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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Bipyrrole-Strapped Calix[4]pyrroles: Strong Anion Receptors That Extract the Sulfate Anion.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Cage-type calix[4]pyrroles 2 and 3 bearing two additional pyrrole groups on the strap have been synthesized. Compared with the parent calix[4]pyrrole (1), they were found to exhibit remarkably enhanced affinities for anions, including the sulfate anion (TBA(+) salts), in organic media (CD2Cl2). This increase is ascribed to participation of the bipyrrole units in anion binding. Receptors 2 and 3 extract the hydrophilic sulfate anion (as the methyltrialkyl(C8-10)ammonium (A336(+)) salt) from aqueous media into a chloroform phase with significantly improved efficiency (>10-fold relative to calix[4]pyrrole 1). These two receptors also solubilize into chloroform the otherwise insoluble sulfate salt, (TMA)2SO4 (tetramethylammonium sulfate).
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Calix[4]tetrahydrothiophenopyrrole: A Ditopic Receptor Displaying a Split Personality for Ion Recognition.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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A calix[4]pyrrole fused with 2,5-dihydrothiophene, possessing both a deep, ?-electron-rich pocket upon anion binding and chelating ligands on the periphery, was developed. The receptor selectively forms an ion-pair complex with CsF through H-bonding and a cation-? interaction. In the process, it adopt a conformationally fixed cone conformation. The receptor displays exceptionally high affinity toward the Hg(II) ion and forms stable complexes while maintaining a rigid 1,3-alternate conformation. This metal ion-induced conformational locking is unprecedented in calix[4]pyrrole chemistry.
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Calix[4]pyrrole-based ion pair receptors.
Acc. Chem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Ion pair receptors, which are able to bind concurrently both a cation and an anion, often display higher selectivity and affinity for specific ion pairs than simple ion receptors capable of recognizing primarily either a cation or an anion. This enhancement in recognition function is attributable to direct or indirect cooperative interactions between cobound ions via electrostatic attractions between oppositely charged ions, as well as to positive allosteric effects. In addition, by virtue of binding the counterions of the targeted ion, ion pair receptors can minimize the solvation of the counterions, which can otherwise have a negative effect on the interactions between the receptors and the targeted ions. As a result of their more favorable interactions, ion pair receptors are attractive for use in applications, such as extraction and sensing, where control of the binding interactions is advantageous. In this Account, we illustrate this potential in the context of ion pair receptors based on the calix[4]pyrrole scaffold. Both simple ditopic ion pair receptors, containing sites for the recognition of a single anion and single cation, and so-called multitopic ion pair receptors will be discussed. The latter systems differ from conventional, so-called ditopic ion pair receptors in that they contain more than one binding site for a given targeted ion (e.g., a cation). This permits a level of selectivity and control over binding function not normally seen for simple ion or ion pair receptors containing one or two binding sites, respectively. Calix[4]pyrroles are macrocyclic compounds consisting of four pyrrole units linked via fully substituted sp(3) hybridized meso carbon atoms. They are effective receptors for Lewis basic anions (e.g., halides) in typical organic media and under certain conditions will recognize ion pairs containing charge diffuse cations, such as a small alkylammonium, imidazolium, or cesium cations. The calix[4]pyrrole framework is further attractive in that it is relatively easy to modify. In particular, functionalization of the ?-pyrrolic carbon and meso-carbon atoms with simple crown ethers or calix[4]arene crown ethers can produce heteromultitopic ion pair receptors containing more than two cation binding sites. This allows the interactions between receptors and ions to be manipulated on a higher level than can be achieved using simple ion receptors or heteroditopic ion pair receptors and has made these systems attractive for use in ion transport, recognition, and extraction. Recent progress in developing calix[4]pyrroles as both multitopic and more conventional ion pair receptors is summarized in this Account. The emphasis will be on our own work.
