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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Regulating charge injection in ambipolar organic field-effect transistors by mixed self-assembled monolayers.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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We report on a technique using mixed self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to finely regulate ambipolar charge injection in polymer organic field-effect transistors. Differing from the other works that employ single SAM specifically for efficient charge injection in p-type and n-type transistors, we blend two different SAMs of alkyl- and perfluoroalkyl thiols at different ratios and apply them to ambipolar OFETs and inverter. Thanks to the utilization of ambipolar semiconductor and one SAM mixture, the device and circuit fabrications are facile with only one step for semiconductor deposition and another for SAM treatment. This is much simpler with respect to the conventional scheme for the unipolar-device-based complementary circuitry that demands separate deposition and processing for individual p-channel and n-channel transistors. Our results show that the mixed-SAM treatments not only improve ambipolar charge injection manifesting as higher hole- and electron-mobility and smaller threshold voltage but also gradually tune the device characteristics to reach a desired condition for circuit application. Therefore, this simple but useful approach is promising for ambipolar electronics.
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Estrogenic Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals Modulate the Production of Inflammatory Mediators and Cell Viability of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2014
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Estrogenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that act as competitive inhibitors of estrogen in the endocrine system. By disrupting the endocrine system, EDCs can cause severe disabilities and diseases, including cancers and altered sexual development. Although the influence of these molecules in the endocrine system is evident, the effects of EDCs on the immune system as well as their cytotoxicity have been poorly examined. Therefore, we selected 21 EDCs that are commonly found in Korean ecosystems, such as surface waters and effluents, and studied their immunologic effects by comparing nitric oxide (NO) production and cytotoxicity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells (RAW cells), a macrophage cell line. Among the EDCs tested, fenitrothion (FTH) inhibited the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), resulting in reduced NO production, while treatment with andostenedione (AD), diethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), estriol, or molinate decreased production of NO in an iNOS-independent fashion. In contrast, benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) increased the production of NO in RAW cells. In addition, AD, DBP, or FTH inhibited the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin-1 beta. Treatment with 17-?-ethynylestradiol, 17-?-estradiol, 4-n-butyl phenol, or alachlor induced apoptosis of RAW cells, while dicyclohexyl phthalate and B(a)P caused cell death in an apoptosis-independent manner. These data suggest that EDCs can influence the immune response to pathogens by modulating the functions of macrophages.
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The validities and efficiencies of korean ADHD rating scale and korean child behavior checklist for screening children with ADHD in the community.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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The purpose of this study is to examine the validity of primary screening tools for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a community-based sample of children using the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (K-CBCL) and the Korean version of the ADHD Rating Scale (K-ARS).
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Cyberbullying, problematic internet use, and psychopathologic symptoms among Korean youth.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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To evaluate the associations between cyberbullying behaviors and problematic internet use, and to compare psychopathologic symptoms in victims, perpetrators, and victims-perpetrators of cyberbullying to those in youths who were not involved in cyberbullying. A total of 4531 youths (11-14 years of age) were recruited from elementary and middle schools. Among 4531 youths, 9.7% were involved in cyberbullying; 3.3% were only victims; 3.4% were only perpetrators; and 3.0% were victims-perpetrators. Cyberbullying behaviors were associated with problematic internet use as well as various psychopathologic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were associated with cyberbullying victimization, and rule-breaking behaviors and aggressive behaviors have relevance to cyberbullying perpetration. Greater attention needs to be paid to identify youths earlier who are involved in cyberbullying and prevent serious adverse consequences in them.
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Benzodipyrrolidone (BDP)-based polymer semiconductors containing a series of chalcogen atoms: comprehensive investigation of the effect of heteroaromatic blocks on intrinsic semiconducting properties.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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In order to determine the effects of actual 'chalcogen atoms' on semiconducting properties for application in a variety of optoelectronic devices, a class of donor (D)-acceptor (A) polymer semiconductors, namely PBDP-Fu, PBDP-Th, and PBDP-Se, containing the recently formulated benzodipyrrolidone (BDP) accepting unit and furan (Fu), thiophene (Th), or selenophene (Se) as a donating unit has been synthesized, characterized, and used in an active layer of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). With the LUMO levels being comparatively consistent for all three polymers (-3.58 to -3.60 eV) due to the dominant BDP contribution to the polymer backbone, the HOMO energies are somewhat sensitive to the structurally distinctive feature of the donor counits used. Utilizing a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), it is apparent that further crystalline domains occur with edge-on orientation for the polymers (PBDP-Th and PBDP-Se) with relatively heavier chalcogen atoms such as Th and Se, compared with PBDP-Fu which has a rather amorphous nature. Investigation of their OFET performance indicates that all the polymers show well balanced ambipolar operations. The desirable morphological structures of both the PBDP-Th and PBDP-Se result in higher mobilities in OFETs than those of PBDP-Fu. In particular, 200 °C annealed PBDP-Se OFETs results in ambipolarity being mobile for both holes of up to 1.7 × 10(-2) cm(2)/V·s and electrodes of up to 1.9 × 10(-2) cm(2)/V·s. In addition, OFETs with PBDP-Th show nearly equivalent charge carrier mobilities for both holes (?(h) = 1.2 × 10(-2) cm(2)/V·s) and electrons (?(e) = 1.1 × 10(-2) cm(2)/V·s). Consequently, we systematically demonstrate how the manipulation of existing heteroaromatics can modulate the electronic properties of conjugated D-A polymers, elucidating structure-property relationships that are desirable for the rational design of next generation materials.
