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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Kiloniella spongiae sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge and emended description of the genus Kiloniella Wiese et al. 2009 and Kiloniella laminariae.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and non-motile marine bacterium, designated MEBiC09566T was isolated from a sponge collected at Uljin County in the coastal area of the East Sea (129°25'E, 36°55' N), Korea. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain MEBiC09566T showed the highest similarity with the Kiloniella laminariae LD81T (96.7%). Growth was observed at 11-31 OC (optimum 25 OC), at pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0-6 % (optimum 2.5%) NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprised of C18:1?7c/ C18:1?6c; 63.1%) and summed feature 3 (comprised of C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1 ?7c; 18.2%). The DNA G+C content is 44.6 mol%. The major respiratory quinone is Q-9. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids, two unidentified amino-phospholipids and one unidentified aminolipid were detected as major polar lipids. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic data, strain MEBiC09566T should be classified as a novel species in the genus Kiloniella and it is proposed as Kiloniella spongiae sp. nov. The type strain is MEBiC09566T (=KCCM 43040T =JCM 19930T). Emended descriptions of the genus Kiloniella Wiese et al. 2009 and Kiloniella laminariae are also given.
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A Phase II Study of Ifosfamide, Methotrexate, Etoposide, and Prednisolone for Previously Untreated Stage I/II Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type: A Multicenter Trial of the Korean Cancer Study Group.
Oncologist
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Combination chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide, methotrexate, etoposide, and prednisolone (IMEP) was active as first-line and second-line treatment for extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NTCL).
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Neptunomonas acidivorans sp. nov., isolated from sediment, and emended description of the genus Neptunomonas.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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A Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped (1.2-1.6 µm×0.6-0.8 µm), flagellated and motile marine bacterium, designated MEBiC06243(T), was isolated from a sediment collected at Daebu Island in the Yellow Sea (37° 20' N 126° 41' E), Korea. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain MEBiC06243(T) showed high similarity with Neptunomonas naphthovorans NAG-2N-126(T) (96.3?%). Growth was observed at 10-39 °C (optimum 29 °C), at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7) and with 0-7?% (optimum 2.5?%) NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C10?:?0 3-OH (6.1?%), C12?:?0 (5.8?%), C16?:?0 (30.5?%), C18?:?1?7c (21.6?%) and summed feature 3 (comprising C15?:?0 2-OH and/or C16?:?1?7c; 30.7?%). The DNA G+C content was 41.4 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was Q-8. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified lipids, one unidentified aminophospholipid and three unidentified aminolipids were detected as major polar lipids. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic data, strain MEBiC06243(T) should be classified as a novel species of the genus Neptunomonas proposed as Neptunomonas acidivorans sp. nov. The type strain is MEBiC06243(T) (?=?KCCM 42975(T)?=?JCM 18291(T)). An emended description of the genus Neptunomonas is also given.
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Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels correlate with EGFR mutational status in pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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There have been several epidemiological studies of the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and lung cancer risk. We explored the potential association between serum 25(OH)D levels and mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma. We analyzed clinical data from 135 patients whose serum 25(OH)D levels were measured and EGFR mutational status was tested at the time of diagnosis. The relationship between 25(OH)D and clinical factors such as EGFR mutational status and sex was examined. The median serum 25(OH)D level in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma was 16.8?ng/ml (range: 3.0-84.3?ng/ml). The level of 25(OH)D was lower in female patients than in male patients (P=0.03). Interestingly, 25(OH)D levels of patients with EGFR-mutated tumors were low compared with those with wild-type tumors (median 18.2 vs 14.7?ng/ml, P=0.011). After a dose-response relationship between EGFR mutations and 25(OH)D levels (as a continuous variable) was observed (OR=0.96, P=0.036), we categorized 25(OH)D levels as low (?16.8?ng/ml) and high (>16.8?ng/ml). Multivariate analysis revealed the association between low 25(OH)D levels and a high incidence of EGFR mutations (adjusted OR=2.42, 95% CI: 1.11-5.26, P=0.026). The results from this study indicate that low 25(OH)D levels are associated with EGFR mutations in pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
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Hoppeia youngheungensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a member of the Flavobacteriaceae isolated from tidal flat sediment, and emended descriptions of the genus Sediminibacter and Sediminibacter furfurosus.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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A Gram-reaction-negative, proteorhodopsin-containing, yellow-pigmented, rod-shaped, non-gliding and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain YIK12(T), was isolated from tidal flat sediment of Yeongheung Island at the coast of the West Sea of Korea. Cells produced non-diffusible carotenoid pigments, but not flexirubin-type pigment. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolate was affiliated to the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed highest similarity to Sediminibacter furfurosus MAOS-86(T) (93.3%). Growth was observed at 24-44 °C (optimum 30 °C), at pH 6.5-8.0 (optimum 7.0) and in the presence of 1.5-7.0% sea salts (optimum 2%). The DNA G+C content was 40.4 mol% and the predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15?:?0), iso-C(15?:?1) G, iso-C(17?:?0) 3-OH, iso-C(16?:?0) 3-OH, anteiso-C(15?:?0) and iso-C(15?:?0) 3-OH. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. On the basis of data from the present polyphasic taxonomic study, strain YIK12(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus in the family Flavobacteriaceae, for which the name Hoppeia youngheungensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of H. youngheungensis is YIK12(T) (?=?KCCM 43023(T)?=?JCM 19488(T)). Emended descriptions of the genus Sediminibacter and Sediminibacter furfurosus are given.
