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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
IL-6 Receptor ? Defines Effector Memory CD8(+) T Cells Producing Th2 Cytokines and Expanding in Asthma.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Rationale: Cytokine receptors can be markers defining different T cell subsets and considered as therapeutic targets. The association of IL-6 and IL-6 receptor alpha (IL-6R?) with asthma was reported, suggesting their involvement in asthma. Objectives: To determine whether and how IL-6R? defines a distinct effector memory (EM) CD8+ T cell population in health and disease. Methods: EM CD8+ T cells expressing IL-6R? (IL-6R?high) were identified in human peripheral blood and analyzed for function, gene and transcription factor expression. The relationship of these cells with asthma was determined using blood and sputum. Measurements and Main results: A unique population of IL-6R?high EM CD8+ T cells was found in peripheral blood. These cells that potently proliferated, survived, and produced high levels of the Th2-type cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 had increased levels of GATA3 and decreased levels of T-bet and Blimp-1 in comparison to other EM CD8+ T cells. In fact, GATA3 was required for IL-6R? expression. Asthmatic patients had an increased frequency of IL-6R?high EM CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood compared to healthy controls. Also, IL-6R?high EM CD8+ T cells exclusively produced IL-5 and IL-13 in response to asthma-associated respiratory syncytial virus and bacterial superantigens. Conclusions: Human IL-6R?high EM CD8+ T cells is a unique cell subset that may serve as a reservoir for effector CD8+ T cells, particularly the ones producing Th2-type cytokines, and expand in asthma.
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Lutibacter oricola sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from sea water.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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A bacterial strain, UDC377T, was isolated from sea-water samples collected at Seo-do, on the coast of Dokdo island, in the East Sea and was subjected to polyphasic taxonomy study. Strain UDC377T was pale-yellow in colour, Gram-staining-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped and aerobic. This strain grew optimally at 25-28 ?, in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl and at pH7.0-7.5. Strain UDC377T produced carotenoid pigments; however it did not produce flexirubin-type pigments. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain UDC377T clustered with members of the genus Lutibacter and appeared most closely related to Lutibacter agarilyticus KCTC 23842T (96.0 %) followed by L. aestuarii KCTC 23499T (95.0 %), L. litoralis JCM 13034T (94.9 %), L. maritimus KCTC 2635T (94.1 %) and L. flavus KACC 14312T (94.0 %). The DNA G+C content was 30.8 mol%. Strain UDC377T contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C15:0 and iso-C16:0 3-OH as the major fatty acids and phosphatidylethanolamine(PE), two unknown aminolipids and six unknown lipids as the major polar lipids. Based on phenotypic properties and phylogenetic data presented, strain UDC377T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Lutibacter, for which the name Lutibacter oricola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is UDC377T (=DSM 24956T =KCTC 23668T).
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Electroacupuncture at the Zusanli and Baihui acupoints ameliorates type-2 diabetes-induced reductions in proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblast in the hippocampal dentate gyrus with increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels.
J. Vet. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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In the current study, we investigated whether electroacupuncture (EA) can inhibit pathological reductions in neurogenesis. Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats at 7 weeks of age were anesthetized with zoletil, and sham-acupuncture or EA at the Zusanli (ST36) and Baihui (GV20) acupoints was administered once a day for 5 weeks. In the ZDF group that received sham-EA (ZDF-Sham group), the blood glucose level was significantly increased together with age as compared to the control littermates (Zucker lean control [ZLC] rat). In contrast, proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts were significantly decreased in the ZDF-Sham group compared to the ZLC group. Although EA treatment decreased blood glucose levels, this was not statistically significant when compared to blood glucose levels changes in the ZDF-Sham group. However, proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts were significantly increased with EA in ZDF rats as compared to those in the ZDF-Sham group. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were significantly decreased in hippocampal homogenates of ZDF-Sham group compared to those in the ZLC group. The EA treatment significantly increased the BDNF levels compared to those in the ZDF-Sham group, and BDNF levels in this group were similar to those in the ZLC group. These results suggest that EA at ST36 and GV20 can ameliorate the reductions in proliferating cells and differentiated neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus induced by type-2 diabetes without significantly reducing blood glucose levels with increasing BDNF levels.
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Pathogenic Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Associated Clinical Features in Korean Patients with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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Purpose:To identify the spectrum of pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and clinical features in Korean patients with genetically confirmed Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Methods:The medical records of 34 unrelated genetically confirmed LHON patients were reviewed. Total genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood leukocytes of the patients with suspected LHON, and primary or secondary mtDNA mutations were identified by direct sequencing. We analyzed the visual acuity (VA), color vision, RNFL thickness, and visual field at the final visit from 20 patients who were followed up for more than 6 months after the onset of LHON. Results:Among 34 patients, 21 (61.8%) had the homoplasmic primary mutation, 11 (32.4%) had the homoplasmic secondary mutation and 2 (5.9%) had the heteroplasmic primary mutation along with the homoplasmic secondary mutation. Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed six different types of LHON-associated mutations: two primary LHON-associated primary mutations, m.11778G>A (20 patients, 58.8%) and m.14484T>C (3 patients, 8.8%), and four secondary LHON-associated mutations, which were m.3394T>C (3 patients, 8.8%), m.3497C>T (4 patients, 11.8%), m.11696G>A (4 patients, 11.8%), and m.14502T>C (2 patients, 5.9%). Secondary mutation-carrying patients demonstrated a decreased in RNFL thickness, similar to those in primary mutation-carrying LHON patients. These patients had a higher female ratio (p=0.019), better VA (p=0.043) and color vision (p=0.005), as well as better visual field. Conclusions:In addition to common primary LHON-associated mutations, our study identified secondary mtDNA mutations which should be considered when evaluating patients with optic atrophy.
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Self-assembly of nanoparticle amphiphiles with adaptive surface chemistry.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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We investigate the self-assembly of amphiphilic nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with mixed monolayers of hydrophobic and hydrophilic ligands in water. Unlike typical amphiphilic particles with "fixed" surface chemistries, the ligands used here are not bound irreversibly but can rearrange dynamically on the particles' surface during their assembly from solution. Depending on the assembly conditions, these adaptive amphiphiles form compact micellar clusters or extended chain-like assemblies in aqueous solution. By controlling the amount of hydrophobic ligands on the particles' surface, the average number of nearest neighbors-that is, the preferred coordination number-can be varied systematically from ?1 (dimers) to ?2 (linear chains) to ?3 (extended clusters). To explain these experimental findings, we present an assembly mechanism in which hydrophobic ligands organize dynamically to form discrete patches between proximal NPs to minimize contact with their aqueous surroundings. Monte Carlo simulations incorporating these adaptive hydrophobic interactions reproduce the three-dimensional assemblies observed in experiment. These results suggest a general strategy based on reconfigurable "sticky" patches that may allow for tunable control over particle coordination number within self-assembled structures.
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Postural responses during the various frequencies of anteroposterior perturbation.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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This study investigated the characteristics of dynamic postural responses when subjects attempted to maintain an upright standing position on a support plate during continuous sinusoidal perturbation in the anterior-posterior direction. Fifteen healthy young subjects participated in the experiment. Body movement patterns during the perturbation were captured and analyzed using a 3D motion analysis system (APAS 3D motion analysis, Ariel Dynamics Inc.). Seven markers were attached on the subject's body to measure and analyze the motion patterns. The markers were positioned at the head, chest, hip, right knee, left knee, right ankle, and left ankle. Five different frequencies of motion were applied to the support surface: 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 Hz with a 4-cm path of motion at the base. The experiments measured dynamic postural responses in a condition were subjects had their eyes open. The results showed that the median frequency of the knee and ankle increased in all frequency bands. Following an increase in the frequency of the perturbation, the postural control strategy was changed from the ankle strategy to a combined strategy. These experimental results could be applied to the dynamic postural training for the elderly and to rehabilitation training for patients to improve their ability for postural control.
