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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lower dose of antithymocyte globulin does not increase graft-versus-host disease in patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The appropriate dose of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) to be utilized in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) is as yet unknown. We retrospectively compared patients who received 7.5 mg/kg (R-ATG, 39 patients) and 6 mg/kg (r-ATG, 97 patients). The cumulative incidences of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grade II-IV at 180 days were 46% and 41% and of aGVHD grade III-IV were 11% and 18% in r-ATG and R-ATG, respectively (p > 0.30). The respective estimated cumulative incidences at 24 months of cGVHD were 42% and 44% (p > 0.30). There was no significant difference in non-relapse mortality (p = 0.22), cumulative incidence of relapse (p = 0.53), progression-free survival (p = 0.69) or overall survival (p = 0.95). In conclusion, a decreased ATG dose of 6 mg/kg was associated with a similar proportion of GVHD to 7.5 mg/kg ATG. Given the increasing number of RIC HSCTs performed worldwide, the correct dose and preparation of ATG should be defined by prospective randomized trials.
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Chronic myelogenous leukemia, version 1.2015.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2014
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Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is usually diagnosed in the chronic phase. Untreated chronic phase CML will eventually progress to advanced phase (accelerated or blast phase) CML. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been shown to induce favorable response rates in patients with accelerated and blast phase CML. The addition of TKIs to chemotherapy has also been associated with improved outcomes in patients with blast phase CML. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant remains a potentially curative option for patients with advanced phase CML, although treatment with a course of TKIs will be beneficial as a bridge to transplant. This manuscript discusses the recommendations outlined in the NCCN Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of patients with advanced phase CML.
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Recommendations for Donor HLA Assessment and Matching for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Consensus Opinion of the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducts large, multi-institutional clinical trials with the goal of improving the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients with life-threatening disorders. Well designed HCT trials benefit from standardized criteria for defining diagnoses, treatment plans and graft source selection. In this perspective, we summarize evidence supporting criteria for the selection of related and unrelated adult volunteer progenitor cell donors or umbilical cord blood units. These standardized criteria for graft source selection have been adopted by the BMT CTN to enhance the interpretation of clinical findings within and among future clinical protocols.
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A phase 1 study of vorinostat maintenance after autologous transplant in high-risk lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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Only a minority of patients with high risk lymphoma will be cured with autologous transplant, so maintenance with vorinostat, an oral agent with activity in relapsed lymphoma, was studied starting day + 60 for 21 consecutive days followed by a week off for up to 11 cycles. Twenty-three patients with lymphoma were treated. Ten patients completed the full 11-cycle treatment plan per protocol, four patients were removed due to progressive disease and seven withdrew or were removed from the study due to toxicities. Despite Prevnar vaccine administration every 2 months for three injections, the mean antibody concentration never reached protective levels (> 0.35 ?g/mL). Fatigue and functional well-being measured by Brief Fatigue Inventory and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General improved significantly from cycle 1 to cycle 7, but depression scores from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale did not change. Given the toxicities observed, this broad-spectrum deacetylase inhibitor at this schedule is not optimal for prolonged maintenance therapy.
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Effect of age on the pharmacokinetics of busulfan in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation; an alliance study (CALGB 10503, 19808, and 100103).
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome have often been excluded from myeloablative-conditioning regimens containing busulfan because of non-disease-related morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that busulfan clearance (BuCL) in older patients (>60 years) would be reduced compared to that in younger patients, potentially explaining observed differences in busulfan tolerability.
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Improved survival after transplantation of more donor plasmacytoid dendritic or naïve T cells from unrelated-donor marrow grafts: results from BMTCTN 0201.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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To characterize relationships between specific immune cell subsets in bone marrow (BM) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood (PB) stem cells collected from unrelated donors and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing transplantation in BMTCTN 0201.
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Outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for children with I-cell disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Mucolipidosis type II (MLII), or I-cell disease, is a rare but severe disorder affecting localization of enzymes to the lysosome, generally resulting in death before the 10th birthday. Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been used to successfully treat some lysosomal storage diseases, only 2 cases have been reported on the use of HSCT to treat MLII. For the first time, we describe the combined international experience in the use of HSCT for MLII in 22 patients. Although 95% of the patients engrafted, overall survival was low, with only 6 patients (27%) alive at last follow-up. The most common cause of death post-transplant was cardiovascular complications, most likely due to disease progression. Survivors were globally delayed in development and often required complex medical support, such as gastrostomy tubes for nutrition and tracheostomy with mechanical ventilation. Although HSCT has demonstrated efficacy in treating some lysosomal storage disorders, the neurologic outcome and survival for patents with MLII were poor. Therefore, new medical and cellular therapies should be sought for these patients.
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Results of a prospective multicentre myeloablative double-unit cord blood transplantation trial in adult patients with acute leukaemia and myelodysplasia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Double-unit cord blood (CB) grafts may improve engraftment and relapse risk in adults with haematological malignancies. We performed a prospective high-dose myeloablative double-unit CB transplantation (CBT) trial in adults with high-risk acute leukaemia or myelodysplasia (MDS) between 2007 and 2011. The primary aim was to establish the 1-year overall survival in a multi-centre setting. Fifty-six patients (31 acute myeloid leukaemia, 19 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 4 other acute leukaemias, 2 myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS]) were transplanted at 10 centres. The median infused total nucleated cell doses were 2·62 (larger unit) and 2·02 (smaller unit) x 10(7) /kg. The cumulative incidence of day 100 neutrophil engraftment was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80-96). Day 180 grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) incidence was 64% (95%CI: 51-76) and 36% (95%CI: 24-49) of patients had chronic GVHD by 3-years. At 3-years post-transplant, the transplant-related mortality (TRM) was 39% (95%CI: 26-52), and the 3-year relapse incidence was 11% (95%CI: 4-21). With a median 37-month (range 23-71) follow-up of survivors, the 3-year disease-free survival was 50% (95%CI: 37-63). Double-unit CBT is a viable alternative therapy for high-risk acute leukaemia/ MDS in patients lacking a matched unrelated donor. This is especially important for minority patients. The relapse incidence was low but strategies to ameliorate TRM are needed.