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Ochrovirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel agar-lytic marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from a seaweed.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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A strain designated as S85(T) was isolated from a seaweed collected from coastal area of Chuuk State in Micronesia. The strain was gram-negative, rod-shaped, and non-motile and formed yellow colonies on the SWY agar (0.2 % yeast extract and 1.5 % agar in seawater) and Marine agar 2216. The strain grew at pH 5-9 (optimum, pH 8), at 15-40 °C (optimum, 25-28 °C), and with 1-9 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 3 %). The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that strain S85(T) was related to Lutibacter litoralis CL-TF09(T) and Maritimimonas rapanae A31(T) with 91.4 % and with 90.5 % similarity, respectively. The dominant fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH and iso-C17:0 3-OH, C16:0 3-OH and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-6. The DNA G+C content of the type strain was 34.6 mol %. The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an unknown glycolipid and two unknown polar lipids. Based on this polyphasic taxonomic data, strain S85(T) stands for a novel species of a new genus, and we propose the name Ochrovirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of O. pacifica is S85(T) (=KCCM 90106 =JCM 18327(T)).
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Family caregivers' awareness of illness and attitude toward disclosure during chemotherapy for advanced cancer.
Psychooncology
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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We investigated family caregivers' awareness of disease status and attitude toward disclosure of disease progression compared with those of cancer patients and explored the potential association between family caregivers' attitudes and patients' quality of life (QOL).
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Plant antimicrobial peptides snakin-1 and snakin-2: chemical synthesis and insights into the disulfide connectivity.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Antimicrobial peptides and proteins represent an important class of plant defensive compounds against pathogens and provide a rich source of lead compounds in the field of drug discovery. We describe the effective preparation of the cysteine-rich snakin-1 and -2 antimicrobial peptides by using a combination of solid-phase synthesis and native chemical ligation. A subsequent cysteine/cystine mediated oxidative folding to form the six internal disulfide bonds concurrently gave the folded proteins in 40-50?% yield. By comparative evaluation of mass spectrometry, HPLC, biological data and trypsin digest mapping of folded synthetic snakin-2 compared to natural snakin-2, we demonstrated that synthetic snakin-2 possesses full antifungal activity and displayed similar chromatographic behaviour to natural snakin-2. Trypsin digest analysis allowed tentative assignment of three of the purported six disulfide bonds.
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Carboxylicivirga gen. nov. in the family Marinilabiliaceae with two novel species, Carboxylicivirga mesophila sp. nov. and Carboxylicivirga taeanensis sp. nov., and reclassification of Cytophaga fermentans as Saccharicrinis fermentans gen. nov., comb. nov.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Two facultatively anaerobic mesophilic bacteria, strains MEBiC 07026(T) and MEBiC 08903(T), were isolated from two different tidal flat sediments and both strains showed approximately 92.2?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with [Cytophaga] fermentans DSM 9555(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two new isolates was 97.5?% but levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between the two were 31.3-31.8?%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the two isolates and [Cytophaga] fermentans DSM 9555(T) were affiliated with the family Marinilabiliaceae in the class Bacteroidia. The dominant fatty acids of strains MEBiC 07026(T), MEBiC 08903(T) and [Cytophaga] fermentans DSM 9555(T) were branched-type or hydroxylated C15?:?0, but [Cytophaga] fermentans DSM 9555(T) contained a higher proportion of anteiso-branched fatty acids. The two new isolates contained a markedly higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids than other members of the family Marinilabiliaceae. The major respiratory quinone of the strains was MK-7. Strains MEBiC07026(T) and MEBiC08903(T) utilized a wide range of carboxylic acids whereas [Cytophaga] fermentans DSM 9555(T) utilized carbohydrates rather than carboxylic acids. The DNA G+C content of the novel strains was about 44 mol% but that of [Cytophaga] fermentans DSM 9555(T) revealed from the genome sequence was 37.6 mol%. Based on evidence from this polyphasic taxonomic study, a novel genus, Carboxylicivirga gen. nov., is proposed in the family Marinilabiliaceae with two novel species, Carboxylicivirga mesophila sp. nov. with type strain MEBiC 07026(T) (?=?KCCM 42978(T)?=?JCM 18290(T)) and Carboxylicivirga taeanensis sp. nov. with type strain MEBiC 08903(T) (?=?KCCM 43024(T)?=?JCM 19490(T)). Additionally, [Cytophaga] fermentans DSM 9555(T) (?=?ATCC 19072(T)) is reclassified as Saccharicrinis fermentans gen. nov., comb. nov.