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Naphthocrown-strapped calix[4]pyrroles: formation of self-assembled structures by ion-pair recognition.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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A new approach to the construction of self-assembled structures is reported that is based on ion-pair recognition. Towards this end, the calix[4]pyrrole naphthocrown-4 hybrid structures 2 and 3 were prepared. These multitopic receptors contain recognition sites for both anions and cations. On the basis of solution-phase (1) H?NMR spectroscopic analysis and solid-state single-crystal X-ray diffraction structural studies, it was established that receptors 2 and 3 are able to bind specific ion pairs with high selectivity via different binding modes. In the case of CsF and CsCl, the ion-pair complexes formed from receptors 2 and 3 were found to self-assemble to produce either linear supramolecular polymeric crystalline solids or nanotube-like cyclic hexamers depending on the specific choice of ion pairs and crystallization solvents. Proton NMR studies provided evidence for solution-phase self-association in organic media.
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Synthetic ion transporters can induce apoptosis by facilitating chloride anion transport into cells.
Nat Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Anion transporters based on small molecules have received attention as therapeutic agents because of their potential to disrupt cellular ion homeostasis. However, a direct correlation between a change in cellular chloride anion concentration and cytotoxicity has not been established for synthetic ion carriers. Here we show that two pyridine diamide-strapped calix[4]pyrroles induce coupled chloride anion and sodium cation transport in both liposomal models and cells, and promote cell death by increasing intracellular chloride and sodium ion concentrations. Removing either ion from the extracellular media or blocking natural sodium channels with amiloride prevents this effect. Cell experiments show that the ion transporters induce the sodium chloride influx, which leads to an increased concentration of reactive oxygen species, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and apoptosis via caspase activation. However, they do not activate the caspase-independent apoptotic pathway associated with the apoptosis-inducing factor. Ion transporters, therefore, represent an attractive approach for regulating cellular processes that are normally controlled tightly by homeostasis.
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Role of NADH: quinone oxidoreductase-1 in the tight junctions of colonic epithelial cells.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is known to be involved in the regulation of energy synthesis and metabolism, and the functional studies of NQO1 have largely focused on metabolic disorders. Here, we show for the first time that compared to NQO1-WT mice, NQO1-KO mice exhibited a marked increase of permeability and spontaneous inflammation in the gut. In the DSS-induced colitis model, NQO1-KO mice showed more severe inflammatory responses than NQO1-WT mice. Interestingly, the transcript levels of claudin and occludin, the major tight junction molecules of gut epithelial cells, were significantly decreased in NQO1-KO mice. The colons of NQO1-KO mice also showed high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, which are known to affect transcriptional regulation. Taken together, these novel findings indicate that NQO1 contributes to the barrier function of gut epithelial cells by regulating the transcription of tight junction molecules.
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Self-Association and Nitroaromatic-Induced Deaggregation of Pyrene Substituted Pyridine Amides.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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The self-assembly features of the bis-pyrene methyl amide functionalized pyridine and benzene "tweezers" 1 and 2 were studied in organic solution and in the solid state. These systems were found to display remarkably different self-association features and optical properties, which was rationalized by control experiments using compounds bearing pyrenemethyl esters, alkyl groups, or a single pyrene substituent (3-6). As dilute solutions in chloroform, tweezers 1 displays both pyrene monomer and excimer emission features reflecting intramolecular contacts between the pyrene subunits. At higher concentrations in chloroform, as well as in the solid state, tweezers 1 self-assembles to form a linear supramolecular polymer. In contrast, tweezers 2 does not interact in an intermolecular fashion and photoexcitation produces emission features characteristic of a pyrene monomer. DFT (density functional theory) and TDDFT (time dependent density functional theory) calculations revealed that the lowest vertical transitions are forbidden and that S1 of 1 is an emissive state. In contrast to 1 and 2, both pyrene-free control systems 5 and 6 were found to form linearly self-assembled supramolecular arrays in the solid state, albeit of differing structure. Upon exposure to trinitrobenzene (TNB), the self-assembled structures formed from 1 undergo deaggregation to form TNB complexes. This change is reflected in both an easily discernible color change and a quenching of the fluorescence emission intensity. Changes in the optical features were also seen in the case of 2. However, notable differences between these two ostensibly similar systems were seen.