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Efficacy and safety of atomoxetine hydrochloride in Korean adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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This article aims to assess the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in Korean adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
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No association of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) and cognitive and behavioural phenotypes of patients with autism spectrum disorder.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We examined the association between the norepinephrine transporter (SLC6A2) gene and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in a Korean population. In addition, we investigated which phenotypes of ASD are best attributed to the genotype of SLC6A2. A total of 184 subjects with ASD, their 156 unaffected siblings and both biological parents were recruited through university hospitals. We used the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, the Aberrant Behaviour Checklist (ABC), the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), the Stroop Colour-Word Interference Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) as quantitative measures of the ASD phenotypes. The associations between the quantitative measures and specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested with linear regression analyses. We did not find any evidence of the over-transmission of either allele of the 10SLC6A2 SNPs in the DFAM test. At an empirical p value <0.05, findings that were consistent between the linear regression analyses and the QFAM tests were the positive associations between the A allele of rs36020 and attention problems on the CBCL and stereotypical behaviours on the ABC and between the C allele of rs1814270 and the number of trials required to complete the first WCST category. However, these associations did not remain after correction for multiple testing. The study results of this study do not support the association between the SLC6A2 and the diagnosis or phenotype of ASD. However, the study must be replicated in larger populations and with using more genetic markers.
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Giant epidermal cyst in the posterior neck developing over 40 years: A case report.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Conventional epidermal cysts are generally small, slow-growing, non-tender, dome-shaped lesions. An epidermal cyst is usually asymptomatic until it is infected or enlarged to the extent that it causes damage to adjacent anatomical structures. However, few cases of giant epidermal cysts in the neck have been reported. The present case reports a giant epidermal cyst in the posterior neck, which grew to an extremely large size for >40 years without inflammation or rupture, and was misdiagnosed as a large soft tissue neoplasm. The patient exhibited depression and developed social anxiety due to the negative cosmetic consequences of the large mass. The patient underwent excision of the mass. At the follow-up examination two years postoperatively, there were no local recurrence and the psychiatric symptoms of the patient were completely resolved. To the best of our knowledge, a giant epidermal cyst growing for >40 years has not previously been reported.
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Association between TPH2 gene polymorphisms and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Korean children.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder of the school-age population. ADHD is a familial disorder and genetic studies estimate heritability at 80%-90%. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the genetic type and alleles for the TPH2 gene in Korean children with ADHD. The sample consisted of 142 ADHD children and 139 control children. We diagnosed ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition). ADHD symptoms were evaluated with Conners Parent Rating Scales and Dupaul Parent ADHD Rating Scales. Blood samples were taken from the 281 subjects, DNA was extracted from blood lymphocytes, and polymerase chain reaction was performed for TPH2 polymorphism. Alleles and genotype frequencies were compared using the chi-square test. We compared the allele and genotype frequencies of TPH2 gene polymorphism in the ADHD and control groups. This study showed that there was a significant correlation among the frequencies of the rs11179027 (odd ratio [OR]=2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13-3.97, p=0.020) and rs1843809 (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.24-0.97, p=0.040) of alleles of TPH2, but the final conclusions are not definite. Follow-up studies with larger patient or pure subgroups are expected. These results suggested that TPH2 might be related to ADHD symptoms.
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Inspection of collapse cause of Sampoong Department Store.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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On June 29, 1995, the Sampoong Department Store in Seoul, South Korea, completely collapsed. It was a five story reinforced concrete (RC) building with underground 4 floors and was built using a technique called "flat slab construction". The collapse is the largest peacetime disaster in South Korean history - 502 people died, 6 missing, and 937 sustained injuries. The Sampoong Department Store was completed in late 1989, and it opened to the public on July 7, 1990, attracting an estimated 40,000 people per day during the buildings 5 years in service. After the collapse, intense investigation was conducted to find out the direct causes of the collapse through (1) survey on the present collapse situation and ground condition, (2) strength test of the concrete and steel collected at the site, (3) design documents and construction/management reports, and (4) structural analysis. The investigation revealed that the Sampoong Department Store collapsed because so many direct and indirect causes such as flaws in design phase and mistakes in construction and management process were overlapped.