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A Randomized Double-Blind, Double-Dummy, Multicenter Trial of Azasetron versus Ondansetron to Evaluate Efficacy and Safety in the Prevention of Delayed Nausea and Vomiting Induced by Chemotherapy.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of azasetron compared to ondansetron in the prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
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EGFR mutation and brain metastasis in pulmonary adenocarcinomas.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This study aimed to explore the potential association of mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with brain metastases in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
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Nonlabens antarcticus sp. nov., a psychrophilic bacterium isolated from Antarctic glacier.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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A Gram-negative, proteorhodopsin-containing, orange pigmented, rod-shaped and strictly aerobic bacterium, designated AKS622T, was isolated from the core of glacier collected from coastal area of King George Island, Antarctica. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain AKS622T was affiliated to the genus Nonlabens of the family Flavobacteriaceae and showed the highest similarity to Nonlabens marina S1-08T (97.9%). The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain AKS622T with N. marina S1-08T was 46%. Optimal growth of strain AKS622T was observed at pH 7.0, at 15 °C and in 2.5% NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15?:?0 (23.1 %), iso-C16?:?0 (13.5 %), iso-C16?:0 3-OH (14.0 %), C17?:?0 2-OH (6.8 %) and summed feature 3 (comprising C16?:1 ?7c and/or C16?:?1 ?6c; 6. 6%). The DNA G+C content was 37.9 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. Phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified glycolipids, three unidentified aminolipids, and one unidentified lipids were detected as major polar lipids. On the basis of the data from the polyphasic taxonomic study, it was concluded that the strain AKS622T represents a novel species within the genus Nonlabens, for which the name Nonlabens antarcticus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain N. antarcticus is AKS622T (?=?KCCM 43019T =?JCM14068T).
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Chemical synthesis of a masked analogue of the fish antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP).
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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A recently identified Antarctic fish protein termed antifreeze potentiating protein (AFPP) is thought to act as an adjunct to the previously characterised antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), the two acting together to inhibit ice crystal growth in vivo. Elucidating the functional properties of the new AFPP requires access to large amounts of pure product, but the paucity of natural material necessitates alternative approaches. We therefore embarked on the total chemical synthesis of the AFPP, through a convergent ligation strategy. After many challenges, mostly due to the solubility issues of the peptide fragments, and several revisions of the original synthetic strategy, we have successfully synthesized a masked analogue of AFPP. The key to the successful synthesis was the use of a solubilising tag attached through a hydrolysable linker.
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An important side reaction using the thiol, 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol (DODT), in 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-based solid phase peptide synthesis.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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A considerable quantity of an alkylation by-product is observed when using 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol as a scavenger during acidic release of peptides containing the thioether amino acid methionine from the solid support. Adjustment of the cleavage conditions by replacement of 3,6-dioxa-1,8-octanedithiol with ethane dithiol or by using methionine sulfoxide as an alternative to methionine resulted in no such impurity. The by-product was detectable by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and characterised by NMR spectroscopy of an isolated model peptide. It could be effectively removed in a separate post cleavage step by treatment with dilute aqueous acid at 37?°C. Copyright © 2013 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Marinoscillum luteum sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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A novel strain, designated SJP7(T), was isolated from sediment of the Tofua Arc of the Tonga Trench. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed the highest similarity to that of Marinoscillum pacificum KCCM 42325(T) (95.9%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate formed a distinct phyletic line with Marinoscillum pacificum KCCM 42325(T) and Marinoscillum furvescens LMG 13023(T) within the family Cytophagaceae. Cells of strain SJP7(T) were Gram-stain-negative and appeared as long rods that were motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 15-40 °C (optimum, 30 °C), at pH 5.5-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5-8.0) and in the presence of 0.5-7.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.5-3%). The major respiratory quinone was MK-7. The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising C(16:1)?7c and/or C(16:1)?6c), iso-C(15:0) and C(16:1)?5c. The DNA G+C content was 43.5 mol%. These properties support the affiliation of strain SJP7(T) with the genus Marinoscillum. Further phenotypic differentiation of strain SJP7(T) from other species of the genus Marinoscillum was indicated by the results of physiological and biochemical tests. On the basis of evidence from our polyphasic taxonomic study, strain SJP7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Marinoscillum, for which the name Marinoscillum luteum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Marinoscillum luteum is SJP7(T) (?=KCTC 23939(T)?=NCAIM B02491(T)).
