JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Doxorubicin encapsulated in micelles enhances radiosensitivity in doxorubicin-resistant tumor cells.
Discov Med
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy of doxorubicin (DOX) loaded micelles in enhancing DOX radiosensitivity in DOX-resistant K562 tumor cells (K562/DOX cells), DOX loaded polyethylene glycol-polycaprolactone (PEG-PCL) copolymer micelles and pluronic 105 (P105) micelles, and composite micelles composed of PEG-PCL and P105 were prepared. By using MTT assay, soft agar cloning assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and flow cytometry analyses to evaluate the radiosensitivity of each compound, DOX loaded micelles were found to increase the radiosensitivity of K562/DOX cells, as revealed by a marked cellular uptake and its sustained, slower release than free DOX. The micelles encapsulating DOX significantly enhanced its cytotoxicity in K562/DOX cells. Combined treatment with the encapsulation of DOX in micelles and radiotherapy therefore warrants investigation in clinical trials as a potential anticancer strategy with increased efficacy and reduced side effects.
Related JoVE Video
Estrogen receptor-?36 is involved in pterostilbene-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferation in in vitro and in vivo breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pterostilbene (trans-3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hudroxystilbene) is an antioxidant primarily found in blueberries. It also inhibits breast cancer regardless of conventional estrogen receptor (ER-?66) status by inducing both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent apoptosis. However, the pterostilbene-induced apoptosis rate in ER-?66-negative breast cancer cells is much higher than that in ER-?66-positive breast cancer cells. ER-?36, a variant of ER-?66, is widely expressed in ER-?66-negative breast cancer, and its high expression mediates the resistance of ER-?66-positive breast cancer patients to tamoxifen therapy. The aim of the present study is to determine the relationship between the antiproliferation activity of pterostilbene and ER-?36 expression in breast cancer cells. Methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium (MTT) assay, apoptosis analysis, and an orthotropic xenograft mouse model were used to examine the effects of pterostilbene on breast cancer cells. The expressions of ER-?36 and caspase 3, the activation of ERK and Akt were also studied through RT-PCR, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. ER-?36 knockdown was found to desensitize ER-?66-negative breast cancer cells to pterostilbene treatment both in vitro and in vivo, and high ER-?36 expression promotes pterostilbene-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Western blot analysis data indicate that MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling in breast cancer cells with high ER-?36 expression are mediated by ER-?36, and are inhibited by pterostilbene. These results suggest that ER-?36 is a therapeutic target in ER-?36-positive breast cancer, and pterostilbene is an inhibitor that targets ER-?36 in the personalized therapy against ER-?36-positive breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Predictive power of quantitative and qualitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin in population screening for colorectal neoplasm.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of qualitative and quantitative fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) in population screening for colorectal neoplasm. A total of 9000 participants aged between 40 and 74 years were enrolled in this study. Each participant received two stool sampling tubes and was asked to simultaneously submit two stool samples from the same bowel movement. The stool samples of each participant were tested using an immunogold labeling FIT dipstick (qualitative FIT) and an automated fecal blood analyzer (quantitative FIT). Colonoscopy was performed for those who test positive in either FIT. The positive predictive values and population detection rates of the FITs for predicting colorectal neoplasm were compared. A total of 6494 (72.16%) participants simultaneously submitted two stool samples. The diagnostic consistency for a positive result between quantitative and qualitative FITs was poor (?=0.278, 95% confidence interval=0.223-0.333). The positive predictive values of the quantitative FIT were significantly higher than those of the qualitative FIT for predicting large (?1 cm) adenomas (23 cases, 14.29% and 16 cases, 6.72%, P=0.013) and colorectal cancer (10 cases, 6.21% and 5 cases, 2.10%, P=0.034); however, the population detection rate for advanced neoplasm of the quantitative FIT was not significantly different from that of the qualitative FIT. Quantitative FIT is superior to qualitative FIT in predicting advanced colorectal neoplasm during colorectal cancer screening. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causes of the predictive superiority.
Related JoVE Video
Protein fingerprint of colorectal cancer, adenomatous polyps, and normal mucosa using ProteinChip analysis on laser capture microdissected cells.