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The colchicine derivative CT20126 shows a novel microtubule-modulating activity with apoptosis.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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New colchicine analogs have been synthesized with the aim of developing stronger potential anticancer activities. Among the analogs, CT20126 has been previously reported to show immunosuppressive activities. Here, we report that CT20126 also shows potential anticancer effects via an unusual mechanism: the modulation of microtubule integrity and cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase before apoptosis. When we treated COS-7 cells with CT20126 (5??M), the normal thread-like microtubules were disrupted into tubulin dimers within 10?min and thereafter repolymerized into short, thick filaments. In contrast, cells treated with the same concentration of colchicine exhibited microtubule depolymerization after 20?min and never underwent repolymerization. Furthermore, optical density (OD) analysis (350?nm) with purified tubulin showed that CT20126 had a higher repolymerizing activity than that of Taxol, a potent microtubule-polymerizing agent. These results suggest that the effects of CT20126 on microtubule integrity differ from those of colchicine: the analog first destabilizes microtubules and then stabilizes the disrupted tubulins into short, thick polymers. Furthermore, CT20126 induced a greater level of apoptotic activity in Jurkat T cells than colchicine (assessed by G2/M arrest, caspase-3 activation and cell sorting). At 20?nM, CT20126 induced 47% apoptosis among Jurkat T cells, whereas colchicine induced only 33% apoptosis. Our results suggest that the colchicine analog CT20126 can potently induce apoptosis by disrupting microtubule integrity in a manner that differs from that of colchicine or Taxol.
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Capture and metathesis-based release of potassium salts by a multitopic ion receptor.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The multitopic ion-pair receptor 2 is able to recognize and extract various cesium and potassium salts via three different ion recognition modes. Furthermore, it is capable of extracting and then releasing KNO(3)via ion-pair metathesis with CsClO(4), allowing KNO(3) recovery.
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The insect peptide coprisin prevents Clostridium difficile-mediated acute inflammation and mucosal damage through selective antimicrobial activity.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
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Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis are typically treated with vancomycin or metronidazole, but recent increases in relapse incidence and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of C. difficile indicate the need for new antibiotics. We previously isolated coprisin, an antibacterial peptide from Copris tripartitus, a Korean dung beetle, and identified a nine-amino-acid peptide in the ?-helical region of it (LLCIALRKK) that had antimicrobial activity (J.-S. Hwang et al., Int. J. Pept., 2009, doi:10.1155/2009/136284). Here, we examined whether treatment with a coprisin analogue (a disulfide dimer of the nine peptides) prevented inflammation and mucosal damage in a mouse model of acute gut inflammation established by administration of antibiotics followed by C. difficile infection. In this model, coprisin treatment significantly ameliorated body weight decreases, improved the survival rate, and decreased mucosal damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. In contrast, the coprisin analogue had no apparent antibiotic activity against commensal bacteria, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which are known to inhibit the colonization of C. difficile. The exposure of C. difficile to the coprisin analogue caused a marked increase in nuclear propidium iodide (PI) staining, indicating membrane damage; the staining levels were similar to those seen with bacteria treated with a positive control for membrane disruption (EDTA). In contrast, coprisin analogue treatment did not trigger increases in the nuclear PI staining of Bifidobacterium thermophilum. This observation suggests that the antibiotic activity of the coprisin analogue may occur through specific membrane disruption of C. difficile. Thus, these results indicate that the coprisin analogue may prove useful as a therapeutic agent for C. difficile infection-associated inflammatory diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis.
