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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lactobacillus-dominated cervicovaginal microbiota associated with reduced HIV/STI prevalence and genital HIV viral load in African women.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Cervicovaginal microbiota not dominated by lactobacilli may facilitate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as miscarriages, preterm births and sepsis in pregnant women. However, little is known about the exact nature of the microbiological changes that cause these adverse outcomes. In this study, cervical samples of 174 Rwandan female sex workers were analyzed cross-sectionally using a phylogenetic microarray. Furthermore, HIV-1 RNA concentrations were measured in cervicovaginal lavages of 58 HIV-positive women among them. We identified six microbiome clusters, representing a gradient from low semi-quantitative abundance and diversity dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus (cluster R-I, with R denoting 'Rwanda') and L. iners (R-II) to intermediate (R-V) and high abundance and diversity (R-III, R-IV and R-VI) dominated by a mixture of anaerobes, including Gardnerella, Atopobium and Prevotella species. Women in cluster R-I were less likely to have HIV (P=0.03), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2; P<0.01), and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV; P<0.01) and had no bacterial STIs (P=0.15). Statistically significant trends in prevalence of viral STIs were found from low prevalence in cluster R-I, to higher prevalence in clusters R-II and R-V, and highest prevalence in clusters R-III/R-IV/R-VI. Furthermore, only 10% of HIV-positive women in clusters R-I/R-II, compared with 40% in cluster R-V, and 42% in clusters R-III/R-IV/R-VI had detectable cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA (Ptrend=0.03). We conclude that L. crispatus-dominated, and to a lesser extent L. iners-dominated, cervicovaginal microbiota are associated with a lower prevalence of HIV/STIs and a lower likelihood of genital HIV-1 RNA shedding.
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Temporary treatment during primary HIV infection does not affect virologic response to subsequent long-term treatment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Temporary cART during primary HIV-infection (PHI) did not select for drug resistance mutations after treatment interruption and did not affect the subsequent virological response to long-term cART. Our data demonstrate that fear of drug resistance development is not a valid argument to refrain from temporary early treatment during PHI.
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High prevalence of hepatitis B virus dual infection with genotypes A and G in HIV-1 infected men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, during 2000-2011.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is divided into 8 definite (A-H) and 2 putative (I, J) genotypes that show a geographical distribution. HBV genotype G, however, is an aberrant genotype of unknown origin that demonstrates severe replication deficiencies and very little genetic variation. It is often found in co-infections with another HBV genotype and infection has been associated with certain risk groups such as intravenous drug users and men having sex with men (MSM). We aimed to estimate the prevalence of HBV-G in the Netherlands by analysing samples from HBV-positive patients visiting the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam.
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Triple infection with HIV-1, HTLV-1 and Strongyloides stercoralis, rendering CD4(+) T-cell counts a misleading entity.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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We report the case of a Gabonese HIV-patient who presented with haemoptysis, weight loss, fulminant diarrhoea and subsequent ileus and elevated CD4(+) T-cell counts. He was diagnosed with Strongyloides stercoralis and human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1 infection. After treatment of the strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome, his CD4(+) T-cell counts dropped greatly. The initially elevated CD4(+) T-cell counts were misleading to the clinicians with regard to decision-making on antiretroviral therapy initiation.
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Translational HIV-1 research: from routine diagnostics to new virology insights in Amsterdam, the Netherlands during 1983-2013.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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An HIV-1 diagnostic laboratory was established in the Academic Medical Center (AMC) of the University of Amsterdam after the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the cause of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The first AIDS patients were diagnosed here in 1981 and since 1983 we have tested the samples of 50992 patients using a variety of assays that greatly improved over the years. We will describe some of the basic results from this diagnostic laboratory and then focus on the spin-off in terms of the development of novel virus assays to detect super-infections and ultra-sensitive assays to measure the intracellular HIV-1 RNA load. We also review several original research findings in the field of HIV-1 virology that stem from initial observations made in the diagnostic unit. This includes the study of genetic defects in the HIV-1 genome and time trends of the replication fitness over 30 years of viral evolution, but also the description of novel HIV-1 variants in difficult-to-diagnose clinical specimen.
