These data illustrate a direct effect of HLA-C expression level on HIV control that cannot be attributed to other HLA loci in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-C and highlight the rich complexity of genetic interactions in human disease.
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Comparison of HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected controllers and noncontrollers.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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HIV-infected controllers have provided novel insights into mechanisms of viral control. We investigated the degree to which HIV DNA and RNA are present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of controllers.
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Effects of Alpha Interferon Treatment on Intrinsic Anti-HIV-1 Immunity In Vivo.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Alpha interferon (IFN-?) suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro by inducing cell-intrinsic retroviral restriction mechanisms. We investigated the effects of IFN-?/ribavirin (IFN-?/riba) treatment on 34 anti-HIV-1 restriction factors in vivo. Expression of several anti-HIV-1 restriction factors was significantly induced by IFN-?/riba in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected individuals. Fold induction of cumulative restriction factor expression in CD4(+) T cells was significantly correlated with viral load reduction during IFN-?/riba treatment (r(2) = 0.649; P < 0.016). Exogenous IFN-? induces supraphysiologic restriction factor expression associated with a pronounced decrease in HIV-1 viremia.
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The end of AIDS: HIV infection as a chronic disease.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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The success of antiretroviral therapy has led some people to now ask whether the end of AIDS is possible. For patients who are motivated to take therapy and who have access to lifelong treatment, AIDS-related illnesses are no longer the primary threat, but a new set of HIV-associated complications have emerged, resulting in a novel chronic disease that for many will span several decades of life. Treatment does not fully restore immune health; as a result, several inflammation-associated or immunodeficiency complications such as cardiovascular disease and cancer are increasing in importance. Cumulative toxic effects from exposure to antiretroviral drugs for decades can cause clinically-relevant metabolic disturbances and end-organ damage. Concerns are growing that the multimorbidity associated with HIV disease could affect healthy ageing and overwhelm some health-care systems, particularly those in resource-limited regions that have yet to develop a chronic care model fully. In view of the problems inherent in the treatment and care for patients with a chronic disease that might persist for several decades, a global effort to identify a cure is now underway.
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Prospective antiretroviral treatment of asymptomatic, HIV-1 infected controllers.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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The study of HIV-infected "controllers" who are able to maintain low levels of plasma HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may provide insights for HIV cure and vaccine strategies. Despite maintaining very low levels of plasma viremia, controllers have elevated immune activation and accelerated atherosclerosis. However, the degree to which low-level replication contributes to these phenomena is not known. Sixteen asymptomatic controllers were prospectively treated with ART for 24 weeks. Controllers had a statistically significant decrease in ultrasensitive plasma and rectal HIV RNA levels with ART. Markers of T cell activation/dysfunction in blood and gut mucosa also decreased substantially with ART. Similar reductions were observed in the subset of "elite" controllers with pre-ART plasma HIV RNA levels below conventional assays (<40 copies/mL). These data confirm that HIV replication persists in controllers and contributes to a chronic inflammatory state. ART should be considered for these individuals (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01025427).
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Increase in 2-long terminal repeat circles and decrease in D-dimer after raltegravir intensification in patients with treated HIV infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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The degree to which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to replicate during antiretroviral therapy (ART) is controversial. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess whether raltegravir intensification reduces low-level viral replication, as defined by an increase in the level of 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles.
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Systemic effects of inflammation on health during chronic HIV infection.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection improves immune function and eliminates the risk of AIDS-related complications but does not restore full health. HIV-infected adults have excess risk of cardiovascular, liver, kidney, bone, and neurologic diseases. Many markers of inflammation are elevated in HIV disease and strongly predictive of the risk of morbidity and mortality. A conceptual model has emerged to explain this syndrome of diseases where HIV-mediated destruction of gut mucosa leads to local and systemic inflammation. Translocated microbial products then pass through the liver, contributing to hepatic damage, impaired microbial clearance, and impaired protein synthesis. Chronic activation of monocytes and altered liver protein synthesis subsequently contribute to a hypercoagulable state. The combined effect of systemic inflammation and excess clotting on tissue function leads to end-organ disease. Multiple therapeutic interventions designed to reverse these pathways are now being tested in the clinic. It is likely that knowledge gained on how inflammation affects health in HIV disease could have implications for our understanding of other chronic inflammatory diseases and the biology of aging.
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Human leukocyte antigen B*57 does not fully explain hepatitis C clearance in HIV controllers.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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HIV controllers demonstrate high rates of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) B*57 and other genetic polymorphisms on HCV clearance in HIV controllers.