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Direct Binding of Bcl-2 Family Proteins by Quercetin Triggers Its Pro-Apoptotic Activity.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Bcl-2 family proteins are important regulators of apoptosis and its antiapoptotic members, which are overexpressed in many types of cancer, are of high prognostic significance, establishing them as attractive therapeutic targets. Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, has drawn much attention because it exerts anticancer effects, while sparing normal cells. A multidisciplinary approach has been employed herein, in an effort to reveal its mode of action including dose-response antiproliferative activity and induced apoptosis effect, biochemical and physicochemical assays, and computational calculations. It may be concluded that, quercetin binds directly to the BH3 domain of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL proteins, thereby inhibiting their activity and promoting cancer cell apoptosis.
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Whole Courses of the Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Abducens Nerves, Identified in Sectioned Images and Surface Models.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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In medicine, the neuroanatomy of the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), and abducens nerves (VI) is learned essentially by cadaver dissection, histological specimens, and MRI. However, these methods have many limitations and it is necessary to compensate for the insufficiencies of previous methods. The aim of this research was to present sectioned images and surface models that allow the whole courses of III, IV, and VI and circumjacent structures to be observed in detail. To achieve this, the structures of whole courses of III, IV, and VI were traced on the sectioned images, and surface models of the structures were reconstructed. As a result, nucleus of III, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, nucleus of IV, and nucleus of VI and their fibers were identified on brainstem in the sectioned images. In the sectioned images, III, IV, and VI passed both sides of the cavernous sinus and entered at the orbit through the superior orbital fissure. In the sectioned images, III, IV, and VI innervated extraocular muscles in orbit. In surface models, the whole courses of III, IV, and VI and circumjacent structures could be explored freely three-dimensionally. The greatest advantage of the sectioned images was that they allowed the whole courses of III, IV, and VI and circumjacent structures to be observed as real colored in an unbroken line. In addition, the surface models allowed the stereoscopic shapes and positions of III, IV, and VI to be comprehended. The sectioned images and surface models could be applied for medical education purposes or training tools. All data generated during this study is available free of charge at anatomy.dongguk.ac.kr/cn/. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with direct invasion of the mediastinum and the left atrium in an immunocompetent patient.
Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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We report a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis invading the mediastinum and the left atrium. A 70-year-old woman was hospitalized for dyspnea. She had been well controlled for her diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The chest X-ray disclosed mediastinal widening, and the computed tomography scan of the chest showed that there was a large mediastinal mass and this lesion extended into the left atrium and right bronchus. The cardiac echocardiography showed that a huge mediastinal cystic mass compressed in the right atrium and a hyperechoic polypoid lesion in the left. The pathology from the bronchoscopic biopsy observed abundant fungal hyphae which was stained with periodic acid-Schiff and Gomori's methenamine silver. Despite the treatment with antifungal agents, she died from cardiac tamponade after three months. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, which involves the mediastinum and the heart, is very rare in immunocompetent patients.
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Detailed anatomy of the transverse superior fascial expansion of the upper eyelid.
Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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This study was designed to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the transverse superior fascial expansion (TSFE) and its relationship to the superior rectus muscle (SRM) and the levator palpebrae superioris (LPS).
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Hesitant Fuzzy Soft Subalgebras and Ideals in BCK/BCI-Algebras.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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As a link between classical soft sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the notion of hesitant fuzzy soft sets is introduced and applied to a decision making problem in the papers by Babitha and John (2013) and Wang et al. (2014). The aim of this paper is to apply hesitant fuzzy soft set for dealing with several kinds of theories in BCK/BCI-algebras. The notions of hesitant fuzzy soft subalgebras and (closed) hesitant fuzzy soft ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Relations between a hesitant fuzzy soft subalgebra and a (closed) hesitant fuzzy soft ideal are discussed. Conditions for a hesitant fuzzy soft set to be a hesitant fuzzy soft subalgebra are given, and conditions for a hesitant fuzzy soft subalgebra to be a hesitant fuzzy soft ideal are provided. Characterizations of a (closed) hesitant fuzzy soft ideal are considered.
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Classes of int-soft filters in residuated lattices.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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The notions of int-soft filters, int-soft G-filters, regular int-soft filters, and MV-int-soft filters in residuated lattices are introduced, and their relations, properties, and characterizations are investigated. Conditions for an int-soft filter to be an int-soft G-filter, a regular int-soft filter, or an MV-int-soft filter are provided. The extension property for an int-soft G-filter is discussed. Finally, it is shown that the notion of an MV-int-soft filter coincides with the notion of a regular int-soft filter in BL-algebras.
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Activity analysis of trunk and leg muscles during whole body tilt exercise.
Biomed Mater Eng
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The objectives were to assess the trunk and leg muscle activities during the trunk tilt exercise by a 3D dynamic exercise device capable of active and passive movements, to study the evaluation of Root Mean Squire (RMS), and to investigation the influence of the trunk positions on these muscle activities. Eighteen healthy volunteers were selected. None of the subjects had any history of lumber and trunk muscle problems. Rotation capability was enabled for the investigation of A (anterior), R (right), P (posterior), L (left), AR (anterior right), AL (anterior left), PR (posterior right), PL (posterior left) tilt directions. EMG signals of trunk (rectus abdominis, external obliques, latissimus dorsi, erector spinae) muscles and leg (rectus femoris, Biceps femoris, Tibialis Anterior, gastrocnemius) muscles were taken out. Root Mean Squire (RMS) values were calculated. The results of this study indicate that different exercise patterns can be applied depending on the exercise types, which are appropriate and necessary to each user. We believe that the human body can be maintained in equilibrium through the interaction between the position and movement execution of the human body, contributing to the improvement of body balance control. Further quantitative data collection and analysis related to the development of various spinal stabilization exercise programs is required. In the near future, we will conduct a study concerning the effects of trunk tilt exercise in active and passive modes on the strength of the tilting muscles and postural balancing ability.
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Antarctobacter jejuensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater in Jeju, Korea.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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A novel bacterium, designated strain 13-2-B6(T), was isolated from seawater adjacent to Songak Mountain on Jeju Island, South Korea. The novel strain was observed to be Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and motile with a single polar flagellum. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain 13-2-B6(T) was determined to be phylogenetically closely related to the type strain of Antarctobacter heliothermus, currently the sole species of the genus Antarctobacter (family Rhodobacteraceae). Sequence similarity between the 16S rRNA genes of strain 13-2-B6(T) and A. heliothermus EL-219(T) is 96.9 %. Strain 13-2-B6(T) was found to grow optimally at 25-30 °C, pH 7.0-8.0 and 3 % (w/v) NaCl. The predominant isoprenoid quinone in strain 13-2-B6(T) was identified as ubiquinone Q-10 and the major fatty acids were identified as C18:1 ?7c and/or C18:1 ?6c. Phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown aminolipids, two unknown phospholipids, an unknown glycolipid and an unknown lipid were found to be components of the polar lipid profile. The G + C content of strain 13-2-B6(T) was determined to be 62 mol %. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain 13-2-B6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Antarctobacter, for which the name Antarctobacter jejuensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 13-2-B6(T) (=KCTC 42009(T) =JCM 19898(T)).
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Current status of prescription in type 2 diabetic patients from general hospitals in busan.
Diabetes Metab J
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Data regarding the prescription status of individuals with diabetes are limited. This study was an analysis of participants from the relationship between cardiovascular disease and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in patients with type 2 diabetes (REBOUND) Study, which was a prospective multicenter cohort study recruited from eight general hospitals in Busan, Korea. We performed this study to investigate the current status of prescription in Korean type 2 diabetic patients.
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Inhibitory effects of ?-chamigrenal, isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis, on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E? production in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Much is known about the bioactive properties of lignans from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis. However, very little work has been done to determine the properties of sesquiterpenes in the fruits of S. chinensis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory potential of new sesquiterpenes (?-chamigrenal, ?-chamigrenic acid, ?-ylangenol, and ?-ylangenyl acetate) isolated from the fruits of S. chinensis and to explore their effect on macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Of these four sesquiterpenes, ?-chamigrenal most significantly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in RAW 264.7 macrophages (47.21 ± 4.54?% and 51.61 ± 3.95?% at 50 µM, respectively). Molecularly, the inhibitory activity of ?-chamigrenal on nitric oxide production was mediated by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase activity but not its expression. In the prostaglandin E2 synthesis pathway, ?-chamigrenal prevented the upregulation of inducible microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Conversely, ?-chamigrenal had no effect on the expression and enzyme activity of cyclooxygenase-2. In addition, the expression of early growth response factor-1, a key transcription factor of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 expression, was inhibited by ?-chamigrenal. These results may suggest a possible anti-inflammatory activity of ?-chamigrenal which has to be proven in in vivo experiments.