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Peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization for autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: guidelines from the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization practices vary significantly among institutions. Effective mobilization regimens include growth factor alone, chemotherapy and growth factor combined, and, more recently, incorporation of plerixafor with either approach. Many institutions have developed algorithms to improve stem cell mobilization success rates and cost-effectiveness. However, an optimal stem cell mobilization regimen has not been defined. Practical guidelines are needed to address important clinical questions, including which growth factor is optimal, what chemotherapy and dose is most effective, and when to initiate leukapheresis. We present recommendations, based on a comprehensive review of the literature, from the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
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Genetic modification of T cells redirected toward CS1 enhances eradication of myeloma cells.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Our goal is to test whether CS1 could be targeted by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to treat multiple myeloma (MM).
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Complete response to induction therapy in patients with Myc-positive and double-hit non-Hodgkin lymphoma is associated with prolonged progression-free survival.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Myc-positive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with or without a B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) rearrangement is associated with inferior progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). In this study, the authors reviewed the outcomes of patients with myc-positive and double-hit NHL at The Ohio State University.
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Graft-versus-host disease-associated angiomatosis: a clinicopathologically distinct entity.
J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) may present with various cutaneous manifestations. Isolated case reports describe eruptive angiomas in this setting.
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Graft-versus-host disease: why have we not made more progress?
Curr. Opin. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is potentially curative for a number of hematologic malignancies, its use is limited by the development of acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This potentially fatal complication occurs in approximately 50% of allo-SCT recipients.
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Aprepitant for the control of delayed nausea and vomiting associated with the use of high-dose melphalan for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplants in patients with multiple myeloma: a phase II study.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of aprepitant as part of the antiemetic regimen for high-dose melphalan conditioning in multiple myeloma patients.
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Ibrutinib treatment ameliorates murine chronic graft-versus-host disease.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening impediment to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and current therapies do not completely prevent and/or treat cGVHD. CD4+ T cells and B cells mediate cGVHD; therefore, targeting these populations may inhibit cGVHD pathogenesis. Ibrutinib is an FDA-approved irreversible inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) and IL-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK) that targets Th2 cells and B cells and produces durable remissions in B cell malignancies with minimal toxicity. Here, we evaluated whether ibrutinib could reverse established cGVHD in 2 complementary murine models, a model interrogating T cell-driven sclerodermatous cGVHD and an alloantibody-driven multiorgan system cGVHD model that induces bronchiolar obliterans (BO). In the T cell-mediated sclerodermatous cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment delayed progression, improved survival, and ameliorated clinical and pathological manifestations. In the alloantibody-driven cGVHD model, ibrutinib treatment restored pulmonary function and reduced germinal center reactions and tissue immunoglobulin deposition. Animals lacking BTK and ITK did not develop cGVHD, indicating that these molecules are critical to cGVHD development. Furthermore, ibrutinib treatment reduced activation of T and B cells from patients with active cGVHD. Our data demonstrate that B cells and T cells drive cGVHD and suggest that ibrutinib has potential as a therapeutic agent, warranting consideration for cGVHD clinical trials.
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Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, Version 1.2014.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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The 2014 NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia recommend quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) standardized to International Scale (IS) as the preferred method for monitoring molecular response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. A BCR-ABL1 transcript level of 10% or less (IS) is now included as the response milestone at 3 and 6 months. Change of therapy to an alternate TKI is recommended for patients with BCR-ABL1 transcript levels greater than 10% (IS) at 3 months after primary treatment with imatinib. Continuing the same dose of TKI or switching to an alternate TKI are options for patients with BCR-ABL1 transcript levels greater than 10% (IS) at 3 months after primary treatment with dasatinib or nilotinib. The guidelines recommend 6-month evaluation with QPCR (IS) for patients with BCR-ABL1 transcript levels greater than 10% at 3 months. Monitoring with QPCR (IS) every 3 months is recommended for all patients, including those who meet response milestones at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months (BCR-ABL1 transcript level ?10% [IS] at 3 and 6 months, complete cytogenetic response at 12 and 18 months).
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Phase I study of GTI-2040, a ribonucleotide reductase antisense, with high dose cytarabine in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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We hypothesized that GTI-2040, a 20-mer oligonucleotide complementary to the R2 subunit mRNA of ribonucleotide reductase, combined with high dose cytarabine (HiDAC) would result in enhanced cytotoxicity by favoring Ara-CTP DNA incorporation. In a phase I dose escalation trial, adults (? 60 years) with refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) received daily HiDAC plus infusional GTI-2040. Using a novel assay, evidence of intracellular drug accumulation and target R2 down-regulation was observed. GTI-2040/HiDAC can be administered safely. However, with no complete remissions observed, alternative doses and schedules may need to be investigated to achieve clinical activity in older patients with AML.
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Disabling immune tolerance by programmed death-1 blockade with pidilizumab after autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: results of an international phase II trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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The Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway may be usurped by tumors, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), to evade immune surveillance. The reconstituting immune landscape after autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (AHSCT) may be particularly favorable for breaking immune tolerance through PD-1 blockade.
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FLT3L and Plerixafor Combination Increases Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization and Leads to Improved Transplantation Outcome.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has curative potential for patients with hematological malignancies. Clinically, HSCs derived from mobilized peripheral blood are used more frequently than bone marrow. However, current standard mobilizing agents yield grafts that may not contain sufficient HSCs. Here, using murine models, we discovered that FLT3L synergized with Plerixafor to mobilize phenotypically defined HSCs, and their combination (FP) was superior to G-CSF alone or in combination with Plerixafor (GP). Additionally, FP mobilized more Treg cells, NK cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells compared with G-CSF alone or GP. Both syngeneic and allogeneic grafts mobilized by FP led to long-term survival in transplanted mice. Collectively, FP represents a promising novel and potent mobilization regimen with potential clinical application in both the autologous and allogeneic transplantation settings.