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Phosphatidylinositol phosphates directly bind to neurofilament light chain (NF-L) for the regulation of NF-L self assembly.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PtdInsPs) are ubiquitous membrane phospholipids that play diverse roles in cell growth and differentiation. To clarify the regulation mechanism acting on neurofilament light chain (NF-L) self assembly, we examined the effects of various PtdInsPs on this process. We found that PtdInsPs, including PI(4,5)P((2)), directly bind to the positively charged Arg(54) of murine NF-L, and this binding promotes NF-L self assembly in vitro. Mutant NF-L (R53A/R54A) proteins lacking binding affinity to PtdInsPs did not have the same effect, but the mutant NF-L proteins showed greater self assembly than the wild-type in the absence of any PtdInsP. These results collectively suggest that Arg(54) plays a pivotal role in NF-L self assembly by binding with PtdInsPs.
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Downregulation of erythropoietin receptor by overexpression of phospholipase C-gamma 1 is critical for decrease on focal adhesion in transformed cells.
Cell Oncol (Dordr)
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Phospholipase C-?l (PLC-?l) is known to play a critical role in cell adhesion and migration and is highly expressed in metastatic tumors. In the current study, we found that cells transformed by PLC overexpression (PLC-?l cells) exhibited a marked decrease in expression of the Epo receptor (EpoR). Here, we assessed the role of EpoR-dependent signaling pathways in PLC-?l-dependent regulation of cell adhesion and migration.
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Prolonged protein turnover of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by phospholipase C-gamma 1 is critical for anchorage-independent growth and ATP synthesis in transformed cells.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Overexpression of phospholipase C-?l (PLC-?l) in rat 3Y1 fibroblasts leads to the formation of tumors in nude mice. However, the molecular mechanism for PLC-?l-mediated cellular transformation has not been studied in detail. In this study, we found that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a glycolytic enzyme, protein levels were increased substantially in cells overexpressing PLC-?l, and that PLC-?l upregulation of GAPDH was due to a decrease in ubiquitination, followed by sustained protein turnover and subsequent accumulation. These observations suggest that regulation of the turnover rate of GAPDH is critical for anchorage-independent growth and ATP synthesis of transformed cells.
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Anion responsive TTF-appended calix[4]arenes. Synthesis and study of two different conformers.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Two new cone- and 1,3-alternate-calix[4]arenes (cone-1 and 1,3-alt-1), bearing four modified TTF (tetrathiafulvalene) substituents on the upper rim, have been synthesized. The binding ability of these two sets of conformers for various anions, including F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), PF6(-), ClO4(-), HSO4(-), CH3COO(-), H2PO4(-), and HP2O7(3-), was tested in organic media by monitoring the changes in their UV/vis and (1)H NMR spectra as a function of added anion, as well as via cyclovoltammetry (CV) (all anions studied as their respective TBA salts). On the basis of the present findings, we propose that incorporation of four TTF units within an overall calix[4]arene-based recognition framework produces a preorganized receptor system that displays a modest preference for the pyrophosphate (HP2O7(3-)) anion.
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N-Tosylpyrrolidine calix[4]pyrrole: synthesis and ion binding studies.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2010
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The synthesis and preliminary solution phase ion binding properties of the N-tosylpyrrolidine calix[4]pyrrole 2 are reported. This ?-octaalkyl-substituted calix[4]pyrrole, the first to be prepared via a direct condensation reaction, was obtained by reacting the 3,4-alkyl-functionalized pyrrole 8 with acetone in the presence of an acid catalyst. On the basis of (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses and isothermal titration calorimetry, it was concluded that, compared with the parent, ?-unsubstituted calix[4]pyrrole (1), compound 2 possesses significantly enhanced binding ability for halide anions in chloroform. Furthermore, 2 proved capable of solubilizing in chloroform solution the otherwise insoluble salts, CsF and CsCl. These effects are ascribed to the interactions between the four tosyl groups present in 2 and the counter cations of the halide anion salts.
