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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantification of rifapentine, a potent antituberculosis drug, from dried blood spot samples using liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric analysis.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The quantification of antituberculosis drug concentrations in multinational trials currently requires the collection of modest blood volumes, centrifugation, aliquoting of plasma, freezing, and keeping samples frozen during shipping. We prospectively enrolled healthy individuals into the Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 29B, a phase I dose escalation study of rifapentine, a rifamycin under evaluation in tuberculosis treatment trials. We developed a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying rifapentine in whole blood on dried blood spots (DBS) to facilitate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in clinical trials. Paired plasma and whole-blood samples were collected by venipuncture, and whole blood was spotted on Whatman protein saver 903 cards. The methods were optimized for plasma and then validated for DBS. The analytical measuring range for quantification of rifapentine and its metabolite was 50 to 80,000 ng/ml in whole-blood DBS. The analyte was stable on the cards for 11 weeks with a desiccant at room temperature and protected from light. The method concordance for paired plasma and whole-blood DBS samples was determined after correcting for participant hematocrit or population-based estimates of bias from Bland-Altman plots. The application of either correction factor resulted in acceptable correlation between plasma and whole-blood DBS (Passing-Bablok regression corrected for hematocrit; y = 0.98x + 356). Concentrations of rifapentine may be determined from whole-blood DBS collected via venipuncture after normalization in order to account for the dilutional effects of red blood cells. Additional studies are focused on the application of this methodology to capillary blood collected by finger stick. The simplicity of processing, storage, shipping, and low blood volume makes whole-blood DBS attractive for rifapentine pharmacokinetic evaluations, especially in international and pediatric trials.
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Tuberculosis among health care workers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a retrospective cohort analysis.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Tuberculosis (TB) is an occupational hazard for health care workers (HCWs) who are at greater risk of developing TB than the general population. The objective of this study was to compare the difference in TB incidence among HCWs with versus without a history of working in TB wards, to estimate the incidence of TB among HCWs, and to identify risk factors for TB disease in HCWs.
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Prospective cross-sectional evaluation of the small membrane filtration method for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Smear microscopy has suboptimal sensitivity, and there is a need to improve its performance since it is commonly used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the small membrane filtration (SMF) method, an approach that uses a vacuum manifold and is designed to concentrate bacilli onto a filter that can be examined microscopically. We enrolled hospitalized adults suspected to have pulmonary TB in Kampala, Uganda. We obtained a clinical history and three spontaneously expectorated sputum specimens for smear microscopy (direct, concentrated, and SMF), MGIT (mycobacterial growth indicator tube) 960 and Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) cultures, and Xpert MTB/RIF testing. We performed per-specimen (primary) and per-patient analyses. From October 2012 to June 2013, we enrolled 212 patients (579 sputum specimens). The participants were mostly female (63.2%), and 81.6% were HIV infected; their median CD4 cell count was 47 cells/?l. Overall, 19.0%, 20.4%, 27.1%, 25.2%, and 25.9% of specimens tested positive by direct smear, concentrated smear, MGIT culture, LJ culture, and Xpert test, respectively. In the per-specimen analysis, the sensitivity of the SMF method (48.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 37.4 to 59.6) was lower than those of direct smear (60.9%; 51.4 to 70.5 [P = 0.0001]) and concentrated smear (63.3%; 53.6 to 73.1 [P < 0.0001]). Subgroup analyses showed that SMF performed poorly in specimens having a low volume or low bacterial load. The SMF method performed poorly compared to standard smear techniques and was sensitive to sample preparation techniques. The optimal laboratory SMF protocol may require striking a fine balance between sample dilution and filtration failure rate.
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Diagnostic accuracy of a rapid urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in HIV-infected adults.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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In settings of high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis control and patient management are hindered by lack of accurate, rapid tuberculosis diagnostic tests that can be performed at point-of-care. The Determine TB LAM Ag (TB LAM) test is a lateral flow immunochromatographic test for detection of mycobacterial lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine. Our objective was to determine sensitivity and specificity of the TB LAM test for tuberculosis diagnosis.