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Prospective cohort study comparing intravenous busulfan to total body irradiation in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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We conducted a prospective cohort study testing the noninferiority of survival of ablative intravenous busulfan (IV-BU) vs ablative total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimens in myeloid malignancies. A total of 1483 patients undergoing transplantation for myeloid malignancies (IV-BU, N = 1025; TBI, N = 458) were enrolled. Cohorts were similar with respect to age, gender, race, performance score, disease, and disease stage at transplantation. Most patients had acute myeloid leukemia (68% IV-BU, 78% TBI). Grafts were primarily peripheral blood (77%) from HLA-matched siblings (40%) or well-matched unrelated donors (48%). Two-year probabilities of survival (95% confidence interval [CI]), were 56% (95% CI, 53%-60%) and 48% (95% CI, 43%-54%, P = .019) for IV-BU (relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98, P = .03) and TBI, respectively. Corresponding incidences of transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 18% (95% CI, 16%-21%) and 19% (95% CI, 15%-23%, P = .75) and disease progression were 34% (95% CI, 31%-37%) and 39% (95% CI, 34%-44%, P = .08). The incidence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) was 5% for IV-BU and 1% with TBI (P < .001). There were no differences in progression-free survival and graft-versus-host disease. Compared with TBI, IV-BU resulted in superior survival with no increased risk for relapse or TRM. These results support the use of myeloablative IV-BU vs TBI-based conditioning regimens for treatment of myeloid malignancies.
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Phase I study of azacitidine and bortezomib in adults with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Abstract We previously reported that bortezomib indirectly modulates transcription of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT). We designed a phase I study of azacitidine (a direct DNMT inhibitor) plus bortezomib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to determine safety and tolerability. Twenty-three adults with relapsed/refractory AML received azacitidine 75mg/m(2) daily on days 1-7. Bortezomib was dose escalated from 0.7mg/m(2) on days 2 and 5 to 1.3mg/m(2) on days 2, 5, 9, and 12. The target dose was reached without dose limiting toxicities. Infection and/or febrile neutropenia were frequent. Patients received a median of 2 cycles of therapy (range, 1-12+). Five of 23 patients achieved remission including two with morphologic and cytogenetic complete response (CR) and three with CR and incomplete count recovery (CRi). Of CR/CRi responders with cytogenetic abnormalities at baseline, three of four achieved cytogenetic CR. The combination of azacitidine and bortezomib was tolerable and active in this cohort of poor-risk previously-treated AML patients.
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Glycovariant anti-CD37 monospecific protein therapeutic exhibits enhanced effector cell-mediated cytotoxicity against chronic and acute B cell malignancies.
MAbs
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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TRU-016 is a SMIP(TM) (monospecific protein therapeutic) molecule against the tetraspanin transmembrane family protein CD37 that is currently in Phase 2 trials in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). In an attempt to enhance the ADCC function of SMIP-016, the chimeric version of TRU-016, SMIP-016(GV) was engineered with a modification in a glycosylation site in the Fc domain. The wild-type and glycovariant SMIP proteins mediate comparable Type I antibody-like direct cytotoxicity in the presence of anti-human Fc crosslinker and show a similar tyrosine phosphorylation pattern post-treatment. However, NK cells stimulated with the SMIP-016(GV) exhibit enhanced activation and release 3-fold more interferon-? compared with SMIP-016. SMIP-016(GV) shows enhanced ADCC function against cells expressing CD37 with NK cell effectors derived from both normal and CLL-affected individuals. Enhanced ADCC is observed against CLL cells and is sustained at concentrations of SMIP-016(GV) as low at 5E(-6) µg/mL on cells expressing minimal CD37 antigen. In support of the biological relevance of this, SMIP-016(GV) mediates effective ADCC against primary acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells with low surface expression of CD37. Collectively, these data suggest potential use of the novel therapeutic agent SMIP-016(GV) with enhanced effector function for B cell malignancies, including CLL and ALL therapy.
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Optimizing Autologous Stem Cell Mobilization Strategies to Improve Patient Outcomes: Consensus Guidelines and Recommendations.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is a well-established treatment for malignancies such as multiple myeloma (MM) and lymphomas. Various changes in the field over the past decade, including the frequent use of tandem aHSCT in MM, the advent of novel therapies for the treatment of MM and lymphoma, and the addition of new stem cell mobilization techniques, have led to the need to reassess current stem cell mobilization strategies. Mobilization failures with traditional strategies are common and result in delays in treatment and increased cost and resource utilization. Recently, plerixafor-containing strategies have been shown to significantly reduce mobilization failure rates, but the ideal method to maximize stem cell yields and minimize costs associated with collection has not yet been determined. A panel of experts convened to discuss the currently available data on autologous hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and transplantation and to devise guidelines to optimize mobilization strategies. Herein is a summary of their discussion and consensus.
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Standard pentostatin dose reductions in renal insufficiency are not adequate: selected patients with steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease.
Clin Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Pentostatin is an irreversible inhibitor of adenosine deaminase and has been used to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and to treat both acute and chronic GVHD. Dose reduction equations for patients with renal insufficiency are based on few patients with limited pharmacokinetic and clinical results. This phase II study (NCT00201786) was conducted to assess pentostatin efficacy and infectious complications seen from our previous phase I study in steroid-refractory acute GVHD (aGVHD).
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MicroRNAs activate natural killer cells through Toll-like receptor signaling.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) bind to complementary sequences of target mRNAs, resulting in translational repression or target degradation and thus gene silencing. miRNAs are abundant in circulating blood, yet it is not known whether, as a class of regulatory molecules, they interact with human natural killer (NK) cells. Here we found that the treatment of human NK cells with several mature miRNAs in the presence of a low concentration of interleukin-12 induced CD69 expression, interferon-? production, and degranulation marker CD107a expression. In vivo, infusion of several miRNAs alone in murine peripheral blood also resulted in comparable NK-cell activation, but not T-cell activation. Furthermore, miRNA administration significantly protected mice from tumor development in an NK cell-dependent manner. Mechanistically, we found that miRNA stimulation led to downstream activation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), an effect that was blunted by a block in Toll-like receptor 1(TLR1) signaling and attenuated in lymphoma patients. Knockdown of TLR1 resulted in less activation by miRNAs. Collectively, we show that miRNAs have a capacity to selectively activate innate immune effector cells that is, at least in part, via the TLR1-NF-?B signaling pathway. This may be important in the normal host defense against infection and/or malignant transformation.