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Soyasaponins Aa and Ab Exert an Anti-Obesity Effect in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes Through Downregulation of PPAR?
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Saponins are a diverse group of biologically functional products in plants. Soyasaponins are usually glycosylated, which give rise to a wide diversity of structures and functions. In this study, we investigated the effects and molecular mechanism of soyasaponins Aa and Ab in regulating adipocyte differentiation and expression of adipogenic marker genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Soyasaponins Aa and Ab dose-dependently inhibited the accumulation of lipids and the expression of adiponectin, adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1/sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, fatty acid synthase, and resistin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, soyasaponins Aa and Ab suppressed the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in HEK 293T cells. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expression of PPAR? and of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) was suppressed at both the mRNA and protein levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by treatment with soyasaponins Aa and Ab. Taken together, these findings indicate that soyasaponin Aa and Ab markedly inhibit adipocyte differentiation and expression of various adipogenic marker genes through the downregulation of the adipogenesis-related transcription factors PPAR? and C/EBP? in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Low-dose radiation suppresses Pokemon expression under hypoxic conditions.
Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Our previous data demonstrated that CoCl2-induced hypoxia controls endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated and other intracellular factors. One of them, the transcription factor Pokemon, was differentially regulated by low-dose radiation (LDR). There are limited data regarding how this transcription factor is involved in expression of the unfolded protein response (UPR) under hypoxic conditions. The purpose of this study was to obtain clues on how Pokemon is involved in the UPR. Pokemon was selected as a differentially expressed gene under hypoxic conditions; however, its regulation was clearly repressed by LDR. It was also demonstrated that both expression of ER chaperones and ER stress sensors were affected by hypoxic conditions, and the same results were obtained when cells in which Pokemon was up- or down-regulated were used. The current state of UPR and LDR research associated with the Pokemon pathway offers an important opportunity to understand the oncogenesis, senescence, and differentiation of cells, as well as to facilitate introduction of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals.
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Change in the antioxidative capacity of extraocular muscles in patients with exotropia.
Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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We compared the oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities of the medial rectus muscles (MRMs) between the patients with constant exotropia and control subjects.
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Immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in immune T-cells and T-lymphoma cells via regulation of Th1, Th2 immune response and MAPK/ERK2 signaling pathway.
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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The anti-cancer activity of saponins and phenolic compounds present in green tea was previously reported. However, the immunomodulatory and adjuvanticity activity of tea saponin has never been studied. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in T-lymphocytes and EL4 cells via regulation of cytokine response and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression level of cytokines were performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following stimulation with tea saponin, ovalbumin (OVA) alone or tea saponin in combination with OVA. Tea saponin inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells measured in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity effect of tea saponin was detected in T-lymphocytes; rather, tea saponin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Tea saponin with OVA increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and decreased the expression level of IL-10 and IL-8 in T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tea saponin, in the presence of OVA, downregulated the MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of IL-4, IL-8 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-?B) in EL4 cells. Th1 cytokines enhancer and Th2 cytokines and NF-?B inhibitor, tea saponin can markedly inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of T-lymphoma (EL4) cells, possibly due to TNF-?- and NF-?B-mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.
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Theasaponin E? as an effective ingredient for anti-angiogenesis and anti-obesity effects.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Theasaponin E? (TSE?) has been suggested to have higher biological activity than other saponins present in tea seed. Saponins have recently been considered as a potential chemotherapeutic agent for treating cancer. We examined the anti-angiogenic and anti-obesity properties of TSE? contributing to anti-cancer efficacy. Treating with a 10 ?g/mL concentration of TSE? completely inhibited tube formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). TSE? showed toxicity toward cancer cells and inhibited in vivo growth of the tumor. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor complex was suppressed, leading to the inhibition of protein kinase B (Akt) expression and down-regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation. The differentiating 3T3-L? cells treated with TSE? had decreased lipid droplet formation measured by Oil Red O staining. Reduced weight was measured in mice fed with a TSE? plus high-fat diet. The results taken together, and particularly the NF-kB inhibition, suggest that TSE? may have multi-target action for treating cancer as a novel chemotherapeutic agent.
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Cheonggukjang polysaccharides enhance immune activities and prevent cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Cheonggukjang is a traditional Korean fermentation product prepared from soybean that is reported to have various biological functions. We previously reported that the polysaccharides from Cheonggukjang (PSCJ) have immunostimulatory activities in RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary cultured splenocytes. In this study, the immunostimulatory activities of the PSCJ were investigated further using various experimental models such as in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. The PSCJ was able to stimulate the complement system (ITCH50: 30.6%). In primary cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages, the PSCJ was found to significantly increase nitric oxide and immunostimulatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-12) production in a concentration-dependent manner (1-100?g/mL). In the normal mice model, the oral administration of the PSCJ increased the weight of spleen (p<0.05 at 100 and 200mg/kg) and improved the phagocytic rates of peritoneal macrophages (p<0.05 at 200mg/kg) and lymphocytes proliferation (p<0.05 at 100 and 200mg/kg). Similarly, the PSCJ markedly restored the decreased lymphocytes proliferation (p<0.01 at 200mg/kg), natural killer cell activity (p<0.01 at 200mg/kg), and white blood cell count (p<0.01 at 100 and 200mg/kg) in the cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed mice model. These results suggest that the PSCJ could be utilized as an effective immunostimulatory agent.
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On fuzzy positive implicative filters in BE-algebras.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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We study several degrees in defining a fuzzy positive implicative filter, which is a generalization of a fuzzy filter in BE-algebras.
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Fuzzy upper bounds in groupoids.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The notion of a fuzzy upper bound over a groupoid is introduced and some properties of it are investigated. We also define the notions of an either-or subset of a groupoid and a strong either-or subset of a groupoid and study some of their related properties. In particular, we consider fuzzy upper bounds in Bin(X), where Bin(X) is the collection of all groupoids. Finally, we define a fuzzy-d-subset of a groupoid and investigate some of its properties.
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Sectioned images and surface models of a cadaver for understanding the deep circumflex iliac artery flap.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The aim of this study was to describe the deep circumflex iliac artery (DCIA) flap from sectioned images and stereoscopic anatomic models using Visible Korean, for the benefit of medical education and clinical training in the field of oromandibular reconstructive surgery. Serially sectioned images of the pelvic area were obtained from a cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. The PDF (portable document format) file (size, 30 MB) of the constructed models is available for free download on the Web site of the Department of Anatomy at Ajou University School of Medicine (http://anatomy.co.kr). In the PDF file, the relevant structures of the DCIA flap can be seen in the sectioned images. All surface models and stereoscopic structures associated with the DCIA flap are displayed in real time. We hope that these state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models will help students and trainees better understand the anatomy associated with DCIA flap.
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KR-62980 suppresses lipid metabolism through inhibition of cytosolic NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase in zebrafish.
Zebrafish
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a target of antidiabetic drugs. However, many PPAR? activators, including rosiglitazone, show unwanted side effects, such as weight gain. The KR-62980 [1-(trans-methylimino-N-oxy)-3-phenyl-6-(3-phenylpropoxy)-1H-indene-2-carboxylic acid ethyl ester], a novel partial agonist of PPAR?, is a new compound for diabetes with antihyperglycemic activity and weak antiadipogenic activity. This study was performed to elucidate the mechanism of the weak adipogenesis induced by KR-62980 despite its being a PPAR? agonist in zebrafish. We elucidated the mechanism of KR-62980 in lipid metabolism using adipocytes and zebrafish. Since NADPH is a critical cofactor in fat metabolism, we investigated effect of KR-62980 on NADPH-producing enzymes such as cytosolic NADP(+) isocitrate dehydrogenase (cICDH). We found that the mRNA expression of cICDH was significantly decreased by KR-62980 in 3T3-L1 cells. KR-62980 inhibited lipase activity and lipid metabolism in zebrafish. Further, KR-62980 substantially suppressed cICDH in adipocytes and zebrafish. These results suggest that cICDH may be one of the targets of KR-62980 responsible for weight gain and adipogenesis.