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AIDS alters the commensal plasma virome.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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We compared the plasma viromes of HIV-infected subjects with low versus high CD4(+) T cell counts from the United States and Uganda by using deep sequencing and detected HIV, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, GB virus C, anellovirus, and human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) reads. An increase in the proportion of reads for anelloviruses, a family of highly prevalent and genetically diverse human viruses, was seen in subjects with AIDS from both countries. The proportion of endogenous human retrovirus reads was increased in AIDS subjects from Uganda but not the United States. Progression to AIDS is therefore associated with changes in the plasma concentration of commensal viruses.
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Expression profile of host restriction factors in HIV-1 elite controllers.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Several host-encoded antiviral factors suppress HIV-1 replication in a cell-autonomous fashion in vitro. The relevance of these defenses to the control of HIV-1 in vivo remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that cellular restriction of HIV-1 replication plays a significant role in the observed suppression of HIV-1 in "elite controllers", individuals who maintain undetectable levels of viremia in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We comprehensively compared the expression levels of 34 host restriction factors and cellular activation levels in CD4+ T cells and sorted T cell subsets between elite controllers, HIV-1-infected (untreated) non-controllers, ART-suppressed, and uninfected individuals.
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The distribution of HIV DNA and RNA in cell subsets differs in gut and blood of HIV-positive patients on ART: implications for viral persistence.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Even with optimal antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in plasma, blood cells, and tissues. To develop new therapies, it is essential to know what cell types harbor residual HIV. We measured levels of HIV DNA, RNA, and RNA/DNA ratios in sorted subsets of CD4+ T cells (CCR7+, transitional memory, and effector memory) and non-CD4+ T leukocytes from blood, ileum, and rectum of 8 ART-suppressed HIV-positive subjects. Levels of HIV DNA/million cells in CCR7+ and effector memory cells were higher in the ileum than blood. When normalized by cell frequencies, most HIV DNA and RNA in the blood were found in CCR7+ cells, whereas in both gut sites, most HIV DNA and RNA were found in effector memory cells. HIV DNA and RNA were observed in non-CD4+ T leukocytes at low levels, particularly in gut tissues. Compared to the blood, the ileum had higher levels of HIV DNA and RNA in both CD4+ T cells and non-CD4+ T leukocytes, whereas the rectum had higher HIV DNA levels in both cell types but lower RNA levels in CD4+ T cells. Future studies should determine whether different mechanisms allow HIV to persist in these distinct reservoirs, and the degree to which different therapies can affect each reservoir.
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Antiretroviral therapy initiated within 6 months of HIV infection is associated with lower T-cell activation and smaller HIV reservoir size.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Background.?CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell activation levels often remain elevated in chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). T-cell activation predicts early death and blunted CD4+ T-cell recovery during ART and may affect persistent HIV reservoir size. We investigated whether very early ART initiation is associated with lower on-therapy immune activation and HIV persistence. Methods.?From a cohort of patients with early HIV infection (<6 months duration since infection) we identified persons who started ART early (<6 months after infection) or later (?2 years after infection) and maintained ?2 years of virologic suppression; at-risk HIV-negative persons were controls. We measured CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-cell activation (percent CD38(+)/HLA-DR(+)) and HIV reservoir size (based on HIV DNA and cell-associated RNA levels). Results.?In unadjusted analyses, early ART predicted lower on-therapy CD8(+) T-cell activation (n = 34; mean, 22.1%) than achieved with later ART (n = 32; mean, 28.8%; P = .009), although levels in early ART remained elevated relative to HIV-negative controls (P = .02). Early ART also predicted lower CD4+ T-cell activation than with later ART (5.3% vs 7.5%; P = .06). Early ART predicted 4.8-fold lower DNA levels than achieved with later ART (P = .005), and lower cell-associated RNA levels (difference in signal-to-cutoff ratio (S/Co), 3.2; P = .035). Conclusions.?ART initiation <6 months after infection is associated with lower levels of T-cell activation and smaller HIV DNA and RNA reservoir size during long-term therapy.