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Prognostic significance of pretreatment ¹?F-FDG PET/CT in patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma treated by radioimmunotherapy using ¹³¹I-rituximab.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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It was the aim of this paper to identify prognostic factors in patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphomas, treated by radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with radioiodinated human/murine chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab (¹³¹I-rituximab).
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Algivirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel agar-degrading marine bacterium of the family Flammeovirgaceae isolated from Micronesia.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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An aerobic, Gram-negative, coccoid to short rod-shaped and non-flagellated marine bacterial strain S354(T) was isolated from seawater of Micronesia. The strain was capable to degrade agar-forming slight depression into agar plate. Growth occurred at a temperature range of 12-44 °C, a pH range of 5-9, and a salinity range of 1-7 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that S354(T) belongs to the family Flammeovirgaceae. The novel strain was most closely related to Limibacter armeniacum YM 11-185(T) with similarity of 92.5 %. The DNA G+C content was 43.8 mol%. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C15:0 and C16:1 ?5c. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was determined to be MK-7. Polar lipid profile of S354(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown polar lipid, and unknown glycolipids. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic, biochemical, and physiological tests conducted in this study, S354(T) is proposed to represent a type strain of a novel genus and species. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of S354(T) is registered in GenBank under the accession number JQ639084. The type of strain Algivirga pacifica gen. nov., sp. nov. is S354(T) (=KCCM 90107(T)=JCM 18326(T)).
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Synthesis of an NDPK phosphocarrier domain peptide containing a novel triazolylalanine analogue of phosphohistidine using click chemistry.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Click phosphorylation of a propargylated unprotected peptide and phosphoryl azide using chaotrope-assisted Cu(I)-catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition enabled a high-yielding and rapid synthesis of a nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) phosphocarrier domain. The synthesis showcases a valuable synthetic platform for the synthesis of biologically relevant phosphopeptide analogues.
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A phase II trial of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and mitomycin C in patients with advanced gastric cancer.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2011
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Low-dose leucovorin is a well known potentiator of 5-fluorouracil activity in colorectal cancer but not in gastric cancer. To assess their efficacy on response rate and survival, 5-fluorouracil and low-dose leucovorin were combined with mitomycin C.
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Sphingomonas polyaromaticivorans sp. nov., a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium from an oil port water sample.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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A bacterial strain (B2-7(T)) capable of degrading a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (2-4 rings) was isolated from a water sample taken from Botan Oil Port in Xiamen, China. The isolate was Gram-negative, short-rod-shaped, aerobic, non-motile and formed yellow-pigmented colonies on LB medium. Cells of strain B2-7(T) were catalase-positive and oxidase-negative. Optimal growth of strain B2-7(T) was observed at pH 7.0, at 26 °C and in 0.5 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain B2-7(T) grouped with members of the genus Sphingomonas and it showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 95.40 % to Sphingomonas yunnanensis YIM 003(T). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and sphingoglycolipid. Q-10 and sym-homospermidine were the predominant ubiquinone and polyamine components, respectively. The major fatty acids were C(18:1)?7c (67.2 %), C(14:0) 2-OH (10.0 %) and C(16:0) (9.6 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.8 mol%. Based on phenotypic properties, and phylogenetic and genomic data, strain B2-7(T) represents a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas within the class Alphaproteobacteria, for which the name Sphingomonas polyaromaticivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B2-7(T) ( = KCCM 42951(T) = JCM 16711(T)).