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Activation of microglia and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus of type 2 diabetic rats.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The majority of immune cells in the brain are comprised of microglia, which undergo morphological changes when activated to remove damaged neurons and infectious agents from the brain tissue. In this study, we investigated the effects of type 2 diabetes on microglial activation and the subsequent secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), in the hippocampus using Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and Zucker lean control (ZLC) rats at various diabetic stages.
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Human monocytes have increased IFN-?-mediated IL-15 production with age alongside altered IFN-? receptor signaling.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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IL-15 is involved in regulating host defense and inflammation. Monocytes produce the biologically active cell surface IL-15 in response to IFN-?. Although aging can alter the immune system, little is known about whether and how aging affects IFN-?-mediated IL-15 production in human monocytes. We showed that monocytes of healthy older adults (age ? 65) had increased cell surface IL-15 expression in response to IFN-? compared to those of healthy young adults (age ? 40). This finding stems in part from increased IFN-? receptor (R)1/2 expression on monocytes in older adults, leading to enhanced STAT1 activation and interferon regulatory factor 1 synthesis with increased IL15 gene expression. Our study suggests that with aging the IFN-?-mediated IL-15 production pathway in human monocytes is uncompromised, but rather augmented, and could be considered as a therapeutic target point to modulate host defense and inflammation in older adults.
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Proteomic analysis of domestic pig pancreas during development using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.
Lab Anim Res
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Pig pancreas may be a therapeutic resource for human diabetic patients. However, this potential is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the molecular events of pig pancreas development. In this study, the embryonic day 60, neonate and 6-month protein profiles of pig pancreas were ascertained at using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Twenty four proteins were differentially expressed during pig pancreas development. Among them, 12 spots increased and 7 spots decreased according to development. The expression of 5 protein were highest at birth. Expression of digestive enzymes including trypsin, pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase and pancreatic alpha-amylase was elevated in adults, whereas chymotrypsins were highly expressed in neonates. Proteins that were abundantly expressed during gestation were alpha-1-antitrypsin, alpha-fetoprotein and transferrins. Taken together, we found out that several proteins were significantly up- or down- regulated from pig pancreas based on developmental stage. This study will provide basis for understanding development of pig pancreas.
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Synthesis, biological evaluation, and docking analysis of a novel family of 1-methyl-1H-pyrrole-2,5-diones as highly potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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As a continuous research for discovery of new COX-2 inhibitors, we present the simple chemical synthesis, in vitro biological screening, and molecular docking study of 1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione derivatives. New synthetic compounds were evaluated for the inhibitory activities on LPS-induced PGE2 production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells as well as the COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory potency. Among them, compound 9d (MPO-0029) was identified as more potent and selective COX-2 inhibitor [PGE2 IC50=8.7 nM, COX-2 IC50=6.0 nM; COX-2 selectivity index (SI)=>168] than celecoxib. Molecular docking experiments were further performed against COX-2 and COX-1 isozymes to determine their probable binding models. Results of molecular docking studies revealed that compound 9d (MPO-0029) has stronger binding interaction with COX-2 than with COX-1 isozyme, and provided successfully complementary theoretical support for the obtained experimental biological data.
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Antitumor activity of the c-Myc inhibitor KSI-3716 in gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Intravesical instillation of chemotherapeutic agents is a well-established treatment strategy to decrease recurrence following transurethral resection in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Gemcitabine is a recently developed treatment option. However, the curative effects of gemcitabine are far from satisfactory due to de novo or acquired drug resistance. In a previous study, we reported that intravesical administration of the c-Myc inhibitor KSI-3716 suppresses tumor growth in an orthotopic bladder cancer model. Here, we explored whether KSI-3716 inhibits gemcitabine-resistant bladder cancer cell proliferation. As expected from the in vitro cytotoxicity of gemcitabine in several bladder cancer cell lines, gemcitabine effectively suppressed the growth of KU19-19 xenografts in nude mice, although all mice relapsed later. Long-term in vitro exposure to gemcitabine induced gemcitabine-specific resistance. Gemcitabine-resistant cells, termed KU19-19/GEM, formed xenograft tumors even in the presence of 2 mg/kg gemcitabine. Interestingly, KU19-19/GEM cells up-regulated c-Myc expression in the presence of the gemcitabine and resisted to the gemcitabine, however was suppressed by the KSI-3716. The sequential addition of gemcitabine and KSI-3716 inhibited gemcitabine-resistant cell proliferation to a great extent than each drug alone. These results suggest that sequential treatment with gemcitabine and KSI-3716 may be beneficial to bladder cancer patients.
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Changes in ocular factors according to depth variation and viewer age after watching a three-dimensional display.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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To investigate changes in ocular factors according to the binocular disparity in three-dimensional (3D) images and age after watching 3D display.
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Improved sectioned images and surface models of the whole dog body.
Ann. Anat.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The objective of this research was to produce high-quality sectioned images of a whole dog which can be used to create sectional anatomy atlases and three-dimensional (3D) models. A year old female beagle was sacrificed by potassium chloride injection and frozen. The frozen dog was then serially ground using a cryomacrotome. Sectioned surfaces were photographed using a digital camera to create 3555 sectioned images of whole dog body (intervals, 0.2 mm; pixel size, 0.1 mm; 48 bit color). In a sectioned image, structures of dimension greater than 0.1mm could be identified in detail. Photoshop was used to make segmented images of 16 structures. Sectioned and segmented images were stored in browsing software to allow easy access. Segmented images were reconstructed to make surface models of 16 structures using Mimics software and stored in portable document format (PDF) using Adobe 3D Reviewer software. In this research, state-of-art sectioned images and surface models were produced for the dog. The authors hope that the sectioned images produced will become a useful source of software for basic and clinical veterinary medicine, and therefore, are distributing the sectioned images and surface models through browsing software and PDF file available free of charge.
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Proteomic analysis of pancreas in miniature pigs according to developmental stages using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.
Lab Anim Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Organ transplantation is limited by the shortage of human organs. Many studies have sought to overcome this hurdle by using animal organs. Porcine organs, especially from miniature pigs, have been used for organ xenotransplantation rather than nonhuman primates. While the molecular profiling for transplantation is well known in humans and rodents, the situation for pigs is almost completely unknown. The present study examined protein regulation of the developing stages of the pancreatic proteome (4 day-old miniature neonate, 19 day-old miniature piglet, and 14 month-old miniature adult pigs) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. Thirteen different expressed spots were observed and nine were identified. The data presented within this study provides critical direction relating to the development of pancreas of miniature pigs, which will assist future proteome analysis of the pancreas, and advance our understanding of the hurdles facing xenotransplantation.
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Standardized ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Brassica rapa attenuates the experimental arthritis by down regulating inflammatory responses and inhibiting NF-?B activation.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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This study was undertaken to investigate the anti-arthritic potential of a standardized ethyl acetate fraction from the roots of Brassica rapa (EABR) and to explore the molecular mechanisms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats and macrophages. In AIA-induced arthritic rats, EABR significantly reduced paw swelling, an arthritic index, serum rheumatoid factor, and tissue expression ratio of RANKL/OPG versus vehicle-administered group. This was found to be well correlated with significant suppressions in productions of PGE2, NO, and pro-inflammatory cytokines and in activations of NF-?B in AIA-induced paw tissues and LPS-induced macrophages. EABR attenuated NF-?B activation by reducing the nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of the p65 NF-?B, which were accompanied by parallel reductions in the degradation and phosphorylation of I?B? after blocking the phosphorylation mediated IKK activation. The findings suggest EABR exerts its anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory properties via NF-?B inactivation in vitro and in vivo, and that EABR is a potential therapeutic for the treatment of arthritis and inflammation-associated disorders.