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Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with hiv disease progression and tryptophan catabolism.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Progressive HIV infection is characterized by dysregulation of the intestinal immune barrier, translocation of immunostimulatory microbial products, and chronic systemic inflammation that is thought to drive progression of disease to AIDS. Elements of this pathologic process persist despite viral suppression during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and drivers of these phenomena remain poorly understood. Disrupted intestinal immunity can precipitate dysbiosis that induces chronic inflammation in the mucosa and periphery of mice. However, putative microbial drivers of HIV-associated immunopathology versus recovery have not been identified in humans. Using high-resolution bacterial community profiling, we identified a dysbiotic mucosal-adherent community enriched in Proteobacteria and depleted of Bacteroidia members that was associated with markers of mucosal immune disruption, T cell activation, and chronic inflammation in HIV-infected subjects. Furthermore, this dysbiosis was evident among HIV-infected subjects undergoing HAART, and the extent of dysbiosis correlated with activity of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan catabolism and plasma concentrations of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), two established markers of disease progression. Gut-resident bacteria with capacity to catabolize tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway were found to be enriched in HIV-infected subjects, strongly correlated with kynurenine levels in HIV-infected subjects, and capable of kynurenine production in vitro. These observations demonstrate a link between mucosal-adherent colonic bacteria and immunopathogenesis during progressive HIV infection that is apparent even in the setting of viral suppression during HAART. This link suggests that gut-resident microbial populations may influence intestinal homeostasis during HIV disease.
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Association study of common genetic variants and HIV-1 acquisition in 6,300 infected cases and 7,200 controls.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed in HIV-1 infected individuals, identifying common genetic influences on viral control and disease course. Similarly, common genetic correlates of acquisition of HIV-1 after exposure have been interrogated using GWAS, although in generally small samples. Under the auspices of the International Collaboration for the Genomics of HIV, we have combined the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data collected by 25 cohorts, studies, or institutions on HIV-1 infected individuals and compared them to carefully matched population-level data sets (a list of all collaborators appears in Note S1 in Text S1). After imputation using the 1,000 Genomes Project reference panel, we tested approximately 8 million common DNA variants (SNPs and indels) for association with HIV-1 acquisition in 6,334 infected patients and 7,247 population samples of European ancestry. Initial association testing identified the SNP rs4418214, the C allele of which is known to tag the HLA-B*57:01 and B*27:05 alleles, as genome-wide significant (p = 3.6 × 10(-11)). However, restricting analysis to individuals with a known date of seroconversion suggested that this association was due to the frailty bias in studies of lethal diseases. Further analyses including testing recessive genetic models, testing for bulk effects of non-genome-wide significant variants, stratifying by sexual or parenteral transmission risk and testing previously reported associations showed no evidence for genetic influence on HIV-1 acquisition (with the exception of CCR5?32 homozygosity). Thus, these data suggest that genetic influences on HIV acquisition are either rare or have smaller effects than can be detected by this sample size.
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Immune activation and HIV persistence: implications for curative approaches to HIV infection.
Immunol. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Despite complete or near-complete suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication with combination antiretroviral therapy, both HIV and chronic inflammation/immune dysfunction persist indefinitely. Untangling the association between the virus and the host immune environment during therapy might lead to novel interventions aimed at either curing the infection or preventing the development of inflammation-associated end-organ disease. Chronic inflammation and immune dysfunction might lead to HIV persistence by causing virus production, generating new target cells, enabling infecting of activated and resting target cells, altering the migration patterns of susceptible target cells, increasing the proliferation of infected cells, and preventing normal HIV-specific clearance mechanisms from function. Chronic HIV production or replication might contribute to persistent inflammation and immune dysfunction. The rapidly evolving data on these issues strongly suggest that a vicious cycle might exist in which HIV persistence causes inflammation that in turn contributes to HIV persistence.
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CD56negCD16+ NK cells are activated mature NK cells with impaired effector function during HIV-1 infection.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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A subset of CD3negCD56negCD16+ Natural Killer (NK) cells is highly expanded during chronic HIV-1 infection. The role of this subset in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains unclear. The lack of NK cell lineage-specific markers has complicated the study of minor NK cell subpopulations.
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Mortality in well controlled HIV in the continuous antiretroviral therapy arms of the SMART and ESPRIT trials compared with the general population.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Due to the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART), it is relevant to ask whether death rates in optimally treated HIV are higher than the general population. The objective was to compare mortality rates in well controlled HIV-infected adults in the SMART and ESPRIT clinical trials with the general population.