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Individualized tumor response testing for prediction of response to Paclitaxel and Cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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The purpose of our study was to determine the most accurate analytic method to define in vitro chemosensitivity, using clinical response as reference standard in prospective clinical trial, and to assess accuracy of adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA). Forty-eight patients with chemo-naïve, histologically confirmed, locally advanced or metastatic gastric cancer were enrolled for the study and were treated with combination chemotherapy of paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) and cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) for maximum of six cycles after obtaining specimen for ATP-CRA. We performed the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis using patient responses by WHO criteria and ATP-CRA results to define the method with the highest accuracy. Median progression free survival was 4.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-5.0) and median overall survival was 11.8 months (95% CI: 9.7-13.8) for all enrolled patients. Chemosensitivity index method yielded highest accuracy of 77.8% by ROC curve analysis, and the specificity, sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values were 95.7%, 46.2%, 85.7%, and 75.9%. In vitro chemosensitive group showed higher response rate (85.7% vs. 24.1%) (P=0.005) compared to chemoresistant group. ATP-CRA could predict clinical response to paclitaxel and cisplatin chemotherapy with high accuracy in advanced gastric cancer patients. Our study supports the use of ATP-CRA in further validation studies.
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Role of adjuvant chemotherapy in malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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The objective of this study was to analyze the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and prognostic factors in malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (HNMM). Thirty-two patients with mucosal melanoma of the head and neck who received local treatment with or without adjuvant chemotherapy were reviewed. Clinicopathologic parameters including anatomic sites, gender, age (60 vs.>60years), stage, level of invasion, p53 and MDM2 [murine double minute 2] expressions, performance status, and adjuvant chemotherapy were evaluated. The patients median age was 62years, and 16 (50%) received adjuvant chemotherapy. Expressions of p53 and MDM2 were demonstrated in six of 24 and three of 26 cases, respectively. Predictors of poor survival according to univariate analysis were level of invasion and anatomic location of the primary tumor. Patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy had prolonged survival (p=0.002), which was also shown in the multivariate Cox regression model (HR, 0.24; p=0.014). Our analysis suggests a significant role of adjuvant chemotherapy and different patterns of p53 and MDM2 expression in HNMM relative to cutaneous melanomas. However, since this study is retrospective and observational, with a small sample size, further studies are needed to confirm the definitive role of adjuvant chemotherapy in the treatment of malignant mucosal melanoma of the head and neck.
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Isolation and identification of Perkinsus olseni from feces and marine sediment using immunological and molecular techniques.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2010
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Molecular and immunological probes were used to identify various life stages of Perkinsus olseni, a protozoan parasite of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, from a marine environment and decomposing clam tissue. Western blotting revealed that the antigenic determinants of the rabbit anti-P. olseni antibody developed in this study were peptides with molecular masses of 55.9, 24.0, and 19.2kDa. Immunofluorescent assay indicated that the rabbit anti-P. olseni IgG was specific to all life stages, including the prezoosporangium, trophozoite, and zoospore. Perkinsus olseni prezoosporangium-like cells were successfully isolated from marine sediment collected from Hwangdo on the west coast of Korea, where P. olseni-associated clam mortality has recurred for the past decade. Purified cells were positively stained with the rabbit anti-P. olseni antibody in an immunofluorescence assay, confirming for the first time the presence of P. olseni in marine sediment. Actively replicating zoospores inside the prezoosporangia were observed in the decomposing clam tissue collected from Hwangdo. P. olseni was also isolated from the feces and pseudofeces of infected clams and confirmed by PCR. The clams released 1-2 prezoosporangia per day through feces. The data suggested that the fecal discharge and decomposition of the infected clam tissue could be the two major P. olseni transmission routes.
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The role of MET activation in determining the sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2009
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The development of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) seems almost inevitable, even in patients with lung cancer that initially respond well to EGFR-TKIs. MET amplification was recently found to be a mechanism of escape from the anticancer effect of EGFR inhibitors. In the present study, we investigated the means whereby MET affects sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs in PC-9 cells. Gefitinib- or erlotinib-resistant sublines were established by exposing the parental PC-9 cell line to chronic, repeated treatments with these drugs. These resistant sublines showed more than 100-fold more resistance to gefitinib and erlotinib and acquired cross-resistance to other EGFR-TKIs. The T790M EGFR mutation was found by pyrosequencing, and this seemed to be the cause of drug resistance. Resistant cells also showed MET activation, although gene amplification was not detected. Furthermore, the induction of MET activity was not found to be associated with sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs. Interestingly, increased passage number without exposure to gefitinib or erlotinib caused MET activation, but this did not affect sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs. In addition, hepatocyte growth factor was found to block the ability of EGFR-TKIs to inhibit MET activation. However, sustained MET activation by hepatocyte growth factor did not modulate the cellular effects of gefitinib or erlotinib. Rather, activated MET enhanced migration and invasion abilities. Summarizing, MET activation may be acquired during cancer cell proliferation and enhances migratory and invasive abilities without affecting cellular sensitivity to EGFR-TKIs. Accordingly, the present study suggests that MET activation caused by factors other than MET gene amplification is not a suitable surrogate marker of resistance to EGFR-TKIs.