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Targeting of p53 peptide analogues to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins as revealed by NMR spectroscopy.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Inhibition of the interaction between the p53 tumor suppressor and its negative regulator MDM2 is of great importance to cancer therapy. The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins are also attractive anti-cancer molecular targets, as they are key regulators of apoptotic cell death. Previously, we reported the interactions between the p53 transactivation domain (p53TAD) and diverse members of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In this study, we investigated the binding of MDM2-inhibiting p53TAD peptide analogues, p53-MDM2/MDMX inhibitor (PMI) and pDI, with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, by using NMR spectroscopy. The NMR chemical shift perturbation data demonstrated the direct binding of the p53 peptide analogues to Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 and showed that the PMI and pDI peptides bind to a conserved hydrophobic groove of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. Furthermore, the structural model of the Bcl-XL/PMI peptide complex showed that the binding mode of the PMI peptide is highly similar to that of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) peptides. Finally, our structural comparison provided a molecular basis for how the same PMI peptide can bind to two distinct anti-cancer target proteins Bcl-XL and MDM2, which may have potential applications for multi-targeting cancer therapy.
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Correlation of skin toxicity and hypertension with clinical benefit in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with sorafenib.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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The purpose of this study was to identify the correlation of skin toxicity and hypertension with clinical benefit in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with sorafenib by analyzing medical records retrospectively.
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Nocardioides endophyticus sp. nov. and Nocardioides conyzicola sp. nov., isolated from herbaceous plant roots.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Two Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped actinobacterial strains were isolated from the surface-sterilized roots of mugwort (Artemisia princeps) and horse-weed (Conyza canadensis), and subjected to taxonomic characterization. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the isolates, designated MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T), should be placed in the genus Nocardioides of the family Nocardioidaceae. The strains were closely related to Nocardioides hankookensis DS-30(T), which exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values of 97.99 and 99.09?% with strains MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T), respectively. The genome relatedness of N. hankookensis DS-30(T) with strain MWE 3-5(T) was 35.8?%, and that with strain HWE 2-02(T) was 36.4?%, whereas that between the two isolates was 43.2?%. Strains MWE 3-5(T) and HWE 2-02(T) possessed MK-8(H4) as the major isoprenoid quinone, and ll-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The main fatty acids were iso-C16?:?0, iso-C17?:?0 and C18?:?1?9c for strain MWE 3-5(T) and iso-C16?:?0, 10-methyl C18?:?0 and C18?:?1?9c for strain HWE 2-02(T). Based on phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic studies, the following two novel species are proposed: Nocardioides endophyticus sp. nov. (type strain, MWE 3-5(T)?=?KCTC 29122(T)?=?JCM 18532(T)) and Nocardioides conyzicola sp. nov. (type strain, HWE 2-02(T)?=?KCTC 29121(T)?=?JCM 18531(T)).
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Echinocystic acid isolated from Eclipta prostrata suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS, TNF-?, and IL-6 expressions via NF-?B inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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In this study, we aimed to identify the compounds in Eclipta prostrata responsible for its anti-inflammatory effects using an in vitro bioassay. Three triterpenoids, eclalbasaponin I, eclalbasaponin II, and echinocystic acid, were isolated from an EtOAc fraction of the 70 % EtOH extract of E. prostrata by activity-guided fractionation based on the inhibition of nitric oxide release from lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Of these three triterpenoids, echinocystic acid inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-? and interleukin-6. Consistent with these observations, echinocystic acid concentration-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression at the protein level and inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-6 expression at the mRNA level, and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS promoter binding activity. In addition, echinocystic acid suppressed the lipopolysaccharide-induced transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-?B by blocking the nuclear translocation of p65.
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5,6,7-Trimethoxyflavone suppresses pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and protects mice from lethal endotoxin shock.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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5,6,7-Trimethoxyflavone (TMF), methylations of the hydroxyl groups of oroxylin A or baicalein, was found to significantly inhibit the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. However, no report has been issued on the anti-inflammatory potential of TMF and the underlying molecular mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of TMF in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and LPS-induced septic shock in mice. TMF dose-dependently inhibits iNOS and COX-2 at the protein, mRNA, and promoter binding levels and that these inhibitions cause attendant decreases in the productions of NO and PGE2. TMF inhibits the productions and mRNA expressions of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1?, and IL-6 induced by LPS. Furthermore, TMF suppress the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1), and nuclear translocations of NF-?B, AP-1, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3). Pretreatment with TMF increase the survival rate of mice with LPS-induced endotoxemia and reduced the serum levels of cytokines. Taken together, these findings suggest that TMF down-regulates the expressions of the pro-inflammatory iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 genes in macrophages by interfering with the activation of NF-?B, AP-1, and STAT1/3.
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Chloroform fraction of Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung epidermis suppresses LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages and DSS-induced colitis in mice.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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In this study, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the antiinflammatory effects of the chloroform fraction of the peel of Jayoung (CFPJ), a color-fleshed potato, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. CFPJ inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcription level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) by reducing the translocation of NF-?B depending on degradation of inhibitory ?B-? (I?B-?). Furthermore, CFPJ attenuated the phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases3/6 (MKK3/6) and of p38. In colitis model, CFPJ significantly reduced the severity of colitis and the productions and protein levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in colonic tissue. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of CFPJ are associated with the suppression of NF-?B and p38 activation in macrophages, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of colitis.
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[Clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori associated with 23S rRNA point mutations in Jeju Island].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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The point mutations in 23S rRNA gene accounts for the majority of the clarithromycin resistance of Helicobacter pylori. This study aimed to investigate the association between the clarithromycin-resistance of H. pylori and the failure of primary H. pylori eradication therapy in Jeju Island.
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Protective effects of 6-hydroxy-1-methylindole-3-acetonitrile on cisplatin-induced oxidative nephrotoxicity via Nrf2 inactivation.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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We previously demonstrated the ethanol extract of the roots of Brassica rapa protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by attenuating oxidative stress. Here, we investigated the nephroprotective effects of 6-hydroxy-1-methylindole-3-acetonitrile (6-HMA), which was isolated from the roots of B. rapa, on cisplatin-induced toxicity in renal epithelial LLC-PK1 cells and in rats with acute renal injury. Pretreatment of LLC-PK1 cells with 6-HMA ameliorated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity caused by oxidative stress, as was demonstrated by reductions in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased levels of glutathione (GSH). In addition, 6-HMA inhibited cisplatin-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, possibly due to the suppression of the nuclear translocation and binding activity of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, 6-HMA administered rats showed lower levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and urinary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) than cisplatin alone-treated rats in cisplatin-induced renal injury model. Moreover, 6-HMA inhibited the cisplatin-induced formation of MDA and GSH depletion and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione reductase (GR). Taken together, these findings indicate 6-HMA is a major active constituent from the roots of B. rapa to have a protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by attenuating oxidative stress.
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Proteomic analysis of liver in miniature pigs according to developmental stages using two-dimensional electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.
Lab Anim Res
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Due to the shortage of human organ donors for transplant, various studies of xenotransplantation, or the use of animal organs instead of human organs, have been carried out. The organs of porcine are thought to be safer and of a more suitable size for xenotransplantationthan those of nonhuman primates. Understanding the levels of expression of proteins, and their post-translational regulation, would be very practical between different species and among developing stages, though the molecular profiling for xenotransplantation has been rarely studied for porcine, while that of human and rodent is well known. Here, in this present study, we report protein regulation of the developing stages of liver (4-day old neonate, 19-day old piglet and 14-month old adult miniature pigs) using 2-DE and MALDI-TOF. From images of the three different stages, a total of 8 spotswhich were differently regulated were identified, and 5 spots were identified with MALDI-TOF MS. The data presented within this study provides critical direction relating to the development of livers of miniature pigs, which will assist future proteome analysis of the liver, and advance our understanding of the hurdles facing xenotransplantaion.
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Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.
Anat Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.
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Laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of the ascending colon wall based on a cadaver sectioned images.
Anat Sci Int
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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For realistic virtual dissection, the sectioned images of a cadaver are a desirable material because of their high resolution and real body color. After a volume model is made of the sectioned images, it can be piled or peeled at the intended thickness as if a structures surface is expanded and shrunken. The purpose of our study was to confirm whether laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of the processed volume model plays a part in anatomy investigation. The ascending colon was outlined in serially sectioned images and accumulated to build a volume model. While the volume model was being piled or peeled, the ascending colon was observed laparoscopically and endoscopically in comparison with the original sectioned image. The trial efficiently demonstrated layers of the colon wall and surrounding tissues which could not be visualized by conventional macroscopic or microscopic techniques. The availability and contribution of this new method will be confirmed by application to other various organs.
