The antimetastatic activity of a novel camptothecan conjugate, MEN4901/T-0128, in which 7-ethyl-10-aminopropyloxy-camptothecin (T-2513) is bound to a biodegradable carboxymethyldextran via a Gly-Gly-Gly linker, was observed in this study. High antimetastatic activity of MEN4901/T-0128 was demonstrated in a clinically-relevant orthotopic mouse model of human colon cancer. MEN4901/T-0128 and irinotecan were compared for anti-metastatic activity as well as efficacy against the primary tumor. An imageable, metastatic model was made by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) of the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing HT-29 tumor in nude mice. MEN4901/T-0128 and irinotecan were administered intravenously at various doses and schedules. MEN4901/T-0128, with treatment beginning on d 49 after SOI, was highly effective on lymph node metastasis as well as against the primary tumor. Both GFP imaging and histology demonstrated a markedly lower metastatic incidence of lymph nodes in all MEN4901/T-0128 treated mice compared with irinotecan-treated and untreated mice. At the most efficacious dose of MEN4901/T-0128, only 1 of 12 animals had lymph node metastasis compared with 19 of 20 in the control group. The present study demonstrates the principle that when a camptothecan is conjugated to an appropriate polymer, the drug can become extremely effective with important clinical potential for antimetastatic therapy, a most urgent need.
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissue is thought to be important for the development of insulin resistance in obesity. Furthermore, the level of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is increased not only in adipose tissue but also in the circulation in association with obesity. However, it has remained unclear to what extent the increased circulating level of MCP-1 contributes to insulin resistance. We have now examined the relevance of circulating MCP-1 to the development of insulin resistance in mice. The plasma concentration of MCP-1 was increased chronically or acutely in mice to the level observed in obese animals by chronic subcutaneous infusion of recombinant MCP-1 with an osmotic pump or by acute intravenous infusion of MCP-1 with an infusion pump, respectively. Whole-body metabolic parameters as well as inflammatory changes in adipose tissue were examined. A chronic increase in the circulating level of MCP-1 induced insulin resistance, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, and an increase in hepatic triacylglycerol content. An acute increase in the circulating MCP-1 concentration also induced insulin resistance but not macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. In addition, inhibition of signaling by MCP-1 and its receptor CCR2 by administration of a novel CCR2 antagonist ameliorated insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet without affecting macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue. These data indicate that an increase in the concentration of MCP-1 in the circulation is sufficient to induce systemic insulin resistance irrespective of adipose tissue inflammation.
SNARE proteins (VAMP2, syntaxin4, and SNAP23) have been thought to play a key role in GLUT4 trafficking by mediating the tethering, docking and subsequent fusion of GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma membrane. The precise functions of these proteins have remained elusive, however. We have now shown that depletion of the vesicle SNARE (v-SNARE) VAMP2 by RNA interference in 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibited the fusion of GLUT4 vesicles with the plasma membrane but did not affect tethering of the vesicles to the membrane. In contrast, depletion of the target SNAREs (t-SNAREs) syntaxin4 or SNAP23 resulted in impairment of GLUT4 vesicle tethering to the plasma membrane. Our results indicate that the t-SNAREs syntaxin4 and SNAP23 are indispensable for the tethering of GLUT4 vesicles to the plasma membrane, whereas the v-SNARE VAMP2 is not required for this step but is essential for the subsequent fusion event.
Photoirradiation of a solution of BH(3).NHR(2) (1a: R = Me, 1b: R = 1/2C(4)H(8), 1c: R = 1/2C(5)H(10), 1f: R = Et) containing a catalytic amount of a group-6 metal carbonyl complex, [M(CO)(6)] (M = Cr, Mo, W), led to dehydrogenative B-N covalent bond formation to produce aminoborane dimers, [BH(2)NR(2)](2) (2a-c, f), in high yield. During these reactions a borane sigma complex, [M(CO)(5)(eta(1)-BH(3).NHR(2))] (3), was detected by NMR spectroscopy. Similar catalytic dehydrogenation of bulkier amineboranes, BH(3).NH(i)Pr(2) (1d) and BH(3).NHCy(2) (1e, Cy = cyclo-C(6)H(11)), afforded monomeric products BH(2) horizontal lineNR(2) (4d, e). The reaction mechanism of the dehydrocoupling was investigated by DFT calculations. On the basis of the computational study, we propose that the catalytic dehydrogenation reactions proceed via an intramolecular pathway and that the active catalyst is [Cr(CO)(4)]. The reaction follows a stepwise mechanism involving NH and BH activation. Dehydrocoupling of borane-primary amine adducts BH(3).NH(2)R (1g: R = Me, 1h: R = Et, 1i: R = (t)Bu) gave borazine derivatives [BHNR](3) (5g-i).
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