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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Decreased HIV Type 1 Transcription in CCR5-?32 Heterozygotes During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Individuals who are heterozygous for the CCR5-?32 mutation provide a natural model to examine the effects of reduced CCR5 expression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence. We evaluated the HIV reservoir in 18 CCR5-?32 heterozygotes and 54 CCR5 wild-type individuals during suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Cell-associated HIV RNA levels (P = .035), RNA to DNA transcriptional ratios (P = .013), and frequency of detectable HIV 2-long terminal repeat circular DNA (P = .013) were significantly lower in CD4(+) T cells from CCR5-?32 heterozygotes. Cell-associated HIV RNA was significantly correlated with CCR5 surface expression on CD4(+) T cells (r(2) = 0.136; P = .002). Our findings suggest that curative strategies should further explore manipulation of CCR5.
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Exogenous and endogenous hyaluronic acid reduces HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Preventing mucosal transmission of HIV is critical to halting the HIV epidemic. Novel approaches to preventing mucosal transmission are needed. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major extracellular component of mucosa and the primary ligand for the cell surface receptor CD44. CD44 enhances HIV infection of CD4(+) T cells, but the role of HA in this process is not clear. To study this, virions were generated with CD44 (HIVCD44) or without CD44 (HIVmock). Exogenous HA reduced HIV infection of unstimulated CD4(+) T cells in a CD44-dependent manner. Conversely, hyaluronidase-mediated reduction of endogenous HA on the cell surface enhanced HIV binding to and infection of unstimulated CD4(+) T cells. Exogenous HA treatment reduced activation of protein kinase C alpha via CD44 on CD4(+) T cells during infection with HIVCD44. These results reveal new roles for HA during the interaction of HIV with CD4(+) T cells that may be relevant to mucosal HIV transmission and could be exploitable as a future strategy to prevent HIV infection.
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CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Activation Are Associated with HIV DNA in Resting CD4+ T Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The association between the host immune environment and the size of the HIV reservoir during effective antiretroviral therapy is not clear. Progress has also been limited by the lack of a well-accepted assay for quantifying HIV during therapy. We examined the association between multiple measurements of HIV and T cell activation (as defined by markers including CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5 and PD-1) in 30 antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected adults. We found a consistent association between the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing HLA-DR and the frequency of resting CD4+ T cells containing HIV DNA. This study highlights the need to further examine this relationship and to better characterize the biology of markers commonly used in HIV studies. These results may also have implications for reactivation strategies.
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Advantages of using the QIAshredder instead of restriction digestion to prepare DNA for droplet digital PCR.
BioTechniques
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The viscosity of genomic DNA can interfere with digital PCR systems that partition samples into oil droplets or microfluidic wells. Restriction digestion may reduce the viscosity, but the process is labor-intensive, and the buffer can alter the conditions for PCR. DNA fragmentation using the QIAshredder (a biopolymer spin column) is faster, may result in more predictable and uniformly-sized fragments, and avoids the need for restriction buffers that can inhibit downstream PCR. In 10 separate head-to-head experiments comparing aliquots of DNA processed using the QIAshredder to those digested with RsaI or BsaJI prior to droplet digital PCR, we found that the copy numbers measured from the QIAshredded DNA tended to be greater than those measured from the digested DNA (average of 1.35-fold compared with BsaJI; P < 0.0001), even for inputs as high as 1.8 ?g or dilution down to the single copy level.
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Comparison of HIV DNA and RNA in gut-associated lymphoid tissue of HIV-infected controllers and noncontrollers.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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HIV-infected controllers have provided novel insights into mechanisms of viral control. We investigated the degree to which HIV DNA and RNA are present in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of controllers.
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Prospective antiretroviral treatment of asymptomatic, HIV-1 infected controllers.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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The study of HIV-infected "controllers" who are able to maintain low levels of plasma HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may provide insights for HIV cure and vaccine strategies. Despite maintaining very low levels of plasma viremia, controllers have elevated immune activation and accelerated atherosclerosis. However, the degree to which low-level replication contributes to these phenomena is not known. Sixteen asymptomatic controllers were prospectively treated with ART for 24 weeks. Controllers had a statistically significant decrease in ultrasensitive plasma and rectal HIV RNA levels with ART. Markers of T cell activation/dysfunction in blood and gut mucosa also decreased substantially with ART. Similar reductions were observed in the subset of "elite" controllers with pre-ART plasma HIV RNA levels below conventional assays (<40 copies/mL). These data confirm that HIV replication persists in controllers and contributes to a chronic inflammatory state. ART should be considered for these individuals (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01025427).