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Transmission of risk-group specific HIV-1 strains among Dutch drug users for more than 20 years and their replacement by nonspecific strains after switching to low-harm drug practices.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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To characterize HIV-1 epidemiological networks of men having sex with men (MSM) and drug users (DUs) in the Netherlands for >30 years.
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Low primary and secondary HIV drug-resistance after 12 months of antiretroviral therapy in human immune-deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals from Kigali, Rwanda.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Treatment outcomes of HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Rwanda are scarcely documented. HIV viral load (VL) and HIV drug-resistance (HIVDR) outcomes at month 12 were determined in a prospective cohort study of antiretroviral-naïve HIV patients initiating first-line therapy in Kigali. Treatment response was monitored clinically and by regular CD4 counts and targeted HIV viral load (VL) to confirm drug failure. VL measurements and HIVDR genotyping were performed retrospectively on baseline and month 12 samples. One hundred and fifty-eight participants who completed their month 12 follow-up visit had VL data available at month 12. Most of them (88%) were virologically suppressed (VL?1000 copies/mL) but 18 had virological failure (11%), which is in the range of WHO-suggested targets for HIVDR prevention. If only CD4 criteria had been used to classify treatment response, 26% of the participants would have been misclassified as treatment failure. Pre-therapy HIVDR was documented in 4 of 109 participants (3.6%) with an HIVDR genotyping results at baseline. Eight of 12 participants (66.7%) with virological failure and HIVDR genotyping results at month 12 were found to harbor mutation(s), mostly NNRTI resistance mutations, whereas 4 patients had no HIVDR mutations. Almost half (44%) of the participants initiated ART at CD4 count ?200 cell/µl and severe CD4 depletion at baseline (<50 cells/µl) was associated with virological treatment failure (p?=?0.008). Although the findings may not be generalizable to all HIV patients in Rwanda, our data suggest that first-line ART regimen changes are currently not warranted. However, the accumulation of acquired HIVDR mutations in some participants underscores the need to reinforce HIVDR prevention strategies, such as increasing the availability and appropriate use of VL testing to monitor ART response, ensuring high quality adherence counseling, and promoting earlier identification of HIV patients and enrollment into HIV care and treatment programs.
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Has the rate of CD4 cell count decline before initiation of antiretroviral therapy changed over the course of the Dutch HIV epidemic among MSM?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Studies suggest that the HIV-1 epidemic in the Netherlands may have become more virulent, leading to faster disease progression if untreated. Analysis of CD4 cell count decline before antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, a surrogate marker for disease progression, may be hampered by informative censoring as ART initiation is more likely with a steeper CD4 cell count decline.
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HIV-1 dual infection is associated with faster CD4+ T-cell decline in a cohort of men with primary HIV infection.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2011
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?In vitro, animal, and mathematical models suggest that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co- or superinfection would result in increased fitness of the pathogen and, possibly, increased virulence. However, in patients, the impact of dual HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection on disease progression is unclear, because parameters relevant for disease progression have not been strictly analyzed. The objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of dual HIV-1 infections on disease progression in a well-defined cohort of men who have sex with men.
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Ten years of HIV testing with fourth generation assays: the Amsterdam experience.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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Serological HIV assays combining detection of HIV antigen and antibodies are referred to as fourth generation assays. Fourth generation assays were implemented in Europe for routine patient testing about 10 years ago. The Academic Medical Center is one of the main HIV treatment centers in the Netherlands and has now 10 years experience with fourth generation testing, which is summarized here.
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Transmission of two distinct HIV type 1 strains to an individual that were harbored for many years by another.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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The concept of transmission bottlenecks in HIV-1 infection is well established. Coinfections and superinfections have been increasingly documented and provide a founding cause for the expansion of viral diversity through recombination. It is still relatively unclear how HIV-1 will propagate and evolve in individuals infected with more than one viral strain. Here we report on the parallel transmission of genetically distant viral strains cocirculating in one individual over many years to a single recipient.
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Ongoing HIV-1 transmission among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam: a 25-year prospective cohort study.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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To examine the suggested resurgence of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), we studied trends in HIV-1 incidence rates, sexual risk behaviour, risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion, and source of HIV-1 infection among MSM in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies from 1984 to 2009.