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Comparative performance of urinary lipoarabinomannan assays and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected individuals.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Xpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') and urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assays offer rapid tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis, but have suboptimal sensitivity when used individually in HIV-positive patients. The yield of these tests used in combination for the diagnosis of active TB among HIV-infected TB suspects is unknown.
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Population pharmacokinetics of rifapentine and desacetyl rifapentine in healthy volunteers: nonlinearities in clearance and bioavailability.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Rifapentine is under active investigation as a potent drug that may help shorten the tuberculosis (TB) treatment duration. A previous rifapentine dose escalation study with daily dosing indicated a possible decrease in bioavailability as the dose increased and an increase in clearance over time for rifapentine and its active metabolite, desacetyl rifapentine. This study aimed to assess the effects of increasing doses on rifapentine absorption and bioavailability and to evaluate the clearance changes over 14 days. A population analysis was performed with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Absorption, time-varying clearance, bioavailability, and empirical and semimechanistic autoinduction models were investigated. A one-compartment model linked to a transit compartment absorption model best described the data. The bioavailability of rifapentine decreased linearly by 2.5% for each 100-mg increase in dose. The autoinduction model suggested a dose-independent linear increase in clearance of the parent drug and metabolite over time from 1.2 and 3.1 liters · h(-1), respectively, after a single dose to 2.2 and 5.0 liters · h(-1), respectively, after 14 once-daily doses, with no plateau being reached by day 14. In clinical trial simulations using the final model, rifapentine demonstrated less-than-dose-proportional pharmacokinetics, but there was no plateau in exposures over the dose range tested (450 to 1,800 mg), and divided dosing increased exposures significantly. Thus, the proposed compartmental model incorporating daily dosing of rifapentine over a wide range of doses and time-related changes in bioavailability and clearance provides a useful tool for estimation of drug exposure that can be used to optimize rifapentine dosing for TB treatment. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01162486.).
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Interferon-? release assays and tuberculin skin testing for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers in the United States.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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IFN-? release assays (IGRAs) are alternatives to tuberculin skin testing (TST) for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. Limited data suggest IGRAs may not perform well for serial testing of healthcare workers (HCWs).
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Clinical utility of a novel molecular assay in various combination strategies with existing methods for diagnosis of HIV-related tuberculosis in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Low income, high-tuberculosis burden, countries are considering selective deployment of Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) due to high cost per test. We compared the diagnostic gain of the Xpert add-on strategy with Xpert replacement strategy for pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis among HIV-infected adults to inform its implementation.
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Point-of-care lateral flow assays for tuberculosis and cryptococcal antigenuria predict death in HIV infected adults in Uganda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mortality in hospitalized, febrile patients in Sub-Saharan Africa is high due to HIV-infected, severely immunosuppressed patients with opportunistic co-infection, particularly disseminated tuberculosis (TB) and cryptococcal disease. We sought to determine if a positive lateral flow assay (LFA) result for urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) and cryptococcal antigenuria was associated with mortality.