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Early versus delayed autologous stem cell transplant in patients receiving novel therapies for multiple myeloma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) is an effective treatment for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the timing of ASCT in the era of novel agents (lenalidomide, thalidomide, bortezomib) is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the outcome of patients with MM who received novel agent-based induction treatment and received first ASCT within 12 months of diagnosis (early ASCT, n = 102) or at a later date (late ASCT, n = 65). Median time to ASCT was 7.9 months vs. 17.7 months in early vs. late ASCT. The 3- and 5-year overall survival (OS) from diagnosis was 90 and 63% vs. 82 and 63% in early and late ASCT, respectively (p = 0.45). Forty-one and 36 patients in the early and late ASCT groups have relapsed or progressed, with median time to relapse of 28 and 23 months (p = 0.055). On multivariable analysis, factors predictive of increased risk for progression were International Scoring System (ISS) stage III (p = 0.007), and less than a very good partial response (< VGPR) post-ASCT (p < 0.001). A factor predictive of worst outcome for OS was being on hemodialysis (p = 0.037). No superiority of one agent was seen. In summary, early or late ASCT is a viable option for patients with MM receiving induction treatment with novel targeted therapies.
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Who is the better donor for older hematopoietic transplant recipients: an older-aged sibling or a young, matched unrelated volunteer?
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Older patients are increasingly undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation. A relevant question is whether outcomes can be improved with a younger allele-level 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) rather than an older HLA-matched sibling (MSD). Accordingly, transplants in leukemia/lymphoma patients age ?50 years were analyzed comparing outcomes for recipients of MSD ?50 (n = 1415) versus MUD <50 years (n = 757). Risks of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade 2 to 4 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; P < .001), 3 to 4 (HR, 1.85; P < .001), and chronic GVHD (HR, 1.48; P < .0001) were higher after MUD compared with MSD transplants. The effect of donor type on nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and overall mortality was associated with performance score. For patients with scores of 90 or 100, NRM (HR, 1.42; P = .001), relapse (HR, 1.45; P < .001), and overall mortality (HR, 1.28; P = .001) risks were higher after MUD transplants. For patients with scores below 90, NRM (HR, 0.96; P = .76), relapse (HR, 0.86; P = .25), and overall mortality (HR, 0.90; P = .29) were not significantly different after MUD and MSD transplants. These data favor an MSD over a MUD in patients age ?50 years.
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PP2A-activating drugs selectively eradicate TKI-resistant chronic myeloid leukemic stem cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in treating chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) depends on the requirement for BCR-ABL1 kinase activity in CML progenitors. However, CML quiescent HSCs are TKI resistant and represent a BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent disease reservoir. Here we have shown that persistence of leukemic HSCs in BM requires inhibition of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and expression--but not activity--of the BCR-ABL1 oncogene. Examination of HSCs from CML patients and healthy individuals revealed that PP2A activity was suppressed in CML compared with normal HSCs. TKI-resistant CML quiescent HSCs showed increased levels of BCR-ABL1, but very low kinase activity. BCR-ABL1 expression, but not kinase function, was required for recruitment of JAK2, activation of a JAK2/?-catenin survival/self-renewal pathway, and inhibition of PP2A. PP2A-activating drugs (PADs) markedly reduced survival and self-renewal of CML quiescent HSCs, but not normal quiescent HSCs, through BCR-ABL1 kinase-independent and PP2A-mediated inhibition of JAK2 and ?-catenin. This led to suppression of human leukemic, but not normal, HSC/progenitor survival in BM xenografts and interference with long-term maintenance of BCR-ABL1-positive HSCs in serial transplantation assays. Targeting the JAK2/PP2A/?-catenin network in quiescent HSCs with PADs (e.g., FTY720) has the potential to treat TKI-refractory CML and relieve lifelong patient dependence on TKIs.
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Multiple myeloma, version 1.2013.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of relapsed or progressive disease in the 2013 version of the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Multiple Myeloma. These changes include the addition of new regimens as options for salvage therapy and strategies to mitigate the adverse effects and risks associated with newer regimens for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
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Can we build a better allograft?
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2011
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Compelling evidence has been accumulating recently implicating disruption of CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling as a key step in the mobilization of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) induced by G-CSF and other agents. This knowledge formed the rationale for the clinical development and ultimate FDA approval of a specific CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, for the mobilization of HSPCs in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma when given in combination of G-CSF.
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T cell-depleted partial matched unrelated donor transplant for advanced myeloid malignancy: KIR ligand mismatch and outcome.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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To evaluate the applicability of high-dose conditioning, CD34 selection, and enhanced natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity reported as promising after haploidentical transplantation, we tested the same strategy for patients with advanced/high-risk myeloid leukemia lacking either related or well-matched unrelated donors (URD). In a prospective multicenter clinical trial using pretransplantation conditioning of thiotepa (5 mg/kg/day × 2), fludarabine (40 mg/mg/M(2)/day × 5), and total body radiation (800 cGy) plus thymoglobulin (2.5 mg/kg/day × 2), as well as a CD34 selected filgrastim stimulated peripheral blood graft from a partial matched URD, we treated 24 patients. The patients (median age 40 [range: 22-61]) were mismatched at 1-3 of 10 HLA loci with their donors; all were mismatched at HLA-C. Thirty-seven percent were ethnic or racial minorities. Twenty-one of 24 engrafted promptly with 1 primary graft failure and 2 early deaths. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) (34%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 14-54%), chronic GVHD (20%, 95% CI, 2%-38%), and relapse (26%, 95% CI, 8%-84%) were unaffected by KIR ligand donor:recipient mismatch (n = 5) versus KIR ligand match (n = 19). Only 3 (12%) had grade III-IV GVHD. Nonrelapse occurred in 17% (95% CI, 30%-31%) by 100 days and in 35% (95% CI, 15%-55%) by 1 year. Two-year survival and leukemia-free survival were each 40% (95% CI, 21%-59%) and was similar in KIR ligand matched or mismatched patients. Infections, mostly in the first 2 months, were frequent, and were the cause of death in 5 patients (35% of deaths). T cell recovery and NK cell proliferation and functional maturation were not altered by KIR ligand match or mismatch status. For these high-risk patients, this high intensity regimen and T depleted approach yielded satisfactory outcomes, but logistical difficulties in arranging URD grafts for patients with high-risk, unstable leukemia limited accrual. Improvements in peritransplantation disease control and additional measures to augment the allogeneic graft-versus-leukemia effect are still required.