Discov Med
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To find new biomarkers and establish histopathology protein fingerprint models for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), laser capture microdissection (LCM) was utilized to obtain 3 groups of cells of interest--CRC tissues, their adjacent normal colorectal tissues, and their adjacent adenomatous polyps tissues--from the same 12 CRC patients. Each sample was then detected by surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) technology and CM10 protein chip as well as bioinformatics tools. Model 1 formed by 15 protein peaks could be used to distinguish CRC tissues from normal tissues. The diagnostic pattern constructed using support vector machine (SVM) including the 15 proteins showed maximum Youden index (YI). Model 2 formed by 14 protein peaks could be used to distinguish CRC tissues from adenomatous polyps tissues. The two patterns were validated and the results showed that the sensitivity and specificity were both 100.0%. Model 3 formed by 15 protein peaks could distinguish adenomatous polyps tissues from normal tissues with a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 100.0%. The protein peaks m/z 3570 and 5224 were identified in screening for changes during cancer progression. Peak 5224 was significantly upregulated in CRC. However, peak 3570 was significantly downregulated in CRC. LCM technology coupled with SELDI protein chip and bioinformatics approaches could effectively screen the differentially expressed protein profiles and establish molecular diagnosis models with high sensitivity and specificity for CRC.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic and therapeutic significance of ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 in estrogen-negative breast cancers.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is an essential enzyme involved in DNA synthesis. We hypothesized that RR subunit M2 (RRM2) might be a novel prognostic and predictive biomarker for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Cytohesins/ARNO: the function in colorectal cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are critical regulators of cell differentiation, survival, proliferation, and migration in cancers. This study found that ARNO (cytohesin-2), an activator of the EGF and IGF-I pathways, was more highly expressed in colorectal cancer tissue than in benign adjacent colorectal tissue. When ARNO-siRNA or the chemical inhibitor SecinH3 blocked ARNO, the downstream of the EGF and IGF-I pathways decreased in colorectal cell lines HT29 and HCT116. This blocking also weakened cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro. Furthermore, EGF receptor (EGFR)-dependent colorectal tumor xenografts in nude mouse exerted anti-proliferative and growth suppression effects by injecting secineH3. These data suggested that inhibiting cytohesins or ARNO as cytoplasmic activators of EGFR and IGF-I in colorectal cancer resulted in anti-proliferation, reduced invasion, decreased migration, and suppressed growth in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, cytohesins or ARNO may be a potential therapy target for some colorectal cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Vitexin 6, a novel lignan, induces autophagy and apoptosis by activating the Jun N-terminal kinase pathway.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have reported that vitexins induce cytotoxic effects. In the present study, we investigate a new native lignan vitexin 6 (VB6) in vitro to determine the molecular mechanism underlying its cytotoxicity. We screened and cultured several tumor cell lines and subsequently analyzed VB6 cytotoxicity against 14 different tumor cell lines using a 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. The expression of proteins that regulate apoptosis and autophagy was determined using western blot analysis. VB6 showed an excellent cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines in vitro. It induced apoptosis and autophagy of cancer cells. VB6-induced apoptosis showed a time-dependent and concentration-dependent relationship with cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, cleaved caspase-3, Bax upregulation, and Bcl-2 downregulation. The levels of Beclin-1 and LC3-II, which are markers for cell autophagy, gradually increased after VB6 treatment. Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation was increased after VB6 treatment, accompanied by upregulation of P-Bcl-2 and P-C-Jun expression. Cotreatment with a JNK inhibitor significantly decreased VB6-induced cell death and downregulated P-Bcl-2, and cleaved PARP and Beclin-1 expression. The new native lignan VB6 inhibits cancer cell proliferation by activating the JNK pathway. We believe that VB6 could be a valuable chemotherapeutic drug after further evaluation.
Related JoVE Video
Ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2 serves as a prognostic biomarker and predicts poor survival of colorectal cancers.
Clin. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The overexpression of RRM2 [RR (ribonucleotide reductase) small subunit M2] dramatically enhances the ability of the cancer cell to proliferate and to invade. To investigate further the relevance of RRM2 and CRCs (colorectal cancers), we correlated the expression of RRM2 with the clinical outcome of CRCs. A retrospective outcome study was conducted on CRCs collected from the COH [(City of Hope) National Medical Center, 217 cases] and ZJU (Zhejiang University, 220 cases). IHC (immunohistochemistry) was employed to determine the protein expression level of RRM2, and quantitative real-time PCR was employed to validate. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the adjusted ORs (odds ratios) of RRM2-high for distant metastases were 2.06 [95% CI (confidence interval), 1.01-4.30] and 5.89 (95% CI, 1.51-39.13) in the COH and ZJU sets respectively. The Kaplan-Meier analysis displayed that high expression of RRM2 had a negative impact on the OS (overall survival) and PFS (progress-free survival) of CRC in both sets significantly. The multivariate Cox analysis further demonstrated that HRs (hazard ratios) of RRM2-high for OS were 1.88 (95% CI, 1.03-3.36) and 2.06 (95% CI, 1.10-4.00) in the COH and ZJU sets respectively. Stratification analysis demonstrated that the HR of RRM2 dramatically increased to 12.22 (95% CI, 1.62-258.31) in the MMR (mismatch repair) gene-deficient subgroup in the COH set. Meanwhile, a real-time study demonstrated that down-regulation of RRM2 by siRNA (small interfering RNA) could significantly and specifically reduce the cell growth and adhesion ability in HT-29 and HCT-8 cells. Therefore RRM2 is an independent prognostic factor and predicts poor survival of CRCs. It is also a potential predictor for identifying good responders to chemotherapy for CRCs.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of two novel, alternatively spliced mRNA transcripts of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor.
