If genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are spread through the natural environment, it might affect the natural environment. To help prevent the spread of GMOs, we examined whether it is possible to introduce conditional lethality by excising centromeric DNA from a chromosome by site-specific recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model organism. First, we constructed haploid cells in which excision of the centromeric DNA from chromosome IV can occur due to recombinase induced by galactose. By this excision, cell death can occur. In diploid cells, cell death can also occur by excision from both homologous chromosomes IV. Furthermore, cell death can occur in the case of chromosome V. A small number of surviving cells appeared with excision of centromeric DNA, and the diploid showed greater viability than the haploid in both chromosomes IV and V. The surviving cells appeared mainly due to deletion of a recombination target site (RS) from the chromosome.
The Community Medical ICT Network service at the Nagasaki, Japan was established in 2009. Medical information network for sharing patients data was investigated focused on the access log data from April of 2009 and October of 2010. The total number of the access to the medical information was 30,914 of 2,213 patients. And the total number of access of the image including diagnostic imaging report, medical examination, treatment and medical documents was 10,278(33.2%), 8,949(28.9%), 6,896(22.3%) and 4,791(15.5%) respectively. These results showed that these medical information had enough valued for sharing in the regional medicine. In conclusion, many types of medical information should be required for sharing in the community medical ICT network in Japan.
We have developed a system for health promotion of regional inhabitants, using CATV network at Tsushima Island in Nagasaki, Japan from 2010 to 2012. This system was provided by five kinds of services such as safety confirmation system, monitoring system of vital signs, sharing system for healthcare information, supervised administration system (compliance check of medicines), and local community TV program. Based on this experience we have been challenging a new trial at Kinkai district in Nagasaki which is aimed to be sustainable and helpful servicesboth for patients and staffs.
The number and ratio of both HBsAg- and HCV Ab-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC-nonBC) cases have been steadily increasing in Japan. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of detection of HCC-nonBC by screening methods and to elucidate the clinical characteristics of HCC-nonBC compared with those of hepatitis C and/or B virus-associated HCC (HCC-virus). We recruited 624 patients with HCC who were diagnosed between 1982 and 2007 at the Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Nagasaki University Hospital. They were categorized into 2 groups as follows: i) 550 were included in the HCC-virus group: positive for HBsAg and/or positive for HCV Ab, and ii) 74 were included in the HCC-nonBC group: negative for both HBsAg and HCV Ab. The follow-up patterns until the initial detection of HCC and the survival rates were analyzed and compared between the 2 groups. Multivariate analysis identified follow-up, alcohol consumption, albumin level, total bilirubin level, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, and tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage as independent and significant risk factors for prognosis. Among the 397 patients with HCC in TNM stage I or II, multivariate analysis identified the cause of liver disease, gender, Child-Pugh score, serum albumin level and TNM stage as independent and significant risk factors for prognosis. We reported that the poor prognoses of patients with HCC-nonBC were attributable to its late detection in an advanced condition due to the absence of a surveillance system for the early detection of HCC. However, in early-stage patients, patients with HCC-nonBC showed significantly better prognosis than those in the HCC-virus group.
Although previous reports suggested that carbonated water drinking was effective against gastrointestinal symptoms, there is little information about the effects of carbonated water on gastric and appetite sensation. We therefore investigated the effect of carbonated water on short-term fullness with respect to gastric and cardiac responses in 19 healthy young women. Each subject was tested on three separate days at approximately 9 a.m. after an overnight fast. Gastric motility, evaluated by electrogastrography (EGG) and heart rate (HR), was measured for 20 min in the fasting state and 40 min after ingestion of water. Preloads consisted of an equivalent amount (250 mL) of water (W) or carbonated water (CW) and no drinking (blank). Fullness scores were measured using visual analog scales. To determine gastric motility, we assessed the component of bradygastria (1-2 cycles/min [cpm]), normogastria (2-4 cpm), tachygastria (4-9 cpm), and dominant frequency of the EGG power spectrum. After ingestion of CW, significant increases in fullness scores were observed compared with W. All postprandial EGG powers were significantly greater than preprandial, but no group difference was found. However, a dominant frequency tended to shift toward a lower band after ingestion of W. A significantly higher HR was found following consumption of CW as opposed to W. Multiple regression analysis revealed that increased HR was a significant variable contributing to the variances in fullness after ingestion of CW at 40 min. Our data suggest that CW may induce a short-term, but significant, satiating effect through enhanced postprandial gastric and cardiac activities due possibly to the increased sympathetic activity and/or withdrawal of parasympathetic activity.
?-fetoprotein (AFP) is a tumor marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and has also been reported to reflect the effectiveness of long-term low-dose interferon (IFN) therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with chronic liver disease. The correlation between AFP levels and the incidence of HCC has been discussed over a long period. We investigated whether high levels of AFP at the time of diagnosis were associated with an increased incidence of HCC in patients with HCV. A total of 107 HCV patients with liver cirrhosis without other risks were evaluated for the predictive value of non-invasive risk factors for HCC, including age, gender, alcohol intake, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels, bilirubin, albumin, platelet count and AFP levels at study entry, as well as the IFN therapy received. During the follow-up period, HCC developed in 68 (63.6%) patients. Kaplan-Meier estimates were made to assess the cumulative risk of HCC. The 10-year cumulative incidence rate of HCC was 80%. Cox regression analysis was performed on several variables, including age, gender, alcohol consumption, experience of IFN therapy and biochemical parameters. The following factors were identified as exhibiting an increased risk of HCC by univariate analysis: aspartate transaminase (AST) ?71 IU/l, alanine transaminase (ALT) ?60 IU/l, AFP ?6 ng/ml and IFN therapy. Multivariate analysis identified that the AFP level [6-19 ng/ml: hazard ratio (HR), 2.22; P=0.006 and ?20 ng/ml: HR, 2.09; P=0.003] was an independent and significant risk factor for the development of HCC. A slightly elevated (6-19 ng/ml) AFP level may be a risk factor for HCC in certain cases. By contrast, AFP levels <6 ng/ml indicate a low risk of HCC development in HCV patients with liver cirrhosis.
The global molecular changes in cardiac tissue during congestive heart failure (CHF) have not been fully examined. Transcriptome analysis with the use of next-generation sequencers is a useful tool for elucidating the pathogenesis of CHF. Although there are some advantages in a dog CHF model, transcriptome analyses in dogs are limited by the relative lack of genomic information.
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