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The distribution of HIV DNA and RNA in cell subsets differs in gut and blood of HIV-positive patients on ART: implications for viral persistence.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Even with optimal antiretroviral therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persists in plasma, blood cells, and tissues. To develop new therapies, it is essential to know what cell types harbor residual HIV. We measured levels of HIV DNA, RNA, and RNA/DNA ratios in sorted subsets of CD4+ T cells (CCR7+, transitional memory, and effector memory) and non-CD4+ T leukocytes from blood, ileum, and rectum of 8 ART-suppressed HIV-positive subjects. Levels of HIV DNA/million cells in CCR7+ and effector memory cells were higher in the ileum than blood. When normalized by cell frequencies, most HIV DNA and RNA in the blood were found in CCR7+ cells, whereas in both gut sites, most HIV DNA and RNA were found in effector memory cells. HIV DNA and RNA were observed in non-CD4+ T leukocytes at low levels, particularly in gut tissues. Compared to the blood, the ileum had higher levels of HIV DNA and RNA in both CD4+ T cells and non-CD4+ T leukocytes, whereas the rectum had higher HIV DNA levels in both cell types but lower RNA levels in CD4+ T cells. Future studies should determine whether different mechanisms allow HIV to persist in these distinct reservoirs, and the degree to which different therapies can affect each reservoir.
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Challenges in detecting HIV persistence during potentially curative interventions: a study of the Berlin patient.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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There is intense interest in developing curative interventions for HIV. How such a cure will be quantified and defined is not known. We applied a series of measurements of HIV persistence to the study of an HIV-infected adult who has exhibited evidence of cure after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant from a homozygous CCR5?32 donor. Samples from blood, spinal fluid, lymph node, and gut were analyzed in multiple laboratories using different approaches. No HIV DNA or RNA was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), spinal fluid, lymph node, or terminal ileum, and no replication-competent virus could be cultured from PBMCs. However, HIV RNA was detected in plasma (2 laboratories) and HIV DNA was detected in the rectum (1 laboratory) at levels considerably lower than those expected in ART-suppressed patients. It was not possible to obtain sequence data from plasma or gut, while an X4 sequence from PBMC did not match the pre-transplant sequence. HIV antibody levels were readily detectable but declined over time; T cell responses were largely absent. The occasional, low-level PCR signals raise the possibility that some HIV nucleic acid might persist, although they could also be false positives. Since HIV levels in well-treated individuals are near the limits of detection of current assays, more sensitive assays need to be developed and validated. The absence of recrudescent HIV replication and waning HIV-specific immune responses five years after withdrawal of treatment provide proof of a clinical cure.
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Comparative analysis of measures of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 eradication studies.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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HIV-1 reservoirs preclude virus eradication in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The best characterized reservoir is a small, difficult-to-quantify pool of resting memory CD4(+) T cells carrying latent but replication-competent viral genomes. Because strategies targeting this latent reservoir are now being tested in clinical trials, well-validated high-throughput assays that quantify this reservoir are urgently needed. Here we compare eleven different approaches for quantitating persistent HIV-1 in 30 patients on HAART, using the original viral outgrowth assay for resting CD4(+) T cells carrying inducible, replication-competent viral genomes as a standard for comparison. PCR-based assays for cells containing HIV-1 DNA gave infected cell frequencies at least 2 logs higher than the viral outgrowth assay, even in subjects who started HAART during acute/early infection. This difference may reflect defective viral genomes. The ratio of infected cell frequencies determined by viral outgrowth and PCR-based assays varied dramatically between patients. Although strong correlations with the viral outgrowth assay could not be formally excluded for most assays, correlations achieved statistical significance only for integrated HIV-1 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and HIV-1 RNA/DNA ratio in rectal CD4(+) T cells. Residual viremia was below the limit of detection in many subjects and did not correlate with the viral outgrowth assays. The dramatic differences in infected cell frequencies and the lack of a precise correlation between culture and PCR-based assays raise the possibility that the successful clearance of latently infected cells may be masked by a larger and variable pool of cells with defective proviruses. These defective proviruses are detected by PCR but may not be affected by reactivation strategies and may not require eradication to accomplish an effective cure. A molecular understanding of the discrepancy between infected cell frequencies measured by viral outgrowth versus PCR assays is an urgent priority in HIV-1 cure research.
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Modification of the Abbott RealTime assay for detection of HIV-1 plasma RNA viral loads less than one copy per milliliter.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Although commercial tests are approved for detection of HIV-1 plasma viral loads ? 20 copies per milliliter (ml), only one specialized research assay has been reported to detect plasma viral loads as low as 1 copy/ml. This manuscript describes a method of concentrating HIV-1 virions from up to 30 ml of plasma, which can be combined with a commercial viral load test to create a widely available, reproducible assay for quantifying plasma HIV RNA levels less than 1 copy/ml. Using this pre-analytically modified assay, samples with a known level of 0.5 copy/ml were detected in 8 of 12 replicates (mean 0.47 copy/ml; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.81 copy/ml) and samples with a known level of 1.0 copy/ml were detected in 13 of 13 replicates (mean 1.96 copy/ml; 95% CI 1.42-2.50 copy/ml). By concentrating virus from 30 ml of plasma, HIV RNA could be measured in 16 of 19 samples (84%) from 12 of 12 subjects (mean 2.77 copy/ml; 95% CI 0.86-4.68 copy/ml). The measured viral load correlated inversely (r = -0.78; p = 0.028) with the total duration of viral suppression (viral load<40 copies/ml).