Mol. Reprod. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glycoprotein hormone receptors contain large extracellular domains encoded by multiple exons that can be alternatively spliced. Using human ovarian surface epithelium, we cloned two new splice variants of the human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSH-R) gene, hFSH-R2 and hFSH-R3. The hFSH-R2 splice variant differed from the full-length FSH-R mRNA by the deletion of exon 10 and inclusion of two small exons after exon 9 whereas the hFSH-R3 splice variant retained only exons 1-6 of the full-length transcript. Both variants were expressed at low levels, but were detected in cells from follicular fluid derived from 30 different subjects. Transfection of these two variants individually into KGN cells, an ovarian cancer cell line that expresses wild-type FSH-R, reduced FSH-mediated phosphorylation of ERK(1/2), Akt, and p38/MAPK. Furthermore, in vitro co-expression of either hFSH-R2 or hFSH-R3 and full-length FSH-R in HEK293T cells reduced signal transduction through full-length FSH-R. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the functions of these receptor isoforms.
Related JoVE Video
Serum follicle-stimulating hormone level is associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 and Ki67 expression in post-menopausal females with breast cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study aimed to determine the association between levels of the gender hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P) and prolactin (PRL), and two breast cancer molecular markers, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her-2) and Ki67, in post-menopausal patients with breast cancer. A retrospective study of the serum hormone levels of FSH, LH, P and PRL and the expression status of Her-2 and Ki67 was performed using 187 post-menopausal females with breast cancer. Her-2(+) breast cancer patients exhibited higher serum FSH levels compared with Her-2(-) patients (69.47±3.219 vs. 58.56±1.516 IU/l). The patients with high Ki67 expression [immunohistochemistry (IHC), 3+] displayed higher FSH (72.51±4.616 vs. 60.53±1.476 IU/l) and LH (32.33±1.916 vs. 26.98±0.8852 IU/l) levels than those with lower Ki67 expression. No correlation was identified between the FSH, LH, P and PRL hormone levels, tumor stages and lymphovascular invasion (LVI). In conclusion, a higher serum FSH level was identified in Her-2(+) post-menopausal patients with breast cancer. Higher serum FSH and LH levels were also observed in breast cancer patients with high Ki67 expression. FSH and LH may function in the progression of breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic inconsistency of faecal immunochemical tests for haemoglobin in population screening of colorectal cancer.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is currently very little data available on the consistency of quantitative and qualitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) for colorectal cancer screening.
Related JoVE Video
Ribonucleotide reductase subunit p53R2 regulates mitochondria homeostasis and function in KB and PC-3 cancer cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes de novo conversion of ribonucleotide 5-diphosphates to the corresponding 2-deoxynucleotide, essential for DNA synthesis and replication. The mutations or knockout of RR small subunit, p53R2, results in the depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in human, implying that p53R2 might play a critical role for maintaining mitochondrial homeostasis. In this study, siRNA against p53R2 knockdown approach is utilized to examine the impact of p53R2 depletion on mitochondria and to derive underlying mechanism in KB and PC-3 cancer cells. Our results reveal that the p53R2 expression not only positively correlates with mtDNA content, but also partakes in the proper mitochondria function, such as ATP synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase activity and membrane potential maintenance. Furthermore, overexpression of p53R2 reduces intracellular ROS and protects the mitochondrial membrane potential against oxidative stress. Unexpectedly, knockdown of p53R2 has a modest, if any, effect on mitochondrial and total cellular dNTP pools. Taken together, our study provides functional evidence that mitochondria is one of p53R2-targeted organelles and suggests an unexpected function of p53R2, which is beyond known RR function on dNTP synthesis, in mitochondrial homeostatic control.
