Purpose: The outlines of primary lung cancers are more complicated than those of metastatic lung tumors on computed tomography (CT) images. This feature is useful for clarifying the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules before surgery. We applied fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis for quantification of complexity of tumor outline.Methods: Sequential cases of 72 primary lung cancers (Group PL) and 54 metastatic lung tumors (Group MT) were included. The outline of each tumor on chest CT images was described using polar coordinates, and converted to rectangular coordinates, yielding wave data of the tumor outline. The FFT was then used to analyze the wave data. The complexity index (Cxi) was defined as the sum of the amplitude of all harmonics over a fundamental frequency.Results: The Cxi was higher (P <0.0001) for group PL (10.3 ± 6.7 mm) than for group MT (3.2 ± 2.4 mm), and it was correlated with tumor diameter in both groups. The cut-off equation "Cxi = 0.127 DT + 2.23" provided the highest diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing Group PL from Group MT such as a sensitivity of 95.8%, a specificity of 81.5%, and an accuracy of 89.7%.Conclusion: FFT analysis appears useful for quantification of complexity of the tumor outline.
Our objective was to describe cases of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) in advanced amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and discuss its pathophysiology. Five ventilator-dependent patients with ALS, with no previous history of diabetes, showed development of marked hyperglycemia (plasma glucose levels of 755-1544 mg/dl) after preceding infectious episodes. All patients had severe generalized muscle wasting and tetraplegia. The initial manifestations of HHS were fever, drowsiness, or polyuria. Hydration and intravenous insulin therapy were markedly effective, resulting in favorable recovery without the necessity of chronic medication for hyperglycemia in all cases. Seventy-five grams oral glucose tolerance tests performed via feeding tubes in two patients after the successful treatment of HHS revealed increased insulin resistance and diminished early-phase insulin secretion with preserved total insulin secretion. In conclusion, a marked loss of skeletal muscle, the largest glucose consumer of the human body, with background abnormality of early-phase insulin secretion, might be a causative factor of HHS in advanced ALS.
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