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Characteristics of CliniMACS® System CD34-enriched T cell-depleted grafts in a multicenter trial for acute myeloid leukemia-Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) protocol 0303.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Eight centers participated in the Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) protocol 0303 to determine the effect of extensive T cell depletion (TCD) on the outcome of HLA matched sibling donor transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia. One goal of the study was to determine if TCD could be performed uniformly among study sites. TCD was achieved using the CliniMACS(®) CD34 Reagent System for CD34 enrichment. Processed grafts needed to contain ? 2.0 × 10(6) CD34(+)cells/kg with a target of 5.0 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg and <10(5) CD3(+) T cells/kg. Up to 3 collections were allowed to achieve the minimum CD34(+) cell dose. In total, 86 products were processed for 44 patients. Differences in the starting cell products between centers were seen in regard to total nucleated cells, CD34(+) cells, and CD3(+) T cells, which could in part be ascribed to a higher dose of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor used for mobilization early in the trial. Differences between centers in processing outcomes were minimal and could be ascribed to starting cell parameters or to differences in graft analysis methods. Multivariate analysis showed that CD34(+) cell recovery (66.1% ± 20.3%) was inversely associated with the starting number of CD34(+) cells (P = .02). Median purity of the CD34 enriched fraction was 96.7% (61.5%-99.8%) with monocytes and B cells the most common impurity. All patients received the minimum CD34(+) cell dose, and 39 patients (89%) came within 10% or exceeded the target CD34(+) cell dose without exceeding the maximum T cell dose. All patients proceeded to transplantation and all achieved initial engraftment. Products processed at multiple centers using the CliniMACS System for CD34 enrichment were comparably and uniformly highly enriched for CD34(+) cells, with good CD34(+) cell recovery and very low CD3(+) T cell content.
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Classifying cytogenetics in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in complete remission undergoing allogeneic transplantation: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Cytogenetics play a major role in determining the prognosis of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, existing cytogenetics classifications were developed in chemotherapy-treated patients and might not be optimal for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied 821 adult patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) who underwent HCT for AML in first or second complete remission between 1999 and 2004. We compared the ability of the 6 existing classifications to stratify patients by overall survival. We then defined a new scheme specifically applicable to patients undergoing HCT using this patient cohort. Under this scheme, inv(16) is favorable, a complex karyotype (4 or more abnormalities) is adverse, and all other classified abnormalities are intermediate in predicting survival after HCT (5-year overall survival, 64%, 18%, and 50%, respectively; P = .0001). This scheme stratifies patients into 3 groups with similar nonrelapse mortality, but significantly different incidences of relapse, overall and leukemia-free survival. It applies to patients regardless of disease status (first or second complete remission), donor type (matched related or unrelated), or conditioning intensity (myeloablative or reduced intensity). This transplantation-specific classification could be adopted for prognostication purposes and to stratify patients with AML and karyotypic abnormalities entering HCT clinical trials.
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Alternative donor transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning: results of parallel phase 2 trials using partially HLA-mismatched related bone marrow or unrelated double umbilical cord blood grafts.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network conducted 2 parallel multicenter phase 2 trials for individuals with leukemia or lymphoma and no suitable related donor. Reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) was used with either unrelated double umbilical cord blood (dUCB) or HLA-haploidentical related donor bone marrow (Haplo-marrow) transplantation. For both trials, the transplantation conditioning regimen incorporated cyclophosphamide, fludarabine, and 200 cGy of total body irradiation. The 1-year probabilities of overall and progression-free survival were 54% and 46%, respectively, after dUCB transplantation (n = 50) and 62% and 48%, respectively, after Haplo-marrow transplantation (n = 50). The day +56 cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery was 94% after dUCB and 96% after Haplo-marrow transplantation. The 100-day cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD was 40% after dUCB and 32% after Haplo-marrow transplantation. The 1-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality and relapse after dUCB transplantation were 24% and 31%, respectively, with corresponding results of 7% and 45%, respectively, after Haplo-marrow transplantation. These multicenter studies confirm the utility of dUCB and Haplo-marrow as alternative donor sources and set the stage for a multicenter randomized clinical trial to assess the relative efficacy of these 2 strategies. The trials are registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov under NCT00864227 (BMT CTN 0604) and NCT00849147 (BMT CTN 0603).
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Impact of immune modulation with anti-T-cell antibodies on the outcome of reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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The success of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantation is largely dependent on alloimmune effects. It is critical to determine whether immune modulation with anti-T-cell antibody infusion abrogates the therapeutic benefits of transplantation. We examined 1676 adults undergoing RIC transplantation for hematologic malignancies. All patients received alkylating agent plus fludarabine; 792 received allografts from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling, 884 from a 7 or 8 of 8 HLA-matched unrelated donor. Using Cox regression, outcomes after in vivo T-cell depletion (n = 584 antithymocyte globulin [ATG]; n = 213 alemtuzumab) were compared with T cell- replete (n = 879) transplantation. Grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD was lower with alemtuzumab compared with ATG or T cell- replete regimens (19% vs 38% vs 40%, P < .0001) and chronic GVHD, lower with alemtuzumab, and ATG regimens compared with T-replete approaches (24% vs 40% vs 52%, P < .0001). However, relapse was more frequent with alemtuzumab and ATG compared with T cell-replete regimens (49%, 51%, and 38%, respectively, P < .001). Disease-free survival was lower with alemtuzumab and ATG compared with T cell-replete regimens (30%, 25%, and 39%, respectively, P < .001). Corresponding probabilities of overall survival were 50%, 38%, and 46% (P = .008). These data suggest adopting a cautious approach to routine use of in vivo T-cell depletion with RIC regimens.
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CD103 deficiency prevents graft-versus-host disease but spares graft-versus-tumor effects mediated by alloreactive CD8 T cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the main barrier to broader application of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) as a curative therapy for host malignancy. GVHD is mediated by allogeneic T cells directed against histocompatibility antigens expressed by host tissues. Based on previous studies, we postulated that the integrin CD103 is required for CD8-mediated GVHD, but not for graft-versus-tumor effects (GVT).