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Sensititre MYCOTB MIC Plate for Testing Mycobacterium tuberculosis Susceptibility to First- and Second-Line Drugs.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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For Mycobacterium tuberculosis, phenotypic methods for drug susceptibility testing of second-line drugs are poorly standardized and technically challenging. The Sensititre MYCOTB MIC plate (MYCOTB) is a microtiter plate containing lyophilized antibiotics and configured for determination of MICs to first- and second-line antituberculosis drugs. To evaluate the performance of MYCOTB for M. tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing using the Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method (APM) as the comparator, we conducted a two-site study using archived M. tuberculosis isolates from Uganda and the Republic of Korea. Thawed isolates were subcultured, and dilutions were inoculated into MYCOTB wells and onto 7H10 agar. MYCOTB results were read at days 7, 10, 14, and 21; APM results were read at 21 days. A total of 222 isolates provided results on both platforms. By APM, 106/222 (47.7%) of isolates were resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin. Agreement between MYCOTB and APM with respect to susceptibility or resistance was ?92% for 7 of 12 drugs when a strict definition was used and ?96% for 10 of 12 drugs when agreement was defined by allowing a ± one-well range of dilutions around the APM critical concentration. For ethambutol, agreement was 80% to 81%. For moxifloxacin, agreement was 83% to 85%; incorporating existing DNA sequencing information for discrepant analysis raised agreement to 91% to 96%. For MYCOTB, the median time to plate interpretation was 10 days and interreader agreement was ?95% for all drugs. MYCOTB provided reliable results for M. tuberculosis susceptibility testing of first- and second-line drugs except ethambutol, and results were available sooner than those determined by APM.
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Determine TB-LAM lateral flow urine antigen assay for HIV-associated tuberculosis: recommendations on the design and reporting of clinical studies.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall antigen lipoarabinomannan (LAM) in urine permits diagnoses of tuberculosis (TB) to be made in HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency. This can be achieved at the point-of-care within just 30 minutes using the Determine TB-LAM, which is a commercially available, lateral-flow urine strip test assay. The assay has been shown to have useful diagnostic accuracy in patients enrolling in antiretroviral treatment services or in HIV-infected patients requiring admission to hospital medical wards in sub-Saharan Africa. Such patients have high mortality risk and have most to gain from rapid diagnosis of TB and immediate initiation of treatment. However, few studies using this assay have yet been reported and many questions remain concerning the correct use of the assay, interpretation of results, the role of the assay as an add-on test within existing diagnostic algorithms and the types of further studies needed. In this paper we address a series of questions with the aim of informing the design, conduct and interpretation of future studies. Specifically, we clarify which clinical populations are most likely to derive benefit from use of this assay and how patients enrolled in such studies might best be characterised. We describe the importance of employing a rigorous microbiological diagnostic reference standard in studies of diagnostic accuracy and discuss issues surrounding the specificity of the assay in different geographical areas and potential cross-reactivity with non-tuberculous mycobacteria and other organisms. We highlight the importance of careful procedures for urine collection and storage and the critical issue of how to read and interpret the test strips. Finally, we consider how the assay could be used in combination with other assays and outline the types of studies that are required to build the evidence base concerning its use.
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The health-system benefits and cost-effectiveness of using Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct nucleic acid amplification testing to diagnose tuberculosis disease in the United States.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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The utility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct nucleic acid amplification testing (MTD) for pulmonary tuberculosis disease diagnosis in the United States has not been well described.
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A summary of meeting proceedings on addressing variability around the cut point in serial interferon-? release assay testing.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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On June 13, 2012, a group of key stakeholders, leaders, and national experts on tuberculosis (TB), occupational health, and laboratory science met in Atlanta, Georgia, to focus national discussion on the higher than expected positive results occurring among low-risk, unexposed healthcare workers undergoing serial testing with interferon-? release assays (IGRAs). The objectives of the meeting were to present the latest clinical and operational research findings on the topic, to discuss evaluation and treatment algorithms that are emerging in the absence of national guidance, and to develop a consensus on the action steps needed to assist programs and physicians in the interpretation of serial testing IGRA results. This report summarizes its proceedings.
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Comparison of laboratory costs of rapid molecular tests and conventional diagnostics for detection of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis in South Africa.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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The World Health Organization has endorsed the use of molecular methods for the detection of TB and drug-resistant TB as a rapid alternative to culture-based systems. In South Africa, the Xpert MTB/Rif assay and the GenoType MTBDRplus have been implemented into reference laboratories for diagnosis of TB and drug-resistance, but their costs have not been fully elucidated.