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Altered dynamics and differential infection profiles of lymphoid and myeloid cell subsets during acute and chronic HIV-1 infection.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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The dynamics of immune cell populations during acute HIV-1 infection are not fully deciphered, especially for non-T cells. In this study, we tested whether specific cellular subsets of the innate arm of the immune response are affected early after HIV-1 infection. Using a cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals, we have monitored the relative frequency of blood T lymphocytes, monocytes, and DCs at various infection stages and measured their respective intracellular HIV-1 DNA loads. The HIV-1 DNA load in naive CD4(+) T lymphocytes, which are lost very early during acute infection, was ten- to 100-fold lower than in CD57(-) and CD57(+) memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We observed that despite rapid, persistent loss after HIV-1 infection, pDCs represented a non-negligible HIV-1 DNA reservoir. CD16(+) proinflammatory cDCs and monocytes accumulated gradually, and HIV-infected CD16(+) monocytes contained higher HIV-1 DNA loads than their CD16(-) counterpart during acute infection. During chronic infection, CD16(+) cDCs exhibited higher HIV-1 DNA loads than the CD16(-) population. Overall, our results demonstrate that non-T cell compartments are a major HIV-1 DNA reservoir, and CD16(+) monocytes and CD16(+) cDCs potentially play an important role in HIV-1 dissemination.
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Unusual cluster of HIV type 1 dual infections in Groningen, The Netherlands.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
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In 2007, 14 Dutch men having sex with men (MSM) filed a criminal case against three other men, accusing them of administering sedative drugs, sexual abuse, and deliberate subcutaneous injections with HIV-1-infected blood. Medical files showed that 9 of 17 men presented with an acute HIV-1 infection syndrome during 2006-2007. Two men were not infected with HIV. Analysis of viral strains in the 12 MSM and the three alleged donors showed that one donor and six recipients were double infected with two distinct HIV-1 subtype B strains, while another five recipients and one donor were single infected with either strain. Two men were infected with unrelated strains. The finding of multiple double infections with very similar HIV-1 strains is without precedent.
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Clinical significance of transient HIV type-1 viraemia and treatment interruptions during suppressive antiretroviral treatment.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Transient episodes of HIV type-1 viraemia are frequently observed in patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We studied the effect of such episodes and of treatment interruptions on clinical outcome and immunological response.
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Steady increase in cellular HIV-1 load during the asymptomatic phase of untreated infection despite stable plasma viremia.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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To compare the dynamics of HIV-1 molecular markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in plasma during the asymptomatic phase of untreated HIV-1 infection.
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Lack of detection of XMRV in seminal plasma from HIV-1 infected men in The Netherlands.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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Xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a recently discovered human gammaretrovirus with yet unknown prevalence and transmission route(s). Its presence in prostate stromal fibroblasts and prostatic secretions suggests that XMRV might be sexually transmitted. We chose to study a compartment closely connected to the prostate, a location where XMRV was detected in independent studies. Seminal plasma samples from HIV-1 infected men were examined as they have an increased probability of acquiring sexually transmitted pathogens.
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Viral load levels measured at set-point have risen over the last decade of the HIV epidemic in the Netherlands.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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HIV-1 RNA plasma concentration at viral set-point is associated not only with disease outcome but also with the transmission dynamics of HIV-1. We investigated whether plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration and CD4 cell count at viral set-point have changed over time in the HIV epidemic in the Netherlands.
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Multiple transmissions of a stable human leucocyte antigen-B27 cytotoxic T-cell-escape strain of HIV-1 in The Netherlands.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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The evolution of HIV-1 is largely shaped by the cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) response of the host as encoded by the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Certain HLA-B alleles can delay disease progression, but it is uncertain whether this protection will sustain or whether the virus is in the process of adaptation. In The Netherlands, HLA-B27 is moderately prevalent (approximately 8-16% of HLA-B alleles). If adaptation to HLA-B alleles is in progress, virus strains carrying escape mutations to HLA-B27 should appear in the epidemic by now.
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High incidence of asymptomatic syphilis in HIV-infected MSM justifies routine screening.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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Recently, the incidence of syphilis has risen, mainly among men having sex with men (MSM), many of whom are coinfected with HIV. Current guidelines recommend at least yearly syphilis testing in this group. In this study, we assessed the yield of routine syphilis screening in outpatient HIV-patients.