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Challenges in detecting HIV persistence during potentially curative interventions: a study of the Berlin patient.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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There is intense interest in developing curative interventions for HIV. How such a cure will be quantified and defined is not known. We applied a series of measurements of HIV persistence to the study of an HIV-infected adult who has exhibited evidence of cure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a homozygous CCR5?32 donor. Samples from blood, spinal fluid, lymph node, and gut were analyzed in multiple laboratories using different approaches. No HIV DNA or RNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spinal fluid, lymph node, or terminal ileum, and no replication-competent virus could be cultured from PBMCs. However, HIV RNA was detected in plasma (2 laboratories) and HIV DNA was detected in the rectum (1 laboratory) at levels considerably lower than those expected in ART-suppressed patients. It was not possible to obtain sequence data from plasma or gut, while an X4 sequence from PBMC did not match the pre-transplant sequence. HIV antibody levels were readily detectable but declined over time; T cell responses were largely absent. The occasional, low-level PCR signals raise the possibility that some HIV nucleic acid might persist, although they could also be false positives. Since HIV levels in well-treated individuals are near the limits of detection of current assays, more sensitive assays need to be developed and validated. The absence of recrudescent HIV replication and waning HIV-specific immune responses five years after withdrawal of treatment provide proof of a clinical cure.
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The immunologic effects of maraviroc intensification in treated HIV-infected individuals with incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery: a randomized trial.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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The CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc has been hypothesized to decrease T-cell activation in HIV-infected individuals, but its independent immunologic effects have not been established in a placebo-controlled trial. We randomized 45 HIV-infected subjects with CD4 counts <350 cells per mm(3) and plasma HIV RNA levels <48 copies per mL on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to add maraviroc vs placebo to their regimen for 24 weeks followed by 12 weeks on ART alone. Compared with placebo-treated subjects, maraviroc-treated subjects unexpectedly experienced a greater median increase in % CD38+HLA-DR+ peripheral blood CD8+ T cells at week 24 (+2.2% vs -0.7%, P = .014), and less of a decline in activated CD4+ T cells (P < .001). The % CD38+HLA-DR+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased nearly twofold in rectal tissue (both P < .001), and plasma CC chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) ligand (macrophage-inflammatory protein 1?) levels increased 2.4-fold during maraviroc intensification (P < .001). During maraviroc intensification, plasma lipopolysaccharide declined, whereas sCD14 levels and neutrophils tended to increase in blood and rectal tissue. Although the mechanisms explaining these findings remain unclear, CCR5 ligand-mediated activation of T cells, macrophages, and neutrophils via alternative chemokine receptors should be explored. These results may have relevance for trials of maraviroc for HIV preexposure prophylaxis and graft-versus-host disease. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00735072.
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Influence of HLA-C expression level on HIV control.
Science
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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A variant upstream of human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C) shows the most significant genome-wide effect on HIV control in European Americans and is also associated with the level of HLA-C expression. We characterized the differential cell surface expression levels of all common HLA-C allotypes and tested directly for effects of HLA-C expression on outcomes of HIV infection in 5243 individuals. Increasing HLA-C expression was associated with protection against multiple outcomes independently of individual HLA allelic effects in both African and European Americans, regardless of their distinct HLA-C frequencies and linkage relationships with HLA-B and HLA-A. Higher HLA-C expression was correlated with increased likelihood of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and frequency of viral escape mutation. In contrast, high HLA-C expression had a deleterious effect in Crohns disease, suggesting a broader influence of HLA expression levels in human disease.
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Barriers to a cure for HIV: new ways to target and eradicate HIV-1 reservoirs.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection needs lifelong access and strict adherence to regimens that are both expensive and associated with toxic effects. A curative intervention will be needed to fully stop the epidemic. The failure to eradicate HIV infection during long-term antiretroviral therapy shows the intrinsic stability of the viral genome in latently infected CD4T cells and other cells, and possibly a sustained low-level viral replication. Heterogeneity in latently infected cell populations and homoeostatic proliferation of infected cells might affect the dynamics of virus production and persistence. Despite potent antiretroviral therapy, chronic immune activation, inflammation, and immune dysfunction persist, and are likely to have important effects on the size and distribution of the viral reservoir. The inability of the immune system to recognise cells harbouring latent virus and to eliminate cells actively producing virus is the biggest challenge to finding a cure. We look at new approaches to unravelling the complex virus-host interactions that lead to persistent infection and latency, and discuss the rationale for combination of novel treatment strategies with available antiretroviral treatment options to cure HIV.