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Optimal Triage Test Characteristics to Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay for TB Diagnosis: A Decision Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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High costs are a limitation to scaling up the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in resource-constrained settings. A triaging strategy in which a sensitive but not necessarily highly specific rapid test is used to select patients for Xpert may result in a more affordable diagnostic algorithm. To inform the selection and development of particular diagnostics as a triage test we explored combinations of sensitivity, specificity and cost at which a hypothetical triage test will improve affordability of the Xpert assay.
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Longitudinal analysis of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in children with adult household tuberculosis contact in South Africa: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-GIT) is a tool for detecting M. tuberculosis infection. However, interpretation and utility of serial QFT-GIT testing of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) contacts is not well understood. We compared TB prevalence between baseline and 6 months follow-up using QFT-GIT and tuberculin skin testing (TST) in children who were household contacts of adults with pulmonary TB in South Africa, and explored factors associated with QFT-GIT conversions and reversions.
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Geographic differences in time to culture conversion in liquid media: Tuberculosis Trials Consortium study 28. Culture conversion is delayed in Africa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Tuberculosis Trials Consortium Study 28, was a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 2 clinical trial examining smear positive pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Over the course of intensive phase therapy, patients from African sites had substantially delayed and lower rates of culture conversion to negative in liquid media compared to non-African patients. We explored potential explanations of this finding.
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Quantitative analysis of a urine-based assay for detection of lipoarabinomannan in patients with tuberculosis.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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Urinary lipoarabinomannan (LAM) detection is a promising approach for rapid diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB). In microbiologically confirmed TB patients, quantitative LAM detection results increased progressively with bacillary burden and immunosuppression. Patients with disseminated TB and/or advanced HIV are target populations for whom urine LAM detection may be particularly useful.
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New diagnostic tests for tuberculosis: bench, bedside, and beyond.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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Current tools and strategies for diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) are inadequate, particularly in settings with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Several promising new tools are at advanced stages of development and evaluation. This review describes some of those promising new technologies and the key barriers to their effective implementation.
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Diagnostic accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in hospitalized patients in a High HIV prevalence setting.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
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Effective tuberculosis (TB) control in HIV-prevalent settings is hindered by absence of accurate, rapid TB diagnostic tests. We evaluated the accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test for TB diagnosis in South Africa.
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Substitution of moxifloxacin for isoniazid during intensive phase treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Moxifloxacin has potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and in a mouse model of antituberculosis (TB) chemotherapy, but data regarding its activity in humans are limited.
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Impact of diabetes mellitus on treatment outcomes of patients with active tuberculosis.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2009
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an emerging chronic health condition of developed and developing countries. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with active, culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB) in Maryland to determine the impact of DM on TB treatment outcomes. Of 297 TB patients, 42 (14%) had DM. Patients with diabetes had 2.0 times higher odds of death than patients without diabetes (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-5.2, P = 0.18). Adjusting for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), age, weight, and foreign birth, the odds of death were 6.5 times higher in patients with diabetes than patients without diabetes (95% CI 1.1-38.0, P = 0.039). In pulmonary TB patients, time to sputum culture conversion was longer in patients with diabetes than patients without diabetes (median 49 versus 39 days, P = 0.09). Two-month culture conversion proportions were similar (70% and 69%). Treatment failure occurred in 4.1% of patients without diabetes and 6.7% of patients with diabetes (P = 0.51). In conclusion, DM was a risk factor for death in Maryland TB patients. There was a trend toward increased time to culture conversion; two-month culture conversion proportions, however, were similar.
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T-SPOT.TB responses during treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens could serve as surrogate markers of treatment response.
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QuantiFERON-TB gold in-tube implementation for latent tuberculosis diagnosis in a public health clinic: a cost-effectiveness analysis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
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The tuberculin skin test (TST) has limitations for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) diagnosis in low-prevalence settings. Previously, all TST-positive individuals referred from the community to Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) were offered LTBI treatment, after active TB was excluded. In 2010, BCHD introduced adjunctive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) testing for TST-positive referrals. We evaluated costs and cost-effectiveness of this new diagnostic algorithm.