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Stopped-flow kinetic analysis of the interaction of cyclo[8]pyrrole with anions.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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The on and off rates corresponding to the binding of two test anions (acetate, AcO(-), and dihydrogen phosphate, H(2)PO(4)(-), studied as their tetrabutylammonium salts) to diprotonated cyclo[8]pyrrole have been determined in CH(3)CN using stopped-flow analyses carried out at various temperatures. For dihydrogen phosphate, this afforded the activation enthalpies and entropies associated with both off and on processes. The different dynamic behavior seen for these test anions underscores the utility of kinetic analyses as a possible new tool for the advanced characterization of anion receptors.
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Ion pair receptors.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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Compared with simple ion receptors, which are able to bind either a cation or an anion, ion pair receptors bearing both a cation and an anion recognition site offer the promise of binding ion pairs or pairs of ions strongly as the result of direct or indirect cooperative interactions between co-bound ions. This critical review focuses on the recent progress in the design of ion pair receptors and summarizes the various binding modes that have been used to accommodate ion pairs (110 references).
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Clostridium difficile toxin A decreases acetylation of tubulin, leading to microtubule depolymerization through activation of histone deacetylase 6, and this mediates acute inflammation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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Clostridium difficile toxin A is known to cause actin disaggregation through the enzymatic inactivation of intracellular Rho proteins. Based on the rapid and severe cell rounding of toxin A-exposed cells, we speculated that toxin A may be involved in post-translational modification of tubulin, leading to microtubule instability. In the current study, we observed that toxin A strongly reduced ?-tubulin acetylation in human colonocytes and mouse intestine. Fractionation analysis demonstrated that toxin A-induced ?-tubulin deacetylation yielded monomeric tubulin, indicating the presence of microtubule depolymerization. Inhibition of the glucosyltransferase activity against Rho proteins of toxin A by UDP-2,3-dialdehyde significantly abrogated toxin A-induced ?-tubulin deacetylation. In colonocytes treated with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of the HDAC6 tubulin deacetylase, toxin A-induced ?-tubulin deacetylation and loss of tight junction were completely blocked. Administration of TSA also attenuated proinflammatory cytokine production, mucosal damage, and epithelial cell apoptosis in mouse intestine exposed to toxin A. These results suggest that toxin A causes microtubule depolymerization by activation of HDAC6-mediated tubulin deacetylation. Indeed, blockage of HDAC6 by TSA markedly attenuates ?-tubulin deacetylation, proinflammatory cytokine production, and mucosal damage in a toxin A-induced mouse enteritis model. Tubulin deacetylation is an important component of the intestinal inflammatory cascade following toxin A-mediated Rho inactivation in vitro and in vivo.
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Dipyrenylcalix[4]arene--a fluorescence-based chemosensor for trinitroaromatic explosives.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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A new chemosensor-based approach to the detection of nitroaromatics is described. It involves the analyte-induced quenching of excimer emission of a dipyrenyl calix[4]arene (L). The chemical and photophysical properties of the complexes formed between L and mono-, di-, and trinitrobenzene, and di- and trinitrotoluene were studied in acetonitrile and chloroform by using (1)H NMR, UV/Vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that the trinitroaromatics engendered the largest response among the various substrates tested, with the sensitivity for these analytes being correspondingly high. Quantitative analysis of the fluorescence titration profile generated from the titration of L with TNT provided evidence that this particular functionalized calix[4]arene receptor allows for the detection of TNT down to the low ppb level in CH(3)CN. A single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that in the solid state the complex L.TNT consists of a supramolecular crystalline polymeric structure, the formation of which appears to be driven by intermolecular pi-pi interactions between two pyrene units and a TNT molecule held at a distance of 3.2-3.6 A, as well as by intra- and intermolecular hydrogen-bonds among the amide linkages. Nevertheless, the changes in the (1)H NMR, UV/Vis, and fluorescence spectrum, including sharp color changes, are ascribed to a charge-transfer interaction arising from complementary pi-pi overlap between the pyrene subunits and the bound trinitroaromatic substrates. A number of ab initio calculations were also carried out and, considered in concert, they provide further support for the proposed charge-transfer interactions, particularly in the case of L.TNT.