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Low risk of chronic graft-versus-host disease and relapse associated with T cell-depleted peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia in first remission: results of the blood and marrow transplant clinical trials network prot
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is most effectively prevented by ex vivo T cell depletion (TCD) of the allograft, but its role in the treatment of patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in complete remission (CR) remains unclear. We performed a phase 2 single-arm multicenter study to evaluate the role of TCD in AML patients in CR1 or CR2 up to age 65 years. The primary objective was to achieve a disease-free survival (DFS) rate of >75% at 6 months posttransplantation. A total of 44 patients with AML in CR1 (n = 37) or CR2 (n = 7) with a median age of 48.5 years (range, 21-59 years) received myeloablative chemotherapy and fractionated total body irradiation (1375 cGy) followed by immunomagnetically selected CD34-enriched, T cell?depleted allografts from HLA-identical siblings. No pharmacologic GVHD prophylaxis was given. All patients engrafted. The incidence of acute GVHD grade II-IV was 22.7%, and the incidence of extensive chronic GVHD was 6.8% at 24 months. The relapse rate for patients in CR1 was 17.4% at 36 months. With a median follow-up of 34 months, DFS for all patients was 82% at 6 months, and DFS for patients in CR1 was 72.8% at 12 months and 58% at 36 months. HCT after myeloablative chemoradiotherapy can be performed in a multicenter setting using a uniform method of TCD, resulting in a low risk of extensive chronic GVHD and relapse for patients with AML in CR1.
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Higher busulfan dose intensity does not improve outcomes of patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation following fludarabine, busulfan-based reduced toxicity conditioning.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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We evaluated the impact of busulfan dose intensity in patients undergoing reduced toxicity/intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation in a multicenter retrospective study of 112 consecutive patients. Seventy-five patients were conditioned with busulfan (0.8?mg/kg/dose IV?×?8 doses), fludarabine (30?mg/m(2) /day, days -7 to -3), and 6?mg/kg of ATG [reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) group], while 37 patients received a more-intense conditioning with busulfan (130?mg/m(2) /day IV, days -6 to -3), fludarabine (40?mg/m(2) /day, days -6 to -3) and 6?mg/kg of ATG [reduced toxicity conditioning (RTC) group]. At baseline both groups were matched for median age, unrelated donor allografts, and human leukocyte antigen-mismatched allografts. More patients in RIC group had high-risk disease, and higher median comorbidity index. There were no graft rejections. Median time to neutrophil (17 days vs. 15 days; p?=?0.003) and platelet engraftment (16 days vs. 11 days; p?
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Dose escalation of lenalidomide in relapsed or refractory acute leukemias.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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Lenalidomide is effective in myeloma and low-risk myelodysplastic syndromes with deletion 5q. We report results of a phase I dose-escalation trial of lenalidomide in relapsed or refractory acute leukemia.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with hematologic malignancies who relapse following autologous transplantation: a multi-institutional prospective study from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB t
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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We prospectively treated 80 patients with relapse of malignancy or secondary myelodysplasia after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) with allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) using a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen of fludarabine 150 mg/m(2) plus intravenous busulfan 6.4 mg/kg. Both matched sibling (MSD) and unrelated donors (MUD) were allowed. Patients transplanted from MUD donors received more intensive graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, including rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG) 10 mg/kg, mycophenolate mofetil, and an extended schedule of tacrolimus. With a median follow-up of 3.1 years (0.9-5.8), treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 6 months and 2 years was 8% and 23%, respectively. Neither TRM nor the rates of acute GVHD (aGVHD) were different in those with sibling or MUD donors. Donor CD3 cell chimerism >90% at day +30 was achieved more often in patients with MUD than with matched sibling donors, 70% versus 23% (P < .0001). Median event-free suvival was higher in patients who achieved early full donor chimerism (14.2 versus 8 months, P = .0395). Allo-HCT using this reduced-intensity conditioning regimen can be performed with low TRM in patients who have received a prior AHCT. Efforts to improve early donor CD3 chimerism may improve event-free survival.
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Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of a novel schedule of flavopiridol in relapsed or refractory acute leukemias.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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A pharmacokinetically derived schedule of flavopiridol administered as a 30 min intravenous bolus followed by 4-hour continuous intravenous infusion (IVB/CIVI) is active in fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia, but no studies examining the feasibility and maximum tolerated dose of this schedule have been reported in acute leukemia.
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The PD-1/PD-L1 axis modulates the natural killer cell versus multiple myeloma effect: a therapeutic target for CT-011, a novel monoclonal anti-PD-1 antibody.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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T-cell expression of programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) down-regulates the immune response against malignancy by interacting with cognate ligands (eg, PD-L1) on tumor cells; however, little is known regarding PD-1 and natural killer (NK) cells. NK cells exert cytotoxicity against multiple myeloma (MM), an effect enhanced through novel therapies. We show that NK cells from MM patients express PD-1 whereas normal NK cells do not and confirm PD-L1 on primary MM cells. Engagement of PD-1 with PD-L1 should down-modulate the NK-cell versus MM effect. We demonstrate that CT-011, a novel anti-PD-1 antibody, enhances human NK-cell function against autologous, primary MM cells, seemingly through effects on NK-cell trafficking, immune complex formation with MM cells, and cytotoxicity specifically toward PD-L1(+) MM tumor cells but not normal cells. We show that lenalidomide down-regulates PD-L1 on primary MM cells and may augment CT-011s enhancement of NK-cell function against MM. We demonstrate a role for the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling axis in the NK-cell immune response against MM and a role for CT-011 in enhancing the NK-cell versus MM effect. A phase 2 clinical trial of CT-011 in combination with lenalidomide for patients with MM should be considered.
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Phase I trial of low dose decitabine targeting DNA hypermethylation in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma: dose-limiting myelosuppression without evidence of DNA hypomethylation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Targeting aberrant DNA hypermethylation in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with decitabine may reverse epigenetic silencing in B-cell malignancies. Twenty patients were enrolled in two phase I trials to determine the minimum effective pharmacological dose of decitabine in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL (n = 16) and NHL (n = 4). Patients received 1-3 cycles of decitabine. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed in 2 of 4 CLL and 2 of 2 NHL patients receiving decitabine at 15 mg/m(2) per d days 1-10, consisting of grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Six patients with CLL received decitabine at 10 mg/m(2) per d days 1-10 without DLT; however, re-expression of methylated genes or changes in global DNA methylation were not observed. Therefore, a 5-day decitabine schedule was examined. With 15 mg/m(2) per d decitabine days 1-5, DLT occurred in 2 of 6 CLL and 2 of 2 NHL patients, consisting of grade 3-4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and febrile neutropenia. Eight patients had stable disease. In 17 patients, there were no significant changes in genome-wide methylation or in target gene re-expression. In conclusion, dose-limiting myelosuppression and infectious complications prevented dose escalation of decitabine to levels associated with changes in global methylation or gene re-expression in CLL and NHL.