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The impact of expanded testing for multidrug resistant tuberculosis using genotype [correction of geontype] MTBDRplus in South Africa: an observational cohort study.
PLoS ONE
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Globally, multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains underdiagnosed. The Genotype MTBDRplus®, a rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) assay used to detect resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin in the diagnosis of MDR-TB, has good diagnostic accuracy, but its impact on patient outcomes in routine practice is unproven. We assessed the clinical impact of routine DST using MTBDRplus in a single health district in South Africa.
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"Proof-of-concept" evaluation of an automated sputum smear microscopy system for tuberculosis diagnosis.
PLoS ONE
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"TBDx" is an innovative smear microscopy system that automatically loads slides onto a microscope, focuses and digitally captures images and then classifies smears as positive or negative using computerised algorithms.
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Performance characteristics of the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF test in a tuberculosis prevalence survey.
PLoS ONE
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Xpert MTB/RIF ("Xpert") is a molecular test for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in sputum. Performance characteristics have been established for its use during passive tuberculosis (TB) case detection in symptomatic TB suspects, but Xpert performance has not been assessed in other settings. Objectives were to determine Xpert performance and costs in the context of a TB prevalence survey.
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Substitution of rifapentine for rifampin during intensive phase treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: study 29 of the tuberculosis trials consortium.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Rifapentine administered 5 days per week has potent activity in mouse models of antituberculosis chemotherapy, but efficacy and safety data are limited in humans. We compared the antimicrobial activity and safety of rifapentine vs rifampin during the first 8 weeks of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment.
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Programmatic impact of QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube implementation on latent tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment in a public health clinic.
PLoS ONE
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QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) is considered an alternative to the tuberculin skin test (TST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection, but the programmatic impact of QFT-GIT implementation is largely unknown. In March, 2010, the Baltimore City Health Department (BCHD) introduced routine QFT-GIT testing for individuals referred to the TB program for suspected latent TB infection (LTBI).
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Genotype MTBDRplus for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance in strains from gold miners in South Africa.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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GenoType MTBDRplus is a molecular assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance. Assay performance as applied directly to consecutive unselected sputum samples has not been established. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the MTBDRplus test for direct detection of M. tuberculosis (in sputum) and for drug resistance in consecutively submitted sputum samples. In this cross-sectional study in South Africa, one sputum specimen from each person suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis was tested by smear microscopy, direct MTBDRplus, and Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) culture with MGIT drug susceptibility testing. MGIT results were the reference standard. We tested 2,510 sputum samples, and 529 (21.1%) were positive for M. tuberculosis by MGIT. Direct MTBDRplus identified M. tuberculosis in 256 of 529 specimens (sensitivity, 48.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 44.1, 52.7). The sensitivity of MTBDRplus for M. tuberculosis detection by sputum smear status was as follows: smear negative, 13.7% (95% CI, 9.8, 18.4); smear scanty, 46.2% (95% CI, 19.2, 74.9); smear 1+, 69.1% (95% CI, 55.2, 80.9); smear 2+, 86.3% (95% CI, 73.7, 94.3); smear 3+, 89.8% (95% CI, 83.7, 94.2). Direct MTBDRplus testing was negative for 1,594/1,612 sputum samples that were culture negative for M. tuberculosis (specificity, 98.9%; 95% CI, 98.2, 99.3). For specimens positive for M. tuberculosis by MTBDRplus, this assays sensitivity and specificity for rifampin resistance were 85.7% (95% CI, 57.2, 98.2) and 96.6% (95% CI, 93.2, 98.6) and for isoniazid resistance they were 62.1% (95% CI, 42.3, 79.3) and 97.9% (95% CI, 94.8, 99.4). For sputum testing, the sensitivity of MTBDRplus is directly related to the specimens bacillary burden. Our results support recommendations that the MTBDRplus test not be used for direct testing of smear-negative or paucibacillary sputum samples.
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