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Genome-wide association scan of korean autism spectrum disorders with language delay: a preliminary study.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Communication problems are a prevalent symptom of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which have a genetic background. Although several genome-wide studies on ASD have suggested a number of candidate genes, few studies have reported the association or linkage of specific endophenotypes to ASDs.
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Association study between single nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter region of AVPR1A and Korean autism spectrum disorders.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2010
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To determine the association between arginine vasopressin receptor 1A gene (AVPR1A) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), we examined 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely, rs7294536, rs3759292, and rs10877969, in the promoter region of AVPR1A by using a family-based association test (FBAT) in 151 Korean trios. Our results demonstrated a statistically significant association between autism and SNPs (additive model: rs7294536, chi(2)=9.328, df=2, P=0.002; rs10877969, chi(2)=11.529, df=2, P<0.001) as well as between autism and haplotype analysis (additive model: chi(2)=14.122, df=3, P=0.003). In addition, we found that ADI-R scores calculated by using a diagnostic algorithm for failure to develop peer relationships (A2) were higher in subjects having the AA genotype than in subjects having the AG and GG genotypes of rs7294536. Thus, our study provides evidence for a possible association between these SNPs and the phenotype of ASDs.
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Clozapine-induced tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenic patients taking clozapine as a first-line antipsychotic drug.
World J. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2009
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Clozapine causes few extrapyramidal symptoms and is recommended as a treatment drug for severe tardive dyskinesia (TD). However, several case reports have suggested that clozapine could also cause TD. We investigated whether clozapine used as a first-line antipsychotic drug can cause TD.
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Effect of donepezil added to atypical antipsychotics on cognition in patients with schizophrenia: an open-label trial.
World J. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2009
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Despite the beneficial effects of atypical antipsychotics on cognition, many schizophrenic patients continue to suffer from cognitive impairment. Postmortem findings suggest that altered cholinergic activity is involved in cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.
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Children with Tourettes syndrome may suffer immunoglobulin A dysgammaglobulinemia: preliminary report.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Postinfectious autoimmunity has been implicated in Tourettes syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (TS/OCD), whereas increased frequency of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in TS/OCD patients suggests immune deficiency. We hypothesized that antineuronal antibodies may be elevated in patients (reflecting autoimmune processes), and levels of total immunoglobulins (Igs) may be decreased (reflecting immune deficiency).
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Cognitive effects of a single dose of atypical antipsychotics in healthy volunteers compared with placebo or haloperidol.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
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Cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia is a strong correlate of poor outcome than any other symptom domain. To have greater knowledge about the effects of antipsychotics on cognitive function, subjects of this study were healthy volunteers who had no confounding variables typically found in patients with schizophrenia. The cognitive function of healthy volunteers in response to single doses of haloperidol, risperidone, aripiprazole, and amisulpride in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial was investigated. Assessments for the computerized neurocognitive test, mental and physical sedation, and extrapyramidal symptoms were performed within 1 week before (baseline) and approximately 4 hours after drug administration. Compared to the placebo, single administration of amisulpride at 400 mg in healthy volunteers enhanced word fluency test performance and remained intact after controlling for sedation and extrapyramidal symptoms. Significant improvement in some measurements of the computerized neurocognitive test was also observed in each antipsychotic-treated group but may have been related to practice effect. These findings suggest that amisulpride may have cognitive-enhancing effects in healthy volunteers.
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Serotonin 2A Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Korean Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Psychiatry Investig
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the T102C polymorphism in the serotonin 2A receptor gene and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Korean patients.
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A conjugated polyazine containing diketopyrrolopyrrole for ambipolar organic thin film transistors.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
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A ?-conjugated polyazine containing diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) moiety, PDBTAZ, is synthesized through a simple condensation polymerization. PDBTAZ is found to be a high-performance ambipolar semiconductor in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), showing an electron mobility of up to 0.41 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and a hole mobility of up to 0.36 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1).
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Clinical characteristics of patients who have recovered from schizophrenia: the role of empathy and positive-self schema.
Early Interv Psychiatry
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This article compares the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with schizophrenia who recovered with those who achieved remission.
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Different safety profiles of risperidone and paliperidone extended-release: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with healthy volunteers.
Hum Psychopharmacol
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The present study investigated subjective experiences related to secondary negative symptoms and cognitive performance in healthy volunteers in response to the repeated administration of paliperidone extended-release (ER) and risperidone in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
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Prevalence and clinical features of Thought-Perception-Sensitivity Symptoms: results from a community survey of Korean high school students.