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Clinical response and miR-29b predictive significance in older AML patients treated with a 10-day schedule of decitabine.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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A phase II clinical trial with single-agent decitabine was conducted in older patients (>or=60 years) with previously untreated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who were not candidates for or who refused intensive chemotherapy. Subjects received low-dose decitabine at 20 mg/m(2) i.v. over 1 h on days 1 to 10. Fifty-three subjects enrolled with a median age of 74 years (range, 60-85). Nineteen (36%) had antecedent hematologic disorder or therapy-related AML; 16 had complex karyotypes (>or=3 abnormalities). The complete remission rate was 47% (n = 25), achieved after a median of three cycles of therapy. Nine additional subjects had no morphologic evidence of disease with incomplete count recovery, for an overall response rate of 64% (n = 34). Complete remission was achieved in 52% of subjects presenting with normal karyotype and in 50% of those with complex karyotypes. Median overall and disease-free survival durations were 55 and 46 weeks, respectively. Death within 30 days of initiation of treatment occurred in one subject (2%), death within 8 weeks in 15% of subjects. Given the DNA hypomethylating effect of decitabine, we examined the relationship of clinical response and pretreatment level of miR-29b, previously shown to target DNA methyltransferases. Higher levels of miR-29b were associated with clinical response (P = 0.02). In conclusion, this schedule of decitabine was highly active and well tolerated in this poor-risk cohort of older AML patients. Levels of miR-29b should be validated as a predictive factor for stratification of older AML patients to decitabine treatment.
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Outcome of transplantation for myelofibrosis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative disorder incurable with conventional strategies. Several small series have reported long-term disease-free survival (DSF) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we analyze the outcomes of 289 patients receiving allogeneic transplantation for primary myelofibrosis between 1989 and 2002, from the database of the Center for International Bone Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The median age was 47 years (range: 18-73 years). Donors were HLA identical siblings in 162 patients, unrelated individuals in 101 patients, and HLA nonidentical family members in 26 patients. Patients were treated with a variety of conditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimens. Splenectomy was performed in 65 patients prior to transplantation. The 100-day treatment-related mortality was 18% for HLA identical sibling transplants, 35% for unrelated transplants, and 19% for transplants from alternative related donors. Corresponding 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 37%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. DFS rates were 33%, 27%, and 22%, respectively. DFS for patients receiving reduced-intensity transplants was comparable: 39% for HLA identical sibling donors and 17% for unrelated donors at 3 years. In this large retrospective series, allogeneic transplantation for myelofibrosis resulted in long-term relapse-free survival (RFS) in about one-third of patients.
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Improved nonrelapse mortality and infection rate with lower dose of antithymocyte globulin in patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation for hematologic malignancies.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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We sought to reduce the risk of infectious complications and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) associated with the use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) without compromising control of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) in patients undergoing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantation. As part of an ongoing quality improvement effort, we lowered the dose of rabbit ATG from 7.5 mg/kg of ATG (R-ATG) (n = 39) to 6.0 mg/kg of ATG (r-ATG) (n = 33) in association with fludarabine (Flu) and busulfan (BU) RIC transplantation and then monitored patients for adverse events, relapse, and survival. Of the 72 mostly high risk (82%) patients studied, 89% received unrelated donor allografts, 25% of which were HLA-mismatched. No differences in posttransplantation full donor-cell chimerism rates were observed between the 2 ATG-dose groups (P > .05). When R-ATG versus r-ATG patients were compared, we observed no significant difference in the cumulative incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD (32% versus 27%; P = .73) or grade III-IV aGVHD (23% versus 11%; P = .28). However, the r-ATG group had significantly less cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation (64% versus 30%; P = .005) and bacterial infections (56% versus 18%; P = .001), a better 1-year cumulative incidence of NRM (18% versus 3%; P = .03), and a trend for better 1-year overall survival (OS) (64% versus 84%; P = .07) compared to R-ATG patients. A seemingly modest reduction in the dose of rabbit ATG did not compromise control of aGVHD or achievement of donor chimerism, but led to a significant decrease in the risk of serious infections and NRM in high-risk RIC allograft recipients.
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Prolonged myelosuppression with clofarabine in the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory, aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the purine nucleoside analogue, clofarabine, in patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Six patients with DLBCL (n = 5) or MCL (n = 1) and a median age of 68 years were treated with 40 mg/m(2) clofarabine IV over 2 h for 5 days, repeated every 28 days, for 1-2 cycles. The overall response rate was 50% (complete response = 1, complete response unconfirmed = 1, partial response = 1). Median progression-free survival was 3.5 months (range 1.5-10 months) and the median overall survival was 7.8 months (range 3-31 months). Grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia was universal, with a median of 34 (range 19-55) and 77 (range 0-275) days required for neutrophil and platelet recovery. Grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities included transaminitis, febrile neutropenia, non-neutropenic infections and orthostatic hypotension. Further accrual to the study was terminated due to prolonged Grade 3-4 myelosuppression and orthostatic hypotension in five of six patients. Clofarabine exhibits evidence of single agent activity in relapsed or refractory DLBCL. However, further study with novel administration schedules that maintain this efficacy and limit toxicity is warranted.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with relapsed chemorefractory aggressive non-hodgkin lymphomas.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
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Patients with chemorefractory aggressive non-Hodgkins lymphomas (NHL) generally have poor clinical outcomes with available therapies. Allogeneic transplantation may be curative, but few studies are available to guide transplant decision making in this setting. We examined allogeneic transplantation outcomes for 46 patients with chemorefractory, aggressive NHL patients who had either stable disease (SD; n = 32) or progressive disease (PD; n = 14), respectively, following last salvage treatment. The median age was 46 years (range: 22-63 years). Thirty-nine patients received matched sibling allografts, whereas 7 underwent unrelated donor transplantation. Diagnoses included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 18), Burkitts lymphoma (n = 3), transformed B cell lymphoma (n = 5), mantle cell lymphoma (n = 11), and peripheral T cell lymphoma (n = 9). The median number of prior therapies was 3 (range: 2-8). Median follow-up of surviving patients is 5 years. Five-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and relapse rate for the whole cohort (n = 46) were 38%, 34%, and 35%, respectively. The rate of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was 43%. Of the 33 evaluable patients 75% developed chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Overall nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rate was 34%. The 5-year OS and PFS rates for patients with SD and PD were 46% versus 21% (P = .01; log-rank test), and 46% versus 7% (P = .0002; log-rank test), respectively. This study confirms that allogeneic transplant is curative for a subset of chemorefractory patients with SD. However, patients with PD had uniformly poor outcomes following allografting with conventional conditioning approaches. Given the outcomes seen here in the setting of PD, such patients should proceed with transplant only in the setting of investigational therapy.