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Maintenance pemetrexed plus best supportive care versus placebo plus best supportive care for non-small-cell lung cancer: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
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Several studies have shown the efficacy, tolerability, and ease of administration of pemetrexed-an antifolate antineoplastic agent-in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. We assessed pemetrexed as maintenance therapy in patients with this disease.
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A concise approach to the core structures of pinnaic acid and halichlorine.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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An efficient and flexible synthetic approach to the core structures of pinnaic acid and halichlorine is described using spirocyclic nitrone 4 as a key intermediate. 1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of 4 with dipolarophile 8 provides access to the azaspirocyclic core of pinnaic acid 5 while the spiroquinolizidine core of halichlorine 6 has been synthesised via cycloaddition of 4 with dipolarophile 29. Nitrone 4 is accessed by oxidative ring opening of isoxazolidine 9. The utility of this synthetic strategy in the synthesis of C5 substituted analogues of pinnaic acid is also demonstrated.
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Marinoscillum gen. nov., a member of the family Flexibacteraceae, with Marinoscillum pacificum sp. nov. from a marine sponge and Marinoscillum furvescens nom. rev., comb. nov.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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A novel strain, designated MRN461(T), was isolated from a marine sponge in Micronesia. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate showed 95.6 % similarity with that of Microscilla furvescens IFO (now NBRC) 15994. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate and Microscilla furvescens IFO 15994 formed a distinct phyletic line within the family Flexibacteraceae. Cells of strain MRN461(T) were Gram-negative, long filamentous rods, motile by gliding. Growth was observed at 15-40 degrees C (optimum, 33 degrees C), at pH 5.0-9.5 (optimum, pH 7.5) and in the presence of 0.5-7.0 % sea salts (optimum, 2.5 %). The major isoprenoid quinone was MK-7. The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH and/or C(16 : 1)omega7c; 34.8 %), C(16 : 1)omega5c (21.6 %) and iso-C(16 : 1) (19.8 %). The DNA G+C content was 41.5 mol%. On the basis of evidence from our polyphasic taxonomic study, strain MRN461(T) is classified within a novel genus and species in the family Flexibacteraceae, for which the name Marinoscillum pacificum gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Marinoscillum pacificum is strain MRN461(T) (=KCCM 42325(T) =JCM 14064(T)). The misclassified species [Microscilla] furvescens is transferred to the new genus as Marinoscillum furvescens (ex Lewin 1969) nom. rev., comb. nov., with LMG 13023(T) (=DSM 4134(T) =ATCC 23129(T) =NBRC 15994(T)) as the type strain.
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Age at diagnosis predicts outcomes in gefitinib-treated female patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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We performed this retrospective study to evaluate the association between age at diagnosis and outcome in female patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, who were treated with gefitinib. We analyzed the outcomes for 162 female patients who had received gefitinib monotherapy. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to select a cutoff value for age with respect to tumor response. Patients were categorized as older and younger, with a value of 55 years. Most of the study population comprised never-smokers (89%) and patients with adenocarcinoma (82%). The mean age was 58 years and the response rate was 47% (76 patients). Older female patients showed higher response rates than younger patients (57% and 27%, respectively; P<0.001), whereas there were no differences between never-smokers and smokers (P=0.824). Patients with adenocarcinoma had better response rates than those with nonadenocarinoma but this difference was not significant (50% and 34%, respectively; P=0.139). In terms of progression-free survival, older age (P=0.005) and adenocarcinoma histology (P=0.008) were favorable factors but never-smoking was not (P=0.316). Multivariate analysis confirmed that age predicted progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.60; P=0.008) and overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.60; P=0.014). Our data indicate that age at diagnosis may predict outcomes after gefitinib treatment in female patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. When molecular tests are not feasible, our results might help physician to select a beneficial subgroup in female patients.
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Epithelial to mesenchymal transition derived from repeated exposure to gefitinib determines the sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors in A549, a non-small cell lung cancer cell line.