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Time-dependent changes of calbindin D-28K and parvalbumin immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rats with streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The hippocampus is affected by various stimuli that include hyperglycemia, depression, and ischemia. Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) have protective roles in the response to such stimuli. However, little is known about the expression of CaBPs under diabetic conditions. This study was conducted to examine alterations in the physiological parameters with type 1 diabetes induced with streptozotocin (STZ) as well as time-dependent changes in the expression of two CaBPs changes of were being evaluated. Rats treated with STZ (70 mg/kg) had high blood glucose levels (> 21.4 mmol/L) along with increased food intake and water consumption volumes compared to the sham controls. In contrast, body weight of the animals treated with STZ was significantly reduced compared to the sham group. CB-specific immunoreactivity was generally increased in the hippocampal CA1 region and granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus (DG) 2 weeks after STZ treatment, but decreased thereafter in these regions. In contrast, the number of PV-immunoreactive neurons and fibers was unchanged in the hippocampus and DG 2 weeks after STZ treatment. However, this number subsequently decreased over time. These results suggest that CB and PV expression is lowest 3 weeks after STZ administration, and these deficits lead to disturbances in calcium homeostasis.
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6,7-Dimethoxy-3-(3-methoxyphenyl)isoquinolin-1-amine induces mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death through the activation of spindle assembly checkpoint in human cervical cancer cells.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Previously, we reported that 6,7-dimethoxy-3-(3-methoxyphenyl)isoquinolin-1-amine (CWJ-082) has potent cytotoxic effects on various cancer cells, but the underlying molecular mechanism responsible was not determined. In the present study, CWJ-082 caused cervical cancer cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and subsequent caspase-dependent apoptosis. The mitotic arrest caused by CWJ-082 found to be due to increases in the activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1/cyclin B1 complex and the phosphorylation of histone H3. In addition, CWJ-082 induced the phosphorylation of BubR1 and the association between mitotic arrest deficient 2 (Mad2) and cell division cycle protein 20. These findings suggested that CWJ-082 activated the mitotic spindle checkpoint. Furthermore, knockdown of the spindle checkpoint proteins BubR1 or Mad2 using specific small interfering RNAs significantly reduced CWJ-082-induced mitotic cell accumulation and apoptosis. In addition, CWJ-082 induced the appearance of spindle abnormalities by inducing ?-tubulin polymerization. In BALB/c(nu/nu) mice bearing a HeLa xenograft, CWJ-082 significantly inhibited tumor growth. Taken together, these results suggest that CWJ-082 inhibits cell growth via mitotic arrest by activating the mitotic spindle checkpoint and by inducing ?-tubulin polymerization and that these events ultimately lead to the apoptosis of human cervical cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in HeLa xenograft mice.
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Accessible and informative sectioned images, color-coded images, and surface models of the ear.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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In our previous research, we created state-of-the-art sectioned images, color-coded images, and surface models of the human ear. Our ear data would be more beneficial and informative if they were more easily accessible. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to distribute the browsing software and the PDF file in which ear images are to be readily obtainable and freely explored. Another goal was to inform other researchers of our methods for establishing the browsing software and the PDF file. To achieve this, sectioned images and color-coded images of ear were prepared (voxel size 0.1 mm). In the color-coded images, structures related to hearing, equilibrium, and structures originated from the first and second pharyngeal arches were segmented supplementarily. The sectioned and color-coded images of right ear were added to the browsing software, which displayed the images serially along with structure names. The surface models were reconstructed to be combined into the PDF file where they could be freely manipulated. Using the browsing software and PDF file, sectional and three-dimensional shapes of ear structures could be comprehended in detail. Furthermore, using the PDF file, clinical knowledge could be identified through virtual otoscopy. Therefore, the presented educational tools will be helpful to medical students and otologists by improving their knowledge of ear anatomy. The browsing software and PDF file can be downloaded without charge and registration at our homepage (http://anatomy.dongguk.ac.kr/ear/).
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Integration of gold nanoparticles into bilayer structures via adaptive surface chemistry.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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We describe the spontaneous incorporation of amphiphilic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) into the walls of surfactant vesicles. Au NPs were functionalized with mixed monolayers of hydrophilic (deprotonated mercaptoundecanoic acid, MUA) and hydrophobic (octadecanethiol, ODT) ligands, which are known to redistribute dynamically on the NP surface in response to changes in the local environment. When Au NPs are mixed with preformed surfactant vesicles, the hydrophobic ODT ligands on the NP surface interact favorably with the hydrophobic core of the bilayer structure and guide the incorporation of NPs into the vesicle walls. Unlike previous strategies based on small hydrophobic NPs, the present approach allows for the incorporation of water-soluble particles even when the size of the particles greatly exceeds the bilayer thickness. The strategy described here based on inorganic NPs functionalized with two labile ligands should in principle be applicable to other nanoparticle materials and bilayer structures.
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Marinoscillum luteum sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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A novel strain, designated SJP7(T), was isolated from sediment of the Tofua Arc of the Tonga Trench. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed the highest similarity to that of Marinoscillum pacificum KCCM 42325(T) (95.9%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with Marinoscillum pacificum KCCM 42325(T) and Marinoscillum furvescens LMG 13023(T) within the family Cytophagaceae. Cells of strain SJP7(T) were Gram-stain-negative and appeared as long rods that were motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5-8.0) and in the presence of 0.5-7.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5-3%). The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C(16:1)?7c and/or C(16:1)?6c), iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)?5c. The DNA G+C content was 43.5 mol%. These properties support the affiliation of strain SJP7(T) with the genus Marinoscillum. Further phenotypic differentiation of strain SJP7(T) from other species of the genus Marinoscillum was indicated by the results of physiological and biochemical tests. On the basis of evidence from our polyphasic taxonomic study, strain SJP7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marinoscillum, for which the name Marinoscillum luteum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Marinoscillum luteum is SJP7(T) (?=KCTC 23939(T)?=NCAIM B02491(T)).
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Immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides from Cheonggukjang.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Cheonggukjang is a Korean whole soybean paste fermented by Bacillus subtilis and regarded as a healthy food. The objective of this study was to investigate the immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides from Cheonggukjang (PSCJ) in RAW 264.7 macrophages and an animal model. PSCJ induced mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) by activating nuclear factor-?B, and subsequently increased the productions of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-? in murine recombinant interferon-?-primed RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, after daily oral administration of PSCJ, immobility time decreased significantly in the PSCJ-administered group (200 or 400 mg/kg) on day 10. Taken together, these results suggest that the PSCJ has a possible role improving immune function through regulatory effects on immunological parameters, such as NO and TNF-? productions and changes in indicators related to fatigue.
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In vitro and in vivo immunostimulatory effects of hot water extracts from the leaves of Artemisia princeps Pampanini cv. Sajabal.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Artemisia princeps Pampanini (Asteraceae) is used as a traditional medicine to immune function-related diseases, such as dysmenorrhea, inflammation, cancer, and ulcers.
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Two-dimensional sectioned images and three-dimensional surface models for learning the anatomy of the female pelvis.
Anat Sci Educ
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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In the Visible Korean project, serially sectioned images of the pelvis were made from a female cadaver. Outlines of significant structures in the sectioned images were drawn and stacked to build surface models. To improve the accessibility and informational content of these data, a five-step process was designed and implemented. First, 154 pelvic structures were outlined with additional surface reconstruction to prepare the image data. Second, the sectioned and outlined images (in a browsing software) as well as the surface models (in a PDF file) were placed on the Visible Korean homepage in a readily-accessible format. Third, all image data were visualized with interactive elements to stimulate creative learning. Fourth, two-dimensional (2D) images and three-dimensional (3D) models were superimposed on one another to provide context and spatial information for students viewing these data. Fifth, images were designed such that structure names would be shown when the mouse pointer hovered over the 2D images or the 3D models. The state-of-the-art sectioned images, outlined images, and surface models, arranged and systematized as described in this study, will aid students in understanding the anatomy of female pelvis. The graphic data accompanied by corresponding magnetic resonance images and computed tomographs are expected to promote the production of 3D simulators for clinical practice.