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Waldenströms macroglobulinemia/lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, version 2.2013.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
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These NCCN Guidelines Insights highlight the important updates/changes specific to the management of Waldenströms Macroglobulinemia/Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma. These include the addition of regimens containing novel agents as primary and salvage therapy options, inclusion of the updated summary of response categories and criteria from the sixth international workshop on Waldenströms Macroglobulinemia, and a section on management of peripheral neuropathy in the accompanying discussion.
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Chemotherapeutic agents increase the risk for pulmonary function test abnormalities in patients with multiple myeloma.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
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Case reports of pulmonary toxicity have been published regarding bortezomib, lenalidomide, and thalidomide but there are no published reports looking at the possible long-term pulmonary effects of these medications. This article describes a possible relationship between the administration of bortezomib and thalidomide and the development of pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities. It also suggests that routine pulmonary function testing may be required in patients receiving these medications until larger studies can be performed to confirm this observation.
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Comparative outcomes of donor graft CD34+ selection and immune suppressive therapy as graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission undergoing HLA-matched sibling allogeneic hematopoietic cell transpl
J. Clin. Oncol.
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T-cell depletion (TCD) reduces the incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, concerns about relapse, graft rejection, and variability in technique have limited the widespread application of this approach.
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Complex karyotype predicts for inferior outcomes following reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic transplant for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
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Complex karyotype (CK) on metaphase cytogenetics discriminates poor outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients undergoing salvage treatment; we hypothesized that it might provide prognostic information for patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant. Fifty-one CLL patients were analysed following transplant; 18-month overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS) and cumulative incidence of progression estimates were 35%, 14% and 63%, respectively, in patients with CK (n = 19) versus 83%, 68% and 29% in patients without (n = 32) (P ? 0·0001, P ? 0·0001, and P = 0·02). In patients with high-risk interphase cytogenetics, CK remained predictive of worse OS (P = 0·02) and EFS (P = 0·009). These findings support further evaluation of metaphase karyotype in transplant risk assessment.
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Clinical and pharmacodynamic activity of bortezomib and decitabine in acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
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We recently reported promising clinical activity for a 10-day regimen of decitabine in older AML patients; high miR-29b expression associated with clinical response. Subsequent preclinical studies with bortezomib in AML cells have shown drug-induced miR-29b up-regulation, resulting in loss of transcriptional activation for several genes relevant to myeloid leukemogenesis, including DNA methyltransferases and receptor tyrosine kinases. Thus, a phase 1 trial of bortezomib and decitabine was developed. Nineteen poor-risk AML patients (median age 70 years; range, 32-84 years) enrolled. Induction with decitabine (20 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1-10) plus bortezomib (escalated up to the target 1.3 mg/m(2) on days 5, 8, 12, and 15) was tolerable, but bortezomib-related neuropathy developed after repetitive cycles. Of previously untreated patients (age ? 65 years), 5 of 10 had CR (complete remission, n = 4) or incomplete CR (CRi, n = 1); 7 of 19 overall had CR/CRi. Pharmacodynamic analysis showed FLT3 down-regulation on day 26 of cycle 1 (P = .02). Additional mechanistic studies showed that FLT3 down-regulation was due to bortezomib-induced miR-29b up-regulation; this led to SP1 down-regulation and destruction of the SP1/NF-?B complex that transactivated FLT3. This study demonstrates the feasibility and preliminary clinical activity of decitabine plus bortezomib in AML and identifies FLT3 as a novel pharmacodynamic end point for future trials.
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Regulation of acute graft-versus-host disease by microRNA-155.
Blood
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT), underscoring the need to further elucidate its mechanisms and develop novel treatments. Based on recent observations that microRNA-155 (miR-155) is up-regulated during T-cell activation, we hypothesized that miR-155 is involved in the modulation of aGVHD. Here we show that miR-155 expression was up-regulated in T cells from mice developing aGVHD after alloHSCT. Mice receiving miR-155-deficient donor lymphocytes had markedly reduced lethal aGVHD, whereas lethal aGVHD developed rapidly in mice recipients of miR-155 overexpressing T cells. Blocking miR-155 expression using a synthetic anti-miR-155 after alloHSCT decreased aGVHD severity and prolonged survival in mice. Finally, miR-155 up-regulation was shown in specimens from patients with pathologic evidence of intestinal aGVHD. Altogether, our data indicate a role for miR-155 in the regulation of GVHD and point to miR-155 as a novel target for therapeutic intervention in this disease.
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Pulmonary rehabilitation for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a progressive, insidious lung disease affecting allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Unfortunately, there is no standardized approach for treatment of BOS in post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a standard treatment in emphysema, an irreversible obstructive lung disease secondary to tobacco abuse. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) demonstrated improved exercise tolerance, decrease dyspnea, and increase of quality of life in patients with severe emphysema after pulmonary rehabilitation. We hypothesized that pulmonary rehabilitation may benefit patients with BOS. Patients with BOS were identified retrospectively from January 2005 to the present. Patients who enrolled in pulmonary rehabilitation were included in the study. We obtained summaries via chart review of each patients progress after pulmonary rehabilitation enrollment from his or her respective rehabilitation centers. Six-minute walk distances, spirometry, and pulmonary symptoms were compared before and after the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation. We identified 11 patients with BOS documented from their pulmonologists clinical notes who were enrolled into pulmonary rehabilitation. Ten of the 11 patients completed pulmonary rehabilitation. All patients had improvement in their 6-minute walk distances after the completion of pulmonary rehabilitation, with an average improvement in distance of 307 feet (P value = .005). Six of the 10 patients completed Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires before and after rehabilitation. There was a significant improvement in the physical functioning score (P value = 0.029). Pulmonary rehabilitation seems to improve 6-minute walk distance, subjective symptoms of dyspnea, and exercise tolerance in patients with BOS. This may be an important adjunctive therapy for a debilitating disease with limited treatment options.
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