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Incidence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dual infections in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, during 2003-2007.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
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The occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) dual infections in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, was examined during 2003-2007 to investigate whether the number of HIV-1 dual infections increased as the number of HIV-1 infected individuals increased during the same period.
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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 envelope characteristics associated with disease progression differ in family members infected with genetically similar viruses.
J. Gen. Virol.
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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope protein provides the primary contact between the virus and host, and is the main target of the adaptive humoral immune response. The length of gp120 variable loops and the number of N-linked glycosylation events are key determinants for virus infectivity and immune escape, while the V3 loop overall positive charge is known to affect co-receptor tropism. We selected two families in which both parents and two children had been infected with HIV-1 for nearly 10 years, but who demonstrated variable parameters of disease progression. We analysed the gp120 envelope sequence and compared individuals that progressed to those that did not in order to decipher evolutionary alterations that are associated with disease progression when individuals are infected with genetically related virus strains. The analysis of the V3-positive charge demonstrated an association between higher V3-positive charges with disease progression. The ratio between the amino acid length and the number of potential N-linked glycosylation sites was also shown to be associated with disease progression with the healthier family members having a lower ratio. In conclusion in individuals initially infected with genetically linked virus strains the V3-positive charges and N-linked glycosylation are associated with HIV-1 disease progression and follow varied evolutionary paths for individuals with varied disease progression.
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Performance of VIDISCA-454 in feces-suspensions and serum.
Viruses
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Virus discovery combining sequence unbiased amplification with next generation sequencing is now state-of-the-art. We have previously determined that the performance of the unbiased amplification technique which is operational at our institute, VIDISCA-454, is efficient when respiratory samples are used as input. The performance of the assay is, however, not known for other clinical materials like blood or stool samples. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of VIDISCA-454 with feces-suspensions and serum samples that are positive and that have been quantified for norovirus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1, respectively. The performance of VIDISCA-454 in serum samples was equal to its performance in respiratory material, with an estimated lower threshold of 1,000 viral genome copies. The estimated threshold in feces-suspension is around 200,000 viral genome copies. The decreased sensitivity in feces suspension is mainly due to sequences that share no recognizable identity with known sequences. Most likely these sequences originate from bacteria and phages which are not completely sequenced.
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Modest nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy promotes residual HIV-1 replication in the absence of virological rebound in plasma.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are widely assumed to forgive modest nonadherence, because virological suppression in plasma is common at adherence levels of >70%. Yet, it is unknown whether human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication is completely suppressed at these levels of adherence.
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Molecular and phylogeographic analysis of human immuno-deficiency virus type 1 strains infecting treatment-naive patients from Kigali, Rwanda.
PLoS ONE
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This study aimed at describing the genetic subtype distribution of HIV-1 strains circulating in Kigali and their epidemiological link with the HIV-1 strains from the five countries surrounding Rwanda. One hundred and thirty eight pol (RT and PR) sequences from 116 chronically- and 22 recently-infected antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients from Kigali were generated and subjected to HIV drug resistance (HIV-DR), phylogenetic and recombinant analyses in connection with 366 reference pol sequences from Rwanda, Burundi, Kenya, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Uganda (Los Alamos database). Among the Rwandan samples, subtype A1 predominated (71.7%), followed by A1/C recombinants (18.1%), subtype C (5.8%), subtype D (2.9%), one A1/D recombinant (0.7%) and one unknown subtype (0.7%). Thirteen unique and three multiple A1/C recombinant forms were identified. No evidence for direct transmission events was found within the Rwandan strains. Molecular characteristics of HIV-1 were similar between chronically and recently-infected individuals and were not significantly associated with demographic or social factors. Our report suggests that the HIV-1 epidemic in Kigali is characterized by the emergence of A1/C recombinants and is not phylogenetically connected with the HIV-1 epidemic in the five neighboring countries. The relatively low level of transmitted HIV-DR mutations (2.9%) reported here indicates the good performance of the ART programme in Rwanda. However, the importance of promoting couples counseling, testing and disclosure during HIV prevention strategies is highlighted.
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HIV-1 drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive individuals with HIV-1-associated tuberculous meningitis initiating antiretroviral therapy in Vietnam.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
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Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected individuals in Vietnam is rapidly expanding, but there are limited data on HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) to guide ART strategies.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.