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Fimasartan, anti-hypertension drug, suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase expressions via nuclear factor-kappa B and activator protein-1 inactivation.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Since inhibition of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor reduces chronic inflammation associated with hypertension, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential and the underlying mechanism of fimasartan, a Korean Food and Drug Administration approved anti-hypertension drug, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Fimasartan suppressed the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by down-regulating its transcription, and subsequently inhibited the productions of nitric oxide (NO). In addition, fimasartan attenuated LPS-induced transcriptional and DNA-binding activities of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). These reductions were accompanied by parallel reductions in the nuclear translocation of NF-?B and AP-1. Taken together, our data suggest that fimasartan down-regulates the expression of the iNOS in macrophages via NF-?B and AP-1 inactivation.
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An altered relationship of influenza vaccine-specific IgG responses with T cell immunity occurs with aging in humans.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Alterations in T cell immunity occur with aging. Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly. We investigated the relationship of serum IgG responses with hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) antibody titers and the frequency of distinct T cell subsets in young and elderly people who received the inactivated influenza vaccine. Influenza vaccine-specific IgG responses correlated with the increase of HI antibody titers and the frequency of CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-? and IL-17 in young, but not elderly, people. Also, only in young people, such IgG responses correlated with the frequency of memory T cells, especially central memory cells, CD45RA(-) effector memory CD8(+) T cells and IL-7 receptor alpha high effector memory CD8(+) T cells with potent survival and proliferative capacity. These findings suggest that aging alters the association of influenza-vaccine specific IgG responses with HI antibody titers, cytokine-producing capacity and proportions of memory T cells in humans.
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Synthesis of indolyl-3-acetonitrile derivatives and their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide and PGE2 productions in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Arvelexin is one of major constituents of Brassica rapa that exerts anti-inflammatory activities. Several indolyl-3-acetonitrile derivatives were synthesized as arvelexin analogs and evaluated for their abilities to inhibit NO and PGE2 productions in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Of the indolyl-3-acetonitriles synthesized, compound 2k, which possesses a hydroxyl group at C-7 position of the indole ring and an N-methyl substituent, more potently inhibited NO and PGE2 productions and was less cytotoxic than arvelexin on macrophage cells.
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Winogradskyella pulchriflava sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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A taxonomic study was conducted on strain EM106(T), isolated from a sediment sample of the East Sea, Republic of Korea. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed that strain EM106(T) belongs to the family Flavobacteriaceae and is most closely related to Winogradskyella echinorum KMM 6211(T) and Winogradskyella ulvae KMM 6390(T) (97.8 and 97.3?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively). The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain EM106(T) was 33.3 mol%, and the major respiratory quinone was menaquinone-6. The polar lipids of EM106(T) were phosphatidylethanolamine, two unidentified aminolipids and two unidentified lipids. DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that strain EM106(T) represented a distinct species, separate from W. echinorum KMM 6211(T) and W. ulvae KMM 6390(T). Strain EM106(T) possessed iso-C15 : 0, iso-C15 : 1 G and iso-C16 : 0 3-OH as the major cellular fatty acids. The isolate was Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, short rod-shaped and motile by gliding. The strain grew at 10-35 °C (optimum, 25 °C), pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum, 7.5), and with 0.5-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5-1 % NaCl). The overall physiological features of strain EM106(T) were very similar to those of W. echinorum KMM 6211(T) but only strain EM106(T) had nitrate reductase activity. On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strain EM106(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, Winogradskyella pulchriflava. The type strain is EM106(T)( = KCTC 23858(T) = NCAIM B 02481(T)).
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Three-dimensional templating arthroplasty of the humeral head.
Surg Radiol Anat
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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No anatomical study has been conducted over Asian population to design humeral head prosthesis for the population concerned. This study was done to evaluate the accuracy of commercially available humeral head prosthetic designs, in replicating the humeral head anatomy.
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Sequential alterations of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus of STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Type 1 diabetes is a common metabolic disorders accompanied by increased blood glucose levels, glucocorticoid and cognitive deficits. The disease has been thought to be associated with environmental changes in the brain and constantly stimulates oxidative stress in patients as well. Therefore, glucocorticoid-mediated negative feedback mechanisms at the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding site are very important to understand regulation of this disease. Many researchers have used streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic animals to study GR expressional changes in brain. However, few researchers have considered hyperglycemic period following STZ exposure. In the present study, we found that GR expression in the hippocampus was different based on the period after STZ administration for up to 4 weeks. We performed immunohistochemistry and Western blot to validate the sequential alterations in GR expression in the hippocampus of STZ-induced type 1 diabetic rats. As a result, GR protein expression increased significantly until week 3, but decreased at week 4 following STZ administration. GR expression following 70 mg/kg STZ administration was highest at 3 weeks post administration and was lower thereafter. Therefore, although the STZ-induced increase in GR expression in diabetic animals is known, researchers should consider the sequential GR-expression changes based on hyperglycemic period following STZ exposure.
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Edible blue-green algae reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting NF-?B pathway in macrophages and splenocytes.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Chronic inflammation contributes to the development of pathological disorders including insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Identification of anti-inflammatory natural products can prevent the inflammatory diseases.
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Dual-site interactions of p53 protein transactivation domain with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins reveal a highly convergent mechanism of divergent p53 pathways.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Molecular interactions between the tumor suppressor p53 and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins play an important role in the transcription-independent apoptosis of p53. The p53 transactivation domain (p53TAD) contains two conserved ?XX?? motifs (? indicates a bulky hydrophobic residue and X is any other residue) referred to as p53TAD1 (residues 15-29) and p53TAD2 (residues 39-57). We previously showed that p53TAD1 can act as a binding motif for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins. In this study, we have identified p53TAD2 as a binding motif for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins by using NMR spectroscopy, and we calculated the structures of Bcl-X(L)/Bcl-2 in complex with the p53TAD2 peptide. NMR chemical shift perturbation data showed that p53TAD2 peptide binds to diverse members of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family independently of p53TAD1, and the binding between p53TAD2 and p53TAD1 to Bcl-X(L) is competitive. Refined structural models of the Bcl-X(L)·p53TAD2 and Bcl-2·p53TAD2 complexes showed that the binding sites occupied by p53TAD2 in Bcl-X(L) and Bcl-2 overlap well with those occupied by pro-apoptotic BH3 peptides. Taken together with the mutagenesis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement data, our structural comparisons provided the structural basis of p53TAD2-mediated interaction with the anti-apoptotic proteins, revealing that Bcl-X(L)/Bcl-2, MDM2, and cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein/p300 share highly similar modes of binding to the dual p53TAD motifs, p53TAD1 and p53TAD2. In conclusion, our results suggest that the dual-site interaction of p53TAD is a highly conserved mechanism underlying target protein binding in the transcription-dependent and transcription-independent apoptotic pathways of p53.
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Self double-stranded (ds)DNA induces IL-1? production from human monocytes by activating NLRP3 inflammasome in the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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The pathogenic hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus is the autoimmune response against self nuclear Ags, including dsDNA. The increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? has been found in the cutaneous lesion and PBMCs from lupus patients, suggesting a potential involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of lupus. IL-1? is produced primarily by innate immune cells such as monocytes and can promote a Th17 cell response, which is increased in lupus. IL-1? production requires cleaving pro-IL-? into IL-1? by the caspase-1-associated multiprotein complex called inflammasomes. In this study we show that self dsDNA induces IL-1? production from human monocytes dependent on serum or purified IgG containing anti-dsDNA Abs by activating the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and K(+) efflux were involved in this activation. Knocking down the NLRP3 or inhibiting caspase-1, ROS, and K(+) efflux decreased IL-1? production. Supernatants from monocytes treated with a combination of self dsDNA and anti-dsDNA Ab(+) serum promoted IL-17 production from CD4(+) T cells in an IL-1?-dependent manner. These findings provide new insights in lupus pathogenesis by demonstrating that self dsDNA together with its autoantibodies induces IL-1? production from human monocytes by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome through inducing ROS synthesis and K(+) efflux, leading to the increased Th17 cell response.
