Accumulated evidence shows that some phytochemicals provide beneficial effects for human health. Recently, a number of mechanistic studies have revealed that direct interactions between phytochemicals and functional proteins play significant roles in exhibiting their bioactivities. However, their binding selectivities to biological molecules are considered to be lower due to their small and simple structures. In this study, we found that zerumbone, a bioactive sesquiterpene, binds to numerous proteins with little selectivity. Similar to heat-denatured proteins, zerumbone-modified proteins were recognized by heat shock protein 90, a constitutive molecular chaperone, leading to heat shock factor 1-dependent heat shock protein induction in hepa1c1c7 mouse hepatoma cells. Furthermore, oral administration of this phytochemical up-regulated heat shock protein expressions in the livers of Sprague-Dawley rats. Interestingly, pretreatment with zerumbone conferred a thermoresistant phenotype to hepa1c1c7 cells as well as to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. It is also important to note that several phytochemicals with higher hydrophobicity or electrophilicity, including phenethyl isothiocyanate and curcumin, markedly induced heat shock proteins, whereas most of the tested nutrients did not. These results suggest that non-specific protein modifications by xenobiotic phytochemicals cause mild proteostress, thereby inducing heat shock response and leading to potentiation of protein quality control systems. We considered these bioactivities to be xenohormesis, an adaptation mechanism against xenobiotic chemical stresses. Heat shock response by phytochemicals may be a fundamental mechanism underlying their various bioactivities.
(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant and biologically active polyphenol in green tea, induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of cancer cells by modulating multiple signal transduction pathways. However, the fundamental mechanisms responsible for these cancer-preventive effects have not been clearly elucidated. Recently, we found that EGCG can covalently bind to cysteine residues in proteins through autoxidation and subsequently modulate protein function. In this study, we demonstrate the direct binding of EGCG to cellular proteins in AZ521 human gastric cancer cells by redox-cycle staining. We comprehensively explored the binding targets of EGCG from EGCG-treated AZ521 cells by proteomics techniques combined with the boronate-affinity pull-down method. The DEAD-box RNA helicase p68, which is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cells and plays an important role in cancer development and progression, was identified as a novel EGCG-binding target. Exposure of AZ521 cells to EGCG lowered the p68 level dose dependently. The present findings show that EGCG inhibits AZ521 cell proliferation by preventing ?-catenin oncogenic signaling through proteasomal degradation of p68 and provide a new perspective on the molecular mechanism of EGCG action.
In this study, we investigated the relationship between the stability of catechins and their electrophilic reactivity with proteins. The stability of catechins was evaluated by HPLC analysis. Catechol-type catechins were stable in a neutral buffer, but pyrogallol-type catechins, such as (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), were unstable. The electrophilic reactivity of catechins with thiol groups in a model peptide and a protein was confirmed by both mass spectrometry and electrophoresis/blotting with redox-cycling staining. In a comparison of several catechins, pyrogallol-type catechins had higher reactivity with protein thiols than catechol-type catechins. The instability and reactivity of EGCg were enhanced in an alkaline pH buffer. The reactivity of EGCg was reduced by antioxidants due to their ability to prevent EGCg autoxidation. These results indicate that the instability against oxidation of catechins is profoundly related to their electrophilic reactivity. Consequently, the difference in these properties of tea catechins can contribute to the magnitude of their biological activities.
The major catechins of green tea extract are (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg). Recent research has indicated that catechins form complexes with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood, and differences in their binding affinity toward HSA are believed to modulate their bioavailability. In this study, we kinetically investigated the interaction between the catechins and HSA immobilized on a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). The association constants obtained from the frequency changes of QCM revealed interactions of ECg and EGCg with HSA that are 100 times stronger than those of EC and EGC. Furthermore, comparisons of these catechins by native-gel electrophoresis/blotting with redox-cycling staining revealed that, in a phosphate buffer, ECg and EGCg have a higher binding affinity toward HSA than EC and EGC. These observations indicate that catechins with a galloyl moiety have higher binding affinities toward HSA than catechins lacking a galloyl moiety.
Catechins are polyphenolic antioxidants found in green tea leaves. Recent studies have reported that various polyphenolic compounds, including catechins, cause protein carbonyl formation in proteins via their pro-oxidant actions. In this study, we evaluate the formation of protein carbonyl in human serum albumin (HSA) by tea catechins and investigate the relationship between catechin chemical structure and its pro-oxidant property. To assess the formation of protein carbonyl in HSA, HSA was incubated with four individual catechins under physiological conditions to generate biotin-LC-hydrazide labeled protein carbonyls. Comparison of catechins using Western blotting revealed that the formation of protein carbonyl in HSA was higher for pyrogallol-type catechins than the corresponding catechol-type catechins. In addition, the formation of protein carbonyl was also found to be higher for the catechins having a galloyl group than the corresponding catechins lacking a galloyl group. The importance of the pyrogallol structural motif in the B-ring and the galloyl group was confirmed using methylated catechins and phenolic acids. These results indicate that the most important structural element contributing to the formation of protein carbonyl in HSA by tea catechins is the pyrogallol structural motif in the B-ring, followed by the galloyl group. The oxidation stability and binding affinity of tea catechins with proteins are responsible for the formation of protein carbonyl, and consequently the difference in these properties of each catechin may contribute to the magnitude of their biological activities.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a putative essential nutrient, is a redox modulator in cell and animal models. Here we characterized PQQ-induced protein oxidative modifications in a model peptide and protein, and we propose that the mechanism of protein modification by PQQ is redox cycling-mediated oxidation. PQQ may contribute to the regulation of intracellular protein functions through its prooxidant action.
Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) acts as a direct regulator of intracellular redox status through the formation of mixed disulphides. However, as this is reversible, the evidence for the mixed disulphides has not been obtained. This study established a method for the detection and characterization of mixed disulphides by mass spectrometry (MS) and was the first to provide direct evidence for their formation. When cysteine methyl ester was incubated with LA in the presence of iodeacetamide (IAA), a mixed disulphide with mono carbamidomethylation was observed. MS/MS analysis indicated that the LA forms a mixed disulphide with the cysteinyl sulphydryls, while the other sulphydryl group is the carbamidomethylated. The same results were obtained from the incubation of sulfphydryl peptides such as glutathione with LA in the presence of IAA. These results may provide further biological evidence that LA is a potential modifier of intracellular sulphydryls through mixed disulfide formation.
(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) is the major component of green tea and is known to show strong biological activity, although it can be easily oxidized under physiological conditions. In this study, we indicate that EGCg is stable in human serum and that human serum albumin (HSA) stabilizes EGCg under aerobic condition. Although EGCg is usually decomposed within 1 h in aqueous solution at neutral pH, EGCg in serum and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) containing HSA was stable over 1 h, even at neutral and slightly alkaline pH. Under these conditions, EGCg binds to HSA non-covalently. The sulfhydryl group acts as an antioxidant for EGCg oxidation. Incubation of EGCg with HSA is accompanied by the oxidation of a free sulfhydryl group in HSA. These results suggest that the antioxidant property and the binding capacity of HSA contribute to the stabilization of EGCg in human serum.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.