Lung Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported to be related with reduced sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase (EGFR-TK) inhibitors. We performed this study to investigate whether this phenomenon would play a role in acquired resistance to gefitinib. In this study, we established a gefitinib-resistant subline (A549/GR), which was derived from the parental A549 cell line by chronic, repeated exposure to gefitinib. Compared with the A549 cells, the A549/GR cells were approximately 7.7-fold more resistant to gefitinib and they showed the cross-resistance against other EGFR-TK inhibitors, including CL-387,758, erlotinib and ZD6478. Phenotypic changes such as a spindle-cell shape and increased pseudopodia formation suggesting EMT was present in the A549/GR cells. These changes were accompanied by a decrease of E-cadherin and an increase of vimentin, which is a mesenchymal marker. In addition, the ability of invasion and migration was increased in the A549/GR cells. TGF-beta1 treatment for 72 h also induced EMT in the A549 cells and this transition led to resistance to gefitinib. Conversely, this was reversed through the removal of TGF-beta1. In conclusion, induction of EMT may contribute to the decreased efficacy of therapy in primary and acquired resistance to gefitinib.
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Gefitinib circumvents hypoxia-induced drug resistance by the modulation of HIF-1alpha.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a transcriptional factor which is activated by hypoxia and associated with cell survival, proliferation and drug resistance. Recent studies have shown that the down-stream molecules of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signal are involved in the hypoxia-dependent or -independent HIF-1alpha protein accumulation. Thus, we hypothesized that an EGFR-TK inhibitor, gefitinib, might circumvent the hypoxia-induced drug resistance via the regulation of HIF-1alpha expression. In our data, treatment of gefitinib suppressed induced HIF-1alpha by hypoxia. This action of gefitinib was caused by reduced protein stability without any change in the level of HIF-1alpha mRNA. The effect of gefitinib on down-regulation of HIF-1alpha was reversed by transfection of constitutively active form of Akt. The cellular response to gefitinib was similar in both normoxia and hypoxia condition. However, the response to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs decreased >50% under hypoxia condition and they did not change HIF-1alpha expression. In addition, the suppression of HIF-1alpha using siRNA overcame partially hypoxia-induced drug resistance. In conclusion, gefitinib was able to circumvent hypoxia-induced drug resistance suggesting that the effective suppression of HIF-1alpha by the inhibition of EGFR-Akt pathway may overcome the hypoxia-induced drug resistance.
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Paramoritella sediminis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment, and emended descriptions of the genus Paramoritella Hosoya et al. 2009 and Paramoritella alkaliphila.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
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A Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped (2.04-1.27 × 0.95-1.25 µm) and motile marine bacterium, designated MEBiC06500(T) was isolated from sediment collected at Daebu Island in the Yellow Sea (37° 20 N 126° 41 E), Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain MEBiC06500(T) showed high similarity with Paramoritella alkaliphila A3F-7(T) (96.5%). Growth was observed at 10.5-30.2 °C (optimum 23.5 °C), at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimum 8.0) and with 0-5% (optimum 1.5%) NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acids were C14:0, C16:0, C18:1?7c and summed feature 3 (iso-C15:0 2-OH and/or C16:1?7c). The DNA G+C content was 56.0 mol%. The respiratory quinone is Q-8. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified lipids, one unidentified phospholipid and three unidentified aminolipids were detected as major polar lipids. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic data, strain MEBiC06500(T) should be classified as a representative of a novel species in the genus Paramoritella, and the proposed name is Paramoritella sediminis sp. nov. The type strain is MEBiC06500(T) (=KCCM 42977(T)=JCM 18292(T)). Emended descriptions of the genus Paramoritella Hosoya et al. 2009 and Paramoritella alkaliphila are also given.
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Clinical characteristics and outcomes of primary bone lymphoma in Korea.
Korean J Hematol
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This study evaluates the effectiveness of immunochemotherapy and radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with primary bone lymphoma (PBL).
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A phase II study of docetaxel and oxaliplatin combination in recurrent gastric cancer patients after fluoropyrimidine and/or cisplatin adjuvant treatment: a Korean Cancer Study Group Protocol ST06-02.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
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Surgery alone is no longer an adequate standard of care for patients with resectable gastric cancer. Thus, research efforts should focus on which regimens are the most effective for patients with recurrent gastric cancer after combined treatment with surgery and perioperative or adjuvant chemotherapy.
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Synthesis of multivalent neoglyconjugates of MUC1 by the conjugation of carbohydrate-centered, triazole-linked glycoclusters to MUC1 peptides using click chemistry.
J. Org. Chem.
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The efficient synthesis of multivalent neoglycoconjugates of MUC1 is reported, which utilizes Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuACC) of azide-functionalized GlcNAc-centered neoglycotetrasaccharide clusters to the MUC1 peptide sequence that was equipped with a propargylglycine residue for "click chemistry". In turn the azido-GlcNAc-centered neoglycoclusters were assembled by reaction of a GlcNAc core containing peripheral propargyl functionalities with an appropriate azido-functionalized monosaccharide. The resulting suitably substituted tetrasaccharyl triazole cluster can be easily appended to a range of acetylene-functionalized peptides to produce neoglycoconjugates of biologically important glycopeptides. As proof of principle, the click neoglycoclusters prepared herein were ligated to the MUC1 peptide sequence.