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A calix[4]arene strapped calix[4]pyrrole: an ion-pair receptor displaying three different cesium cation recognition modes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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An ion-pair receptor, the calix[4]pyrrole-calix[4]arene pseudodimer 2, bearing a strong anion-recognition site but not a weak cation-recognition site, has been synthesized and characterized by standard spectroscopic means and via single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In 10% CD(3)OD in CDCl(3) (v/v), this new receptor binds neither the Cs(+) cation nor the F(-) anion when exposed to these species in the presence of other counterions; however, it forms a stable 1:1 solvent-separated CsF complex when exposed to these two ions in concert with one another in this same solvent mixture. In contrast to what is seen in the case of a previously reported crown ether "strapped" calixarene-calixpyrrole ion-pair receptor 1 (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 13162-13166), where Cs(+) cation recognition takes place within the crown, in 2.CsF cation recognition takes place within the receptor cavity itself, as inferred from both single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies. This binding mode is supported by calculations carried out using the MMFF94 force field model. In 10% CD(3)OD in CDCl(3) (v/v), receptor 2 shows selectivity for CsF over the Cs(+) salts of Cl(-), Br(-), and NO(3)(-) but will bind these other cesium salts in the absence of fluoride, both in solution and in the solid state. In the case of CsCl, an unprecedented 2:2 complex is observed in the solid state that is characterized by two different ion-pair binding modes. One of these consists of a contact ion pair with the cesium cation and chloride anion both being bound within the central binding pocket and in direct contact with one another. The other mode involves a chloride anion bound to the pyrrole NH protons of a calixpyrrole subunit and a cesium cation sandwiched between two cone shaped calix[4]pyrroles originating from separate receptor units. In contrast to what is seen for CsF and CsCl, single-crystal X-ray structural analyses and (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies reveal that receptor 2 forms a 1:1 complex with CsNO(3), with the ions bound in the form of a contact ion pair. Thus, depending on the counteranion, receptor 2 is able to stabilize three different ion-pair binding modes with Cs(+), namely solvent-bridged, contact, and host-separated.
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A double point mutation in PCL-gamma1 (Y509A/F510A) enhances Y783 phosphorylation and inositol phospholipid-hydrolyzing activity upon EGF stimulation.
Exp. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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Growth factor stimulation induces Y783 phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-specific PLC-gamma1, and the subsequent activation of this enzyme in a cellular signaling cascade. Previously, we showed that a double point mutation, Y509A/F510A, of PLC-gamma1, abolished interactions with translational elongation factor 1-alpha. Here, we report that the Y509A/F510A mutant PLC-gamma1 displayed extremely high levels of Y783 phosphorylation and enhanced catalytic activity, compared to wild-type PLC-gamma1, upon treatment of COS7 cells with EGF. In quiescent COS7 cells, the Y509A/F510A mutant PLC-gamma1 exhibited a constitutive hydrolytic activity, whereas the wild-type counterpart displayed a basal level of activity. Upon treatment of COS7 cells with EGF, the Y783F mutation in Y509A/F510A PLC-gamma1 (Y509A/F510A/Y783F triple mutant) cells also led to an enhanced catalytic activity, whereas Y783F mutation alone displayed a basal level of activity. Our results collectively suggest that the Y509A/F510A mutant is more susceptible to receptor tyrosine kinase-induced Y783 phosphorylation than is wild-type PLC-gamma1, but no longer requires Y783 phosphorylation step for the Y509A/F510A mutant PLC-gamma1 activation in vivo.
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Strapped calix[4]pyrroles bearing a 1,3-indanedione at a beta-pyrrolic position: chemodosimeters for the cyanide anion.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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A strapped calix[4]pyrrole bearing a 1,3-indanedione group at a beta-pyrrolic position has been synthesized and studied as a ratiometric cyanide-selective chemosensor. A concentration-dependent bleaching of the initial yellow color was observed upon addition of the cyanide anion. The bleaching, which was observed exclusively with the cyanide anion, occurred even in the presence of other anions. Spectroscopic studies provide support for a mechanistic interpretation wherein the cyanide anion forms a complex with the receptor (K = 2.78 x 10(4) M(-1)) through a fast equilibrium, which is followed by slow nucleophilic addition to the beta-position of the 1,3-indanedione group. A minimum inhibitory effect from other anions was observed, a feature that could be beneficial in the selective sensing of the cyanide anion.