Psychiatry Res
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Epidemiologic research indicates that psychosis and depression most frequently develop during adolescence. Hence, an efficient strategy for improving youth mental health would be to focus on detection of early-stage psychosis and depression in adolescence. In this study, 1461 high school students were surveyed using self-report scales. Students who scored equal to or above the cut-off value on any of the scales and who agreed to a further examination proceeded to a second assessment, using the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia and Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States along with self-reporting scales. The estimated prevalence of adolescents at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and of depression-spectrum disorders was 1.26 and 3.69% respectively. Compared with the normal group, experiences of bullying, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts were significantly higher in these two groups; the subjects at UHR for psychosis were found to have significantly lower academic performance and lower ratings on SCRS; and submissive behavior was more prevalent in the depression-spectrum group. Our results reveal several clinical features of adolescents at UHR for psychosis and with depression-spectrum disorder and underscore the importance of accurate assessment of and early appropriate care for these adolescents.
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Efficacy and safety of ziprasidone in the treatment of first-episode psychosis: an 8-week, open-label, multicenter trial.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol
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The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of ziprasidone in first-episode psychosis. This was an 8-week, open-label, multicenter trial. In total, 27 patients (14 male patients, 13 female patients) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders--Fourth Edition diagnosis of schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, or psychotic disorder not otherwise specified comprised the study population. The initial recommended dose of ziprasidone was 40 mg/day. Within the first 2 weeks, the dose could be increased to 120-160 mg/day depending on the patients condition. The primary outcome variables were scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale; secondary measures included the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia and others. To assess safety, we measured drug-related adverse events, weight, lipid variables, prolactin, and corrected QT (QTc) interval. Among the 27 enrolled participants, 16 dropped out [lack of efficacy (n = 7), loss to follow-up (n = 7), withdrawn consent (n = 1), and serious adverse event (n = 1)]. The mean total daily and endpoint doses of ziprasidone were 120.30 ± 40.34 and 131.85 ± 51.22 mg/day, respectively. The administration of ziprasidone resulted in significant improvement in the PANSS (P < 0.0001) and CGI scores (P < 0.0001) over time. Significant improvement in the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia score (P < 0.0001) was also observed at week 8. The response rate (defined as a 30% or greater decrease in the PANSS total score from baseline to last observation) was 51.85%. No significant differences in extrapyramidal symptoms rating scale scores, and lipid and prolactin levels from baseline to last observation were found. However, modest side effects regarding the incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms and hyperprolactinemia, and weight change from baseline in male patients were observed. These results indicate that ziprasidone is effective in the treatment of the positive, negative, and depressive symptoms of first-episode psychosis and has a modest side-effect burden.
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No negative symptoms in healthy volunteers after single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Int Clin Psychopharmacol
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Noncompliance and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia are closely related to the negative symptoms secondary to antipsychotics. No controlled study has evaluated whether amisulpride and aripiprazole induce negative symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, haloperidol, and risperidone in healthy volunteers. Seventy-eight young volunteers took part in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study of four antipsychotics: 400 mg amisulpride, 10 mg aripiprazole, 3 mg haloperidol, and 2 mg risperidone. Assessments of negative symptoms were done 4 h after administration using both subjective rating scales (Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and Subjective Deficit Syndrome Scale) and an objective rating scale (Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms). Risperidone only produced significant increases on the avolition score of the Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and blunted affect and alogia scores of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms compared with placebo. The effect on blunted affect persisted after controlling for mental sedation. Amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol did not induce negative symptoms. Aripiprazole and risperidone induced mild extrapyramidal symptoms. The most common adverse events were somnolence and cognitive slowing. These data indicate that a single risperidone dose induces negative symptoms in normal volunteers, whereas amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol do not. These characteristics of antipsychotics should be considered when choosing optimal drugs for patients with psychosis.
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Diverse Influences of Androgen-Disrupting Chemicals on Immune Responses Mounted by Macrophages.
Inflammation
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Androgen-disrupting chemicals (ADCs) can alter male sexual development. Although the effects of ADCs on hormone disruption have been studied, their influence on the immune response is not fully understood. To investigate the effects of ADCs on innate immunity, we tested eight candidate ADCs for their influence on macrophages by measuring nitric oxide (NO) production and cell viability. Our results showed that treatment with a mixture of lipopolysaccharide and hexachlorobenzene increased NO production in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage cell line. In contrast, compared to exposure to a negative control, exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), testosterone (TTT), or permethrin decreased NO production. DEHA, BBP, and TTT inhibited NO production in an inducible nitric oxide synthase-dependent manner. Treatment with bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NNP), or tributyltin chloride (TBTC) reduced NO production and induced cell death. While BPA induced RAW 264.7 cell death through apoptosis, NNP and TBTC caused cell death through necrosis. These results offer insights into the influences of ADCs on the innate immune system.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.