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Differences in HIV burden and immune activation within the gut of HIV-positive patients receiving suppressive antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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The gut is a major reservoir for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized that distinct immune environments within the gut may support varying levels of HIV.
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Novel application of Locked Nucleic Acid chemistry for a Taqman assay for measuring diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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There remains a need for sensitive and cost-effective assays to monitor therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. However, the genetic diversity of HIV poses difficulties for traditional real-time PCR assays that require long oligonucleotides probes. LNA™ probes may be useful in overcoming these limits to traditional probe design. A new application of LNA™ chemistry in a Taqman assay applicable to a wide range of HIV-1 subtypes is described. This assay, based on a 13-mer LNA™ probe that matches the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos database, exhibited a wide dynamic range (10(1)-10(7) copies of HIV DNA), high sensitivity (limit of detection of 1 copy of HIV DNA in 10(5) cells), and broad applicability to a range of HIV-1 subtypes (including A, B, C, D, F, H, B/C, and A/E CRFs). Using the LNA™ probe assay, HIV-1 DNA was detected in all dried blood spots (DBS) from treatment naïve HIV-1 positive Ugandan children, and HIV DNA levels significantly correlated with viral RNA levels in plasma (r=0.765, p<0.0001). This approach to Taqman probe design should be explored further for use in diagnosis and monitoring of HIV in resource-limited settings, especially where several subtypes co-circulate.
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Latently-infected CD4+ T cells are enriched for HIV-1 Tat variants with impaired transactivation activity.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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The ability of HIV to establish latent infection in CD4+ lymphocytes represents a major barrier to the eradication of HIV. It is not clear what mechanisms favor latent over productive infection, but prior studies have suggested a role for the viral transcription factor Tat or its RNA target, TAR. Using samples from five individuals who were started on ART within 6 months of infection and achieved a viral load <50 (suppressed), we isolated one- and two-exon tat RNA from HIV propagated ex vivo from baseline plasma and from co-cultures of CD4+ T cells obtained at baseline and suppressed time points. Compared to virus from the baseline plasma (mostly from productively-infected CD4+ T cells), virus from the baseline and suppressed co-cultures (mostly from latently-infected cells) had more Tat variants with impaired transactivation activity. These findings suggest that impaired activity in the Tat-TAR axis may contribute to the establishment of latent infection in CD4+ T cells.
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Role of retroviral restriction factors in the interferon-?-mediated suppression of HIV-1 in vivo.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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The antiviral potency of the cytokine IFN-? has been long appreciated but remains poorly understood. A number of studies have suggested that induction of the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3) and bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2/tetherin/CD317) retroviral restriction factors underlies the IFN-?-mediated suppression of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We sought to characterize the as-yet-undefined relationship between IFN-? treatment, retroviral restriction factors, and HIV-1 in vivo. APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and BST-2 expression levels were measured in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve individuals before, during, and after pegylated IFN-?/ribavirin (IFN-?/riba) combination therapy. IFN-?/riba therapy decreased HIV-1 viral load by -0.921 (±0.858) log(10) copies/mL in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. APOBEC3G/3F and BST-2 mRNA expression was significantly elevated during IFN-?/riba treatment in patient-derived CD4+ T cells (P < 0.04 and P < 0.008, paired Wilcoxon), and extent of BST-2 induction was correlated with reduction in HIV-1 viral load during treatment (P < 0.05, Pearsons r). APOBEC3 induction during treatment was correlated with degree of viral hypermutation (P < 0.03, Spearmans ?), and evolution of the HIV-1 accessory protein viral protein U (Vpu) during IFN-?/riba treatment was suggestive of increased BST-2-mediated selection pressure. These data suggest that host restriction factors play a critical role in the antiretroviral capacity of IFN-? in vivo, and warrant investigation into therapeutic strategies that specifically enhance the expression of these intrinsic immune factors in HIV-1-infected individuals.
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A comparison of methods for measuring rectal HIV levels suggests that HIV DNA resides in cells other than CD4+T cells, including myeloid cells.
AIDS
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We compared different techniques for measuring gut HIV reservoirs and assessed for HIV in non-CD4T cells. HIV DNA levels were similar when measured from rectal biopsies and isolated rectal cells, while HIV RNA tended to be higher in rectal cells. HIV DNA levels in total rectal cells were greater than those predicted from levels in sorted CD4T cells, suggesting a reservoir in non-CD4T cells, and HIV DNA was detected in sorted myeloid cells (7/7 patients).
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Discordance between peripheral and colonic markers of inflammation during suppressive ART.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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Persistent systemic inflammation is associated with the inability of some HIV-infected patients to normalize circulating CD4+ T-cell levels after years of suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this work, we sought to understand whether such systemic inflammation is also associated with detectable signs of inflammation in biopsies from the rectosigmoid colon.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.