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Hoeflea halophila sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from marine sediment of the East Sea, Korea.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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A Gram-negative, aerobic, motile, straight or curved rod-shaped marine bacterium was isolated from marine sediment of the East Sea, Korea. The isolated strain, JG120-1(T), grows with 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl and at 15-30 °C and pH 6-9. ?-galactosidase activity test was positive. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence studies showed that this strain belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria and was the most closely related to Hoeflea alexandrii AM1 V30(T), Hoeflea phototrophica DFL-43(T) and Hoeflea marina LMG 128(T) (98.9, 97.9 and 97.0 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively). Strain JG120-1(T) was found to possess summed feature 8 (C18:1?7c/C18:1?6c, 71.11 %) as the major cellular fatty acid. The major ubiquinone was determined to be Q-10. Polar lipids include phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain JG120-1(T) was determined to be 57.8 mol %. DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that strain JG120-1(T) represents a distinct species that is separate from H. phototrophica DFL-43(T), H. marina LMG128(T) and H. alexandrii AM1 V30(T). On the basis of polyphasic evidences, it is proposed that strain JG120-1(T) (= KCTC 23107(T) = JCM 16715(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, Hoeflea halophila sp. nov.
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Transcriptomic analysis of insulin-sensitive tissues from anti-diabetic drug treated ZDF rats, a T2DM animal model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Gene expression changes have been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the alterations are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of anti-diabetic drugs on gene expression in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats using oligonucleotide microarray technology to identify gene expression changes occurring in T2DM. Global gene expression in the pancreas, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and liver was profiled from Zucker lean control (ZLC) and anti-diabetic drug treated ZDF rats compared with those in ZDF rats. We showed that anti-diabetic drugs regulate the expression of a large number of genes. We provided a more integrated view of the diabetic changes by examining the gene expression networks. The resulting sub-networks allowed us to identify several biological processes that were significantly enriched by the anti-diabetic drug treatment, including oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), systemic lupus erythematous, and the chemokine signaling pathway. Among them, we found that white adipose tissue from ZDF rats showed decreased expression of a set of OXPHOS genes that were normalized by rosiglitazone treatment accompanied by rescued blood glucose levels. In conclusion, we suggest that alterations in OXPHOS gene expression in white adipose tissue may play a role in the pathogenesis and drug mediated recovery of T2DM through a comprehensive gene expression network study after multi-drug treatment of ZDF rats.
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Gracilibacillus bigeumensis sp. nov., a moderately halophilic bacterium from solar saltern soil.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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A Gram-staining-positive, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain BH097(T), was isolated from solar saltern soil of Bigeum Island in south-west Korea. Cells were motile rods, producing spherical endospores at a terminal position in swollen sporangia. Strain BH097(T) was strictly aerobic, grew at pH 5.5-9.5 (optimum, pH 8.0), at 10-52 °C (optimum, 37 °C) and at salinities of 1-22% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 7% NaCl). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain BH097(T) was shown to belong to the genus Gracilibacillus within the phylum Firmicutes, and showed closest sequence similarity to Gracilibacillus saliphilus DSM 19802(T) (95.8%), Gracilibacillus thailandensis TP2-8(T) (95.6%), Gracilibacillus boraciitolerans DSM 17256(T) (95.5%), Gracilibacillus quinghaiensis DSM 17858 (95.4%) and Gracilibacillus halophilus DSM 17856(T) (95.2%). The DNA G+C content of this novel isolate was 37.9 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain BH097(T) were anteiso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:0) and C(16:0), and its polar lipid pattern consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol two unknown phospholipids and a glycolipid. The isoprenoid quinone was MK-7, and the peptidoglycan type was A1?, with meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. On the basis of polyphasic evidence from this study, strain BH097(T) represents a novel species of the genus Gracilibacillus for which the name Gracilibacillus bigeumensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BH097(T) (?=?KCTC 13130(T)?=?DSM 19028(T)).
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Salinisphaera orenii sp. nov., isolated from a solar saltern.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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A taxonomic study was performed on two isolates, designated strains MK-B5(T) and MK-B7, isolated from sediment of a solar saltern pond in Gomso Bay, Republic of Korea. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strains MK-B5(T) and MK-B7 belong to the Gammaproteobacteria and are related most closely to Salinisphaera shabanensis JCM 11575(T) (?=?E1L3A(T)) (96.3 and 96.5% similarity, respectively), Salinisphaera dokdonensis KCCM 90064(T) (?=?CL-ES53(T)) (95.6 and 95.6%) and Salinisphaera hydrothermalis JCM 115514(T) (?=?EPR70(T)) (95.1 and 95.3%). The level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between strains MK-B5(T) and MK-B7 was 99.8%. The G+C contents of their genomic DNAs were 63.4 and 63.6 mol%, respectively, and the major respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-8. DNA-DNA relatedness between strains MK-B5(T) and MK-B7 was 98%, indicating that the two isolates represent a single species. However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two isolates and S. shabanensis E1L3A(T) (26.4-30.8%) indicates that they represent a novel species. Strains MK-B5(T) and MK-B7 possessed C(14:0), C(16:0) and C(19:0)?8c cyclo as major fatty acids. The two isolates were Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, short rod-shaped and motile. They grew at 10-40 °C (optimum, 35-37 °C), at pH 5.0-8.5 (optimum, 7.0-7.5) and with 5-25% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 15% NaCl). On the basis of phenotypic and phylogenetic analyses, strains MK-B5(T) and MK-B7 are thus considered to represent a novel species of the genus Salinisphaera, for which the name Salinisphaera orenii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MK-B5(T) (?=?KCTC 23198(T)?=?JCM 17073(T)).
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Stimulation of the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide induces hypophagia and thermogenesis.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Numerous studies have demonstrated that the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) regulate energy homeostasis by integrating and utilizing behavioral and metabolic mechanisms. The VMN heavily express pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type I receptors (PAC1R). Despite the receptor distribution, most PACAP experiments investigating affects on feeding have focused on intracerebroventricular administration or global knockout mice. To identify the specific contribution of PACAP signaling in the VMN, we injected PACAP directly into the VMN and measured feeding behavior and indices of energy expenditure. Following an acute injection of PACAP, nocturnal food intake was significantly reduced for 6 h after injections without evidence of malaise. In addition, PACAP-induced suppression of feeding also occurred following an overnight fast and could be blocked by a specific PAC1R antagonist. Metabolically, VMN-specific injections of PACAP significantly increased both core body temperature and spontaneous locomotor activity with a concurrent increase in brown adipose uncoupling protein 1 mRNA expression. To determine which signaling pathways were responsive to PACAP administration into the VMN, we measured mRNA expression of well-characterized hypothalamic neuropeptide regulators of feeding. One hour after PACAP administration, expression of pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA was significantly increased in the arcuate nuclei (ARC), with no changes in neuropeptide Y and agouti-related polypeptide mRNA levels. This suggests that PAC1R expressing VMN neurons projecting to pro-opiomelanocortin neurons contribute to hypophagia by involving melanocortin signaling. While the VMN also abundantly express PACAP protein, the present study demonstrates that PACAP input to the VMN can influence the control of energy homeostasis.
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Detailed anatomy of the capsulopalpebral fascia.
Clin Anat
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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This study was designed to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the capsulopalpebral fascia (CPF) and capsulopalpebral head (CPH), and their relationships to the inferior rectus muscle (IRM). In this cohort study, 40 eyes from 20 cadavers were observed macroscopically. Dissection was carried out from the CPF origin to its insertion, and the CPF origin pattern was photographed in each specimen. The width, length, and tensile strength of the CPF were measured. The CPF originated 25.07 ± 1.07 mm laterally and 24.86 ± 1.10 mm medially from the origin of the IRM and extended to the lower border of the inferior oblique muscle, and it firmly adhered to the IRM surface and formed into the CPH. The CPH was 4.31 ± 0.86 mm laterally and 6.18 ± 1.94 mm medially in length and 7.47 ± 0.81 mm in width. The CPF originated from the total width or 3/4 temporal part of the IRM in 32 (80%) of 40 faces. There was asymmetry in the pattern of the CPF origin between the left and right eyes in 4 of 20 paired specimens (20%). The tensile strength of the posterior layer was 19.12 ± 11.22 N, which was significantly higher than that of the anterior layer (8.59 ± 3.88 N) (P = 0.001). This study provided a good understanding of the CPF structures conducive to performing IRM surgery.
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