Related JoVE Video
Ribonucleotide reductase small subunit M2B prognoses better survival in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ribonucleotide reductase subunit RRM2B (p53R2) has been reported to suppress invasion and metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, we report that high levels of RRM2B expression are correlated with markedly better survival in CRC patients. In a fluorescence-labeled orthotopic mouse xenograft model, we confirmed that overexpression of RRM2B in nonmetastatic CRC cells prevented lung and/or liver metastasis, relative to control cells that did metastasize. Clinical outcome studies were conducted on a training set with 103 CRCs and a validation set with 220 CRCs. All participants underwent surgery with periodic follow-up to determine survivability. A newly developed specific RRM2B antibody was employed to carry out immunohistochemistry for determining RRM2B expression levels on tissue arrays. In the training set, the Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox analysis revealed that RRM2B is associated with better survival of CRCs, especially in stage IV patients (HR = 0.40; 95% CI = 0.18-0.86, P = 0.016). In the validation set, RRM2B was negatively related to tumor invasion (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.19-0.99, P = 0.040) and lymph node involvement (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.25-0.92, P = 0.026). Furthermore, elevated expression of RRM2B was associated with better prognosis in this set as determined by multivariate analyses (HR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.26-0.91, P = 0.030). Further investigations revealed that RRM2B was correlated with better survival of CRCs with advanced stage III and IV tumors rather than earlier stage I and II tumors. Taken together, our findings establish that RRM2B suppresses invasiveness of cancer cells and that its expression is associated with a better survival prognosis for CRC patients.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of HMGA2 promotes metastasis and impacts survival of colorectal cancers.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to address the hypothesis that the high-mobility group A2 (HMGA2), an oncofetal protein, relates to survivability and serves as a prognostic biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC).
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of apoptosis by downregulation of hBex1, a novel mechanism, contributes to the chemoresistance of Bcr/Abl+ leukemic cells.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overexpression of multidrug resistance proteins (Mdrs) and enhanced antiapoptotic capability are two of the main mechanisms by which Bcr/Abl(+) chronic myeloid leukemia cells acquire drug resistance; however, it has been shown that Mdr-1 expression provides minimal protection against cell apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. The mechanism by which cells acquire an enhanced antiapoptosis capacity in the drug-resistant process needs to be further understood. Here, we identified human brain expressed X-linked 1 (hBex1) as a downstream target of the p75 neurotrophin receptor pathway in imatinib-resistant K562 cells by comparing the gene expression profiles with the parent K562 cells. Silencing hBex1 inhibited imatinib-induced cell apoptosis and overexpression of hBex1-sensitized cells to imatinib-induced apoptosis. Further investigation revealed that hBex1 associates with protocadherin 10 (PCDH10). Silencing of pcdh10 attenuated apoptosis induced by imatinib in hBex1 transfected cells, suggesting that, in addition to Mdr and Bcl-2 family members, reduced expression of hBex1 can also inhibit imatinib-induced apoptosis. These data provide evidence that expression of hBex1 in leukemic cells is a novel mechanism by which chemoresistance is achieved and suggests that hBex1 is a potential molecular target for the development of novel leukemia treatments.
Related JoVE Video
Function and mode of action of cytohesins in the epidermal growth factor pathway in colorectal cancer cells.
Oncol Lett
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytohesins have been identified as cytoplasmic ErbB receptor activators in certain cancers, exhibiting an important role in ErbB signaling. However, whether cytohesins are essential in colorectal cancer is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cytohesins contribute to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway in colorectal cancer cells. RT-PCR and immunofluorescence experiments were employed to detect the expression of cytohesins in colorectal cancer cell lines. The EGF pathway activation conditions were investigated by examining the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and intracellular signal-related kinases, with or without chemical inhibition (SecinH3) and knockdown of cytohesins. An MTT assay was conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of SecinH3 and cytohesin-specific siRNA in HT-29 cells. Results demonstrated that the four homologous members of the cytohesin family were expressed in the four colorectal cancer cell lines. Notably, a significantly higher expression level of cytohesin-2 (ARNO) compared with the other three homologous family members was observed. Stimulation with EGF and SecinH3, as well as knockdown of ARNO, are capable of reducing EGF pathway activation and proliferation of HT-29 cells. In conclusion, cytohesins play an essential role in the activation of the EGF pathway and may be a potential target in colorectal cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of amifostine on locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Controversy exists on whether amifostine can reduce the efficacy and decrease the side effects of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by radiotherapy. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of amifostine in NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteines-like 1 suppresses aggressiveness and predicts better survival in colorectal cancers.
Clin. Cancer Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteines-like 1 (SPARCL1) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein with malignancy-suppressing potential. The hypothesis that SPARCL1 reduces cancer invasiveness and predicts better survival in colorectal cancers (CRC) was investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Retroperitoneal laparoscopic liposuction for large adrenal myelolipomas: a report of nine cases.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Removing relatively large adrenal myelolipomas using retroperitoneal laparoscopy is difficult and carries risk of intraoperative injury to adjacent organs and vessels. We aimed to introduce a new method of retroperitoneal laparoscopic liposuction with suction units for resection of large adrenal myelolipomas.
Related JoVE Video
Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on laparoscopic gastrectomy vs. open gastrectomy for distal gastric cancer.
Hepatogastroenterology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the safety and practicability of laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) by comparing the short-term and long-term outcomes of LG and open gastrectomy (OG) for gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.