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Microbulbifer gwangyangensis sp. nov. and Microbulbifer pacificus sp. nov., isolated from marine environments.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
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Two novel Gram-stain-negative, chemoheterotrophic and strictly aerobic bacteria, strains GY2(T) and SPO729(T), were isolated from a tidal flat at Gwangyang Bay in Korea and a marine sponge sample from the Pacific Ocean, respectively. The two strains were halotolerant, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and non-motile rods. Optimum temperature and pH for growth of both strains were observed to be 35 °C and pH 7.0-7.5, but optimum salinity for strain SPO729(T) [2-3?% (w/v)] was slightly higher than that for strain GY2(T) (1-2?%). The major cellular fatty acids of both strains were C16?:?0, iso-C15?:?0, iso-C17?:?0, iso-C17?:?1?9c, C18?:?1?7c, iso-C11?:?0 and iso-C11?:?0 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains GY2(T) and SPO729(T) were 55.1 and 57.9 mol%, respectively, and ubiquinone 8 (Q-8) was detected as the sole respiratory quinone from the two strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains GY2(T) and SPO729(T) formed tight phyletic lineages with members of the genus Microbulbifer. Strain GY2(T) was closely related to Microbulbifer okinawensis ABABA23(T) (98.2?%), strain SPO729(T) (98.0?%) and Microbulbifer donghaiensis CN85(T) (97.0?%); strain SPO729(T) was closely related to M. okinawensis ABABA23(T) (98.3?%) and M. donghaiensis CN85(T) (98.2?%). The DNA-DNA relatedness values of strain GY2(T) with M. okinawensis ABABA23(T), strain SPO729(T) and M. donghaiensis CN85(T) were 40.0±2.1?%, 13.1±3.9?% and 16.2±5.8?%, respectively, whereas those of strain SPO729(T) with M. okinawensis ABABA23(T) and M. donghaiensis CN85(T) were 48.0±4.0?% and 34.6±9.3?%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and molecular features, it is concluded that the two strains GY2(T) and SPO729(T) represent two novel species of the genus Microbulbifer, for which the names Microbulbifer gwangyangensis sp. nov. and Microbulbifer pacificus are proposed; the type strains are GY2(T) (?=?KACC 16189(T)?=?JCM 17800(T)) and SPO729(T) (?=?KCCM 42667(T)?=?JCM 14507(T)), respectively.
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Brumimicrobium mesophilum sp. nov., isolated from a tidal flat sediment, and emended descriptions of the genus Brumimicrobium and Brumimicrobium glaciale.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
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A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile and orange-coloured marine bacterium, YH207(T), was isolated from a tidal flat at Yeongheung-do on the coast of the Yellow Sea, Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain YH207(T) was affiliated with the family Cryomorphaceae and showed highest similarity to Brumimicrobium glaciale IC156(T) (95.4?%). Growth was observed at 11-36 °C, at pH 6.5-10.0 and with 0.4-7.0?% NaCl. The predominant cellular fatty acids when grown at 20 °C were iso-C15?:?0 (44.2?%), iso-C15?:?1 G (34.3?%), iso-C17?:?0 3-OH (8.7?%) and summed feature 3 (comprising iso-C15?:?0 2-OH and/or C16?:?1?7c; 2.3?%). The major respiratory quinone was MK-6. Phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified lipids, three unidentified aminophospholipids, one unidentified phospholipid, four unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified glycolipids were identified as major polar lipids. The DNA G+C content was 34.3 mol%. On the basis of the data from our polyphasic taxonomic study, strain YH207(T) should be classified in a novel species in the genus Brumimicrobium, for which the name Brumimicrobium mesophilum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YH207(T) (?=?KCCM 42331(T) ?=?JCM 14063(T)). Emended descriptions of the genus Brumimicrobium and Brumimicrobium glaciale Bowman et al. 2003 are also given.
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Quality of life in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer given maintenance treatment with pemetrexed versus placebo (H3E-MC-JMEN): results from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 study.
Lancet Oncol.
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Pemetrexed maintenance therapy significantly improved overall survival and progression-free survival compared with placebo, and had a good safety profile in a phase 3 placebo-controlled study in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Results for quality of life, symptom palliation, and tolerability are presented here.
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