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Clostridium difficile toxin A inhibits erythropoietin receptor-mediated colonocyte focal adhesion through inactivation of Janus Kinase-2.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
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Previously, we demonstrated that the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) is present on fibroblasts, where it regulates focal contact. Here, we assessed whether this action of EpoR is involved in the reduced cell adhesion observed in colonocytes exposed to Clostridium difficile toxin A. EpoR was present and functionally active in cells of the human colonic epithelial cell line HT29 and epithelial cells of human colon tissues. Toxin A significantly decreased activating phosphorylations of EpoR and its downstream signaling molecules JAK-2 (Janus kinase 2) and STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5). In vitro kinase assays confirmed that toxin A inhibited JAK 2 kinase activity. Pharmacological inhibition of JAK2 (with AG490) abrogated activating phosphorylations of EpoR and also decreased focal contacts in association with inactivation of paxillin, an essential focal adhesion molecule. In addition, AG490 treatment significantly decreased expression of occludin (a tight junction molecule) and tight junction levels. Taken together, these data suggest that inhibition of JAK2 by toxin A in colonocytes causes inactivation of EpoR, thereby enhancing the inhibition of focal contact formation and loss of tight junctions known to be associated with the enzymatic activity of toxin A.
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KF and CsF recognition and extraction by a calix[4]crown-5 strapped calix[4]pyrrole multitopic receptor.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
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On the basis of (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses and single crystal X-ray crystal structural data, the ion-pair receptor 1, bearing a calix[4]pyrrole for anion binding and calix[4]arene crown-5 for cation recognition, was found to act as a receptor for both CsF and KF ion-pairs. Both substrates are bound strongly but via different binding modes and with different complexation dynamics. Specifically, exposure to KF in 10% CD(3)OD in CDCl(3) leads first to complexation of the K(+) cation by the calix[4]arene crown-5 moiety. As the relative concentration of KF increases, then the calix[4]pyrrole subunit binds the F(-) anion. Once bound, the K(+) cation and the F(-) anion give rise to a stable 1:1 ion-pair complex that generally precipitates from solution. In contrast to what is seen with KF, the CsF ion-pair interacts with receptor 1 in two different modes in 10% CD(3)OD in CDCl(3). In the first of these, the Cs(+) cation interacts with the calix[4]arene crown-5 ring weakly. In the second interaction mode, which is thermodynamically more stable, the Cs(+) cation and the counteranion, F(-), are simultaneously bound to the receptor framework. Further proof that system 1 acts as a viable ion-pair receptor came from the finding that receptor 1 could extract KF from an aqueous phase into nitrobenzene, overcoming the high hydration energies of the K(+) and F(-) ions. It was more effective in this regard than a 1:1 mixture of the constituent cation and anion receptors (4 and 5).
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Vesicular glutamate transporters in axons that innervate the human dental pulp.
J Endod
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Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are involved in the transport of transmitter glutamate into synaptic vesicles and are used as markers for glutamatergic neurons.
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Clostridium difficile toxin A inhibits the kinase activity of extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 through direct binding.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
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Clostridium difficile toxin A glucosylates Rho family proteins, resulting in actin filament disaggregation and cell rounding in cultured colonocytes. Given that the cellular toxicity of toxin A is dependent on its receptor binding and subsequent entry into the cell, we herein sought to identify additional colonocyte proteins that might bind to toxin A following its internalization. Our results revealed that toxin A interacted with ERK1 and ERK2 in two human colonocyte cell lines (NCM460 and HT29). A GST-pulldown assay also showed that toxin A can directly bind to ERK1 and ERK2. In NCM460 cells exposed to PMA (an ERK1/2 activator), the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 did not affect the interaction between toxin A and ERK1/2. However, an in vitro kinase assay showed that the direct binding of toxin A to ERK1 or ERK2 inhibited their kinase activities. These results suggest a new molecular mechanism for the cellular toxicity seen in cells exposed to toxin A.