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T cells target APOBEC3 proteins in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected humans and simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Indian rhesus macaques.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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APOBEC3 proteins mediate potent antiretroviral activity by hypermutating the retroviral genome during reverse transcription. To counteract APOBEC3 and gain a replicative advantage, lentiviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have evolved the Vif protein, which targets APOBEC3 proteins for proteasomal degradation. However, the proteasome plays a critical role in the generation of T cell peptide epitopes. Whether Vif-mediated destruction of APOBEC3 proteins leads to the generation and presentation of APOBEC3-derived T cell epitopes on the surfaces of lentivirus-infected cells remains unknown. Here, using peptides derived from multiple Vif-sensitive APOBEC3 proteins, we identified APOBEC3-specific T cell responses in both HIV-1-infected patients and SIV-infected rhesus macaques. These results raise the possibility that these T cell responses may be part of the larger antiretroviral immune response.
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Association of HLA-DRB1-restricted CD4? T cell responses with HIV immune control.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The contribution of HLA class II-restricted CD4(+) T cell responses to HIV immune control is poorly defined. Here, we delineated previously uncharacterized peptide-DRB1 restrictions in functional assays and analyzed the host genetic effects of HLA-DRB1 alleles on HIV viremia in a large cohort of HIV controllers and progressors. We found distinct stratifications in the effect of HLA-DRB1 alleles on HIV viremia, with HLA-DRB1*15:02 significantly associated with low viremia and HLA-DRB1*03:01 significantly associated with high viremia. Notably, a subgroup of HLA-DRB1 variants linked with low viremia showed the ability to promiscuously present a larger breadth of peptides with lower functional avidity when compared to HLA-DRB1 variants linked with high viremia. Our data provide systematic evidence that HLA-DRB1 variant expression has a considerable impact on the control of HIV replication, an effect that seems to be mediated primarily by the protein specificity of CD4(+) T cell responses to HIV Gag and Nef.
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Predictive accuracy of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study index for mortality with HIV infection: a North American cross cohort analysis.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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By supplementing an index composed of HIV biomarkers and age (restricted index) with measures of organ injury, the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) index more completely reflects risk of mortality. We compare the accuracy of the VACS and restricted indices (1) among subjects outside the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, (2) more than 1-5 years of prior exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and (3) within important patient subgroups.
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Elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine are associated with lower CD4+ count and higher viral load in HIV-infected individuals.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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To compare asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) among HIV-infected and uninfected individuals and to evaluate predictors of ADMA in HIV infection.
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Comparative analysis of measures of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 eradication studies.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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HIV-1 reservoirs preclude virus eradication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The best characterized reservoir is a small, difficult-to-quantify pool of resting memory CD4(+) T cells carrying latent but replication-competent viral genomes. Because strategies targeting this latent reservoir are now being tested in clinical trials, well-validated high-throughput assays that quantify this reservoir are urgently needed. Here we compare eleven different approaches for quantitating persistent HIV-1 in 30 patients on HAART, using the original viral outgrowth assay for resting CD4(+) T cells carrying inducible, replication-competent viral genomes as a standard for comparison. PCR-based assays for cells containing HIV-1 DNA gave infected cell frequencies at least 2 logs higher than the viral outgrowth assay, even in subjects who started HAART during acute/early infection. This difference may reflect defective viral genomes. The ratio of infected cell frequencies determined by viral outgrowth and PCR-based assays varied dramatically between patients. Although strong correlations with the viral outgrowth assay could not be formally excluded for most assays, correlations achieved statistical significance only for integrated HIV-1 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HIV-1 RNA/DNA ratio in rectal CD4(+) T cells. Residual viremia was below the limit of detection in many subjects and did not correlate with the viral outgrowth assays. The dramatic differences in infected cell frequencies and the lack of a precise correlation between culture and PCR-based assays raise the possibility that the successful clearance of latently infected cells may be masked by a larger and variable pool of cells with defective proviruses. These defective proviruses are detected by PCR but may not be affected by reactivation strategies and may not require eradication to accomplish an effective cure. A molecular understanding of the discrepancy between infected cell frequencies measured by viral outgrowth versus PCR assays is an urgent priority in HIV-1 cure research.
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Roadblocks to translational challenges on viral pathogenesis.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Distinct roadblocks prevent translating basic findings in viral pathogenesis into therapies and implementing potential solutions in the clinic. An ongoing partnership between the Volkswagen Foundation and Nature Medicine resulted in an interactive meeting in 2012, as part of the "Herrenhausen Symposia" series. Current challenges for various fields of viral research were recognized and discussed with a goal in mind--to identify solutions and propose an agenda to address the translational barriers. Here, some of the researchers who participated at the meeting provide a concise outlook at the most pressing unmet research and clinical needs, identifying these key obstacles is a necessary step towards the prevention and cure of human viral diseases.