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Oligoether-strapped calix[4]pyrrole: an ion-pair receptor displaying cation-dependent chloride anion transport.
Chemistry
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A ditopic ion-pair receptor (1), which has tunable cation- and anion-binding sites, has been synthesized and characterized. Spectroscopic analyses provide support for the conclusion that receptor 1 binds fluoride and chloride anions strongly and forms stable 1:1 complexes ([1·F](-) and [1·Cl](-)) with appropriately chosen salts of these anions in acetonitrile. When the anion complexes of 1 were treated with alkali metal ions (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+), as their perchlorate salts), ion-dependent interactions were observed that were found to depend on both the choice of added cation and the initially complexed anion. In the case of [1·F](-), no appreciable interaction with the K(+) ion was seen. On the other hand, when this complex was treated with Li(+) or Na(+) ions, decomplexation of the bound fluoride anion was observed. In contrast to what was seen with Li(+), Na(+), K(+), treating [1·F](-) with Cs(+) ions gave rise to a stable, host-separated ion-pair complex, [F·1·Cs], which contains the Cs(+) ion bound in the cup-like portion of the calix[4]pyrrole. Different complexation behavior was seen in the case of the chloride complex, [1·Cl](-). Here, no appreciable interaction was observed with Na(+) or K(+). In contrast, treating with Li(+) produces a tight ion-pair complex, [1·Li·Cl], in which the cation is bound to the crown moiety. In analogy to what was seen for [1·F](-), treatment of [1·Cl](-) with Cs(+) ions gives rise to a host-separated ion-pair complex, [Cl·1·Cs], in which the cation is bound to the cup of the calix[4]pyrrole. As inferred from liposomal model membrane transport studies, system 1 can act as an effective carrier for several chloride anion salts of Group 1 cations, operating through both symport (chloride+cation co-transport) and antiport (nitrate-for-chloride exchange) mechanisms. This transport behavior stands in contrast to what is seen for simple octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole, which acts as an effective carrier for cesium chloride but does not operates through a nitrate-for-chloride anion exchange mechanism.
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Cells transformed by PLC-gamma 1 overexpression are highly sensitive to clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and mitotic inhibition.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
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Phospholipase C-?l (PLC-?l) expression is associated with cellular transformation. Notably, PLC-gamma is up-regulated in colorectal cancer tissue and breast carcinoma. Because exotoxins released by Clostridium botulinum have been shown to induce apoptosis and promote growth arrest in various cancer cell lines, we examined here the potential of Clostridium difficile toxin A to selectively induce apoptosis in cells transformed by PLC-?l overexpression. We found that PLC-?l-transformed cells, but not vectortransformed (control) cells, were highly sensitive to C. difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and mitotic inhibition. Moreover, expression of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family member, Bim, and activation of caspase-3 were significantly up-regulated by toxin A in PLC-?l-transformed cells. Toxin A-induced cell rounding and paxillin dephosphorylation were also significantly higher in PLC-?l-transformed cells than in control cells. These findings suggest that C. difficile toxin A may have potential as an anticancer agent against colorectal cancers and breast carcinomas in which PLC-?l is highly up-regulated.
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A calix[2]phenol[2]pyrrole and a fused pyrrolidine-containing derivative.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
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The hybrid calix[2]phenol[2]pyrrole 4 and the fused pyrrolidine-containing macrocycle 9 were synthesized from two different isomeric starting materials, namely dimethyl 2-hydroxyisophthalate and 5-hydroxyisophthalate, respectively. The fused species 9 is devoid of obvious substrate binding properties. In contrast, the heterocalix system 4 displays the fluoride-induced conformational changes characteristic of the parent system.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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