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Gag-positive reservoir cells are susceptible to HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte mediated clearance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Resting CD4+T cells infected with HIV persist in the presence of suppressive anti-viral therapy (ART) and are barriers to a cure. One potential curative approach, therapeutic vaccination, is fueled by recognition of the ability of a subset of elite controllers (EC) to control virus without therapy due to robust anti-HIV immune responses. Controllers have low levels of integrated HIV DNA and low levels of replication competent virus, suggesting a small reservoir. As our recent data indicates some reservoir cells can produce HIV proteins (termed GPR cells for Gag-positive reservoir cells), we hypothesized that a fraction of HIV-expressing resting CD4+T cells could be efficiently targeted and cleared in individuals who control HIV via anti-HIV cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). To test this we examined if superinfected resting CD4+T cells from EC express HIV Gag without producing infectious virus and the susceptibility of these cells to CTL. We found that resting CD4+T cells expressed HIV Gag and were cleared by autologous CD8+T cells from EC. Importantly, we found the extent of CTL clearance in our in vitro assay correlates with in vivo reservoir size and that a population of Gag expressing resting CD4+T cells exists in vivo in patients well controlled on therapy.
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Cortisol patterns are associated with T cell activation in HIV.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The level of T cell activation in untreated HIV disease is strongly and independently associated with risk of immunologic and clinical progression. The factors that influence the level of activation, however, are not fully defined. Since endogenous glucocorticoids are important in regulating inflammation, we sought to determine whether less optimal diurnal cortisol patterns are associated with greater T cell activation.
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Expansion of CD8+ T cells lacking Sema4D/CD100 during HIV-1 infection identifies a subset of T cells with decreased functional capacity.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Sema4D, also known as CD100, is a constitutively expressed immune semaphorin on T cells and NK cells. CD100 has important immune regulatory functions that improve antigen-specific priming by antigen-presenting cells, and can also act as a costimulatory molecule on T cells. We investigated the consequence of HIV-1 infection on CD100 expression by T cells, and whether CD100 expression signifies functionally competent effector cells. CD100 expression on T cells from healthy individuals was compared with HIV-1-infected subjects including elite controllers, noncontrollers, and patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. The frequency and fluorescence intensity of CD100 on CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells were decreased during HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, the absolute number of CD100-expressing CD8(+) T cells was positively associated with the magnitude of HIV-1-specific T-cell responses. CD8(+) T cells lacking CD100 expression were functionally impaired and present in increased numbers in HIV-1-infected individuals. The number of CD100(-)CD8(+) T cells positively correlated with T-cell immunosenescence, immune activation, and viral load. Loss of CD100 expression appears to result from direct antigen stimulation, as in vitro cytokine exposure and viral replication did not significantly impact CD100 expression. These data suggest that loss of CD100 expression probably plays an important role in dysfunctional immunity in HIV-1 infection.
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Epistatic interactions between Fc (GM) and Fc?R genes and the host control of human immunodeficiency virus replication.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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Host genetic factors are thought to contribute to the interindividual differences in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether genes encoding GM and KM allotypes-genetic markers of immunoglobulin ? and ? chains, respectively-and those encoding Fc? receptor (Fc?R) IIa and IIIa are associated with the host control of HIV replication. A case-control design was employed among HIV-infected subjects, with a group that spontaneously controlled HIV replication ("controllers") as cases (n = 73) and those who did not control replication as controls (n = 100). Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, direct DNA sequencing, and TaqMan genotyping assays. In Caucasian Americans, certain combinations of Fc?R and GM genotypes were differentially distributed between controllers and noncontrollers. Among the noncarriers of the Fc?RIIa arginine allele, GM21 noncarriers had over 7-fold greater odds of being controllers than the carriers of this allele (odds ratio [OR] = 7.47). These GM determinants also interacted with Fc?RIIIa alleles. Among the carriers of the Fc?RIIIa valine allele, GM21 noncarriers had over 3-fold greater odds of being controllers than the carriers of this allele (OR = 3.26). These results demonstrate epistatic interactions of genes on chromosomes 14 (GM) and 1 (Fc?R) in influencing the control of HIV replication.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.