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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Identification of a Novel HIV-1 CRF01_AE/B Recombinant Using the Near Full Length Genome in Jiangsu Province, China.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Abstract CRF01_AE and subtype B are the two major HIV-1 clades circulating in China. Heterosexual transmission is the predominant route for the spread of HIV and heterosexuals often include men who have sex with men and intravenous drug users. Furthermore, many kinds of circulating recombinant forms (CRF) and unique recombinant forms (URF) between CRF01_AE and subtype B were recently identified in Southeast Asia. Therefore it is inevitable that the new recombinant of CRF01_AE/B will emerge among them. Here we identified a novel recombinant of CRF01_AE/B, isolated from heterosexuals, which has a distinctly different genome structure from other CRF01Bs and URFs reported before. The analysis of the near full-length sequence of JS2011001 shows that it is composed of at least five interlaced CRF01_AE and B segments. Recently, many kinds of URFs and CRFs began to prevail within a short period in China, which implies that a mix of HIV-1 infections is common in China and more attention should focus on it.
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The protective effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in rat kidney cells.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Abstract Ozone (O3) has been viewed as a novel treatment for different diseases in these years and oxidative stress and apoptosis play a key role in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases including renal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). In the present study, we investigated the role of ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) in attenuating oxidative stress and apoptosis in a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model using rat kidney cells. We induced H/R injury in kidney cells treated with or without OzoneOP. Oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined, as well as some apoptotic proteins. We observed that oxidative stress and apoptosis were increased in H/R group compared to OzoneOP group; however, these changes were significantly decreased by the treatment with OzoneOP. We concluded that OzoneOP can protect the kidney cells against H/R injury and its mechanism may be through the reduction of oxidative stress and apoptosis.
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Picroside II decreases the development of fibrosis induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In kidney transplantation, renal ischemia and reperfusion injury was one of the leading factors to the development of renal fibrosis, which was the main cause of graft loss. The fibrogenic changes were associated with the long term inflammation elicited by ischemia and reperfusion injury. In the present study, we investigated the role of the Picroside II, the main active constituents of the extract of picrorrhiza scrophulariiflora roots, in attenuating renal fibrosis in a renal ischemia and reperfusion injury model. We induced ischemia and reperfusion injury in kidneys treated with or without Picroside II. We observed that inflammation and tissue fibrosis were increased in ischemia and reperfusion injury group compared to Picroside II group, however, these changes were significantly decreased by the treatment with Picroside II. We concluded that Picroside II can protect the ischemic kidney against renal fibrosis and its mechanism may be through the inhibition of the long term inflammation.
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PTH receptor signaling in osteoblasts regulates endochondral vascularization in maintenance of postnatal growth plate.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Longitudinal growth of postnatal bone requires precise control of growth plate cartilage chondrocytes and subsequent osteogenesis and bone formation. Little is known about the role of angiogenesis and bone remodeling in maintenance of cartilaginous growth plate. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone remodeling by activating PTH receptor (PTH1R). Mice with conditional deletion of PTH1R in osteoblasts showed disrupted trabecular bone formation. The mice also exhibited postnatal growth retardation with profound defects in growth plate cartilage, ascribable predominantly to a decrease in number of hypertrophic chondrocytes, resulting in premature fusion of the growth plate and shortened long bones. Further characterization of hypertrophic zone and primary spongiosa revealed that endochondral angiogenesis and vascular invasion of the cartilage were impaired, which was associated with aberrant chondrocyte maturation and cartilage development. These studies reveal that PTH1R signaling in osteoblasts regulates cartilaginous growth plate for postnatal growth of bone. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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Yin Yang-1 suppresses invasion and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma by downregulating MMP10 in a MUC4/ErbB2/p38/MEF2C-dependent mechanism.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Increasing evidence indicates an important role of transcription factor Yin Yang-1 (YY1) in human tumorigenesis. However, its function in cancer remains controversial and the relevance of YY1 to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains to be clarified.
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siRNA against KIR3DL1 as a potential gene therapeutic agent in controlling HIV-1 infection.
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against the expression of KIR3DL1 receptor on natural killer (NK) cells, in order to promote the ability of NK cells to destroy human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells and thus prevent failure of siRNA therapy targeting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virus among HIV-1 infected patients in vitro.
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PDGF-BB secreted by preosteoclasts induces angiogenesis during coupling with osteogenesis.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Osteogenesis during bone modeling and remodeling is coupled with angiogenesis. A recent study showed that a specific vessel subtype, strongly positive for CD31 and endomucin (CD31(hi)Emcn(hi)), couples angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Here, we found that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) secreted by preosteoclasts induces CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessel formation during bone modeling and remodeling. Mice with depletion of PDGF-BB in the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive cell lineage show significantly lower trabecular and cortical bone mass, serum and bone marrow PDGF-BB concentrations, and fewer CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessels compared to wild-type mice. In the ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic mouse model, serum and bone marrow levels of PDGF-BB and numbers of CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessels are significantly lower compared to sham-operated controls. Treatment with exogenous PDGF-BB or inhibition of cathepsin K to increase the number of preosteoclasts, and thus the endogenous levels of PDGF-BB, increases CD31(hi)Emcn(hi) vessel number and stimulates bone formation in OVX mice. Thus, pharmacotherapies that increase PDGF-BB secretion from preosteoclasts offer a new therapeutic target for treating osteoporosis by promoting angiogenesis and thus bone formation.
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Specific-detection of clinical samples, systematic functional investigations, and transcriptome analysis reveals that splice variant MUC4/Y contributes to the malignant progression of pancreatic cancer by triggering malignancy-related positive feedback loops signaling.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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BackgroundMUC4 plays important roles in the malignant progression of human pancreatic cancer. But the huge length of MUC4 gene fragment restricts its functional and mechanism research. As one of its splice variants, MUC4/Y with coding sequence is most similar to that of the full-length MUC4 (FL-MUC4), together with alternative splicing of the MUC4 transcript has been observed in pancreatic carcinomas but not in normal pancreas. So we speculated that MUC4/Y might be involved in malignant progression similarly to FL-MUC4, and as a research model of MUC4 in pancreatic cancer. The conjecture was confirmed in the present study.MethodsMUC4/Y expression was detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using gene-specific probe in the clinic samples. The effects of MUC4/Y were observed by serial in vitro and in vivo experiments based on stable over-expressed cell model. The underlying mechanisms were investigated by sequence-based transcriptome analysis and verified by qRT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.ResultsThe detection of clinical samples indicates that MUC4/Y is significantly positive-correlated with tumor invasion and distant metastases. Based on stable forced-expressed pancreatic cancer PANC-1 cell model, functional studies show that MUC4/Y enhances malignant activity in vitro and in vivo, including proliferation under low-nutritional-pressure, resistance to apoptosis, motility, invasiveness, angiogenesis, and distant metastasis. Mechanism studies indicate the novel finding that MUC4/Y triggers malignancy-related positive feedback loops for concomitantly up-regulating the expression of survival factors to resist adverse microenvironment and increasing the expression of an array of cytokines and adhesion molecules to affect the tumor milieu.ConclusionsIn light of the enormity of the potential regulatory circuitry in cancer afforded by MUC4 and/or MUC4/Y, repressing MUC4 transcription, inhibiting post-transcriptional regulation, including alternative splicing, or blocking various pathways simultaneously may be helpful for controlling malignant progression. MUC4/Y- expression model is proven to a valuable tool for the further dissection of MUC4-mediated functions and mechanisms.
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A Novel HIV-1 CRF01_AE/B recombinant among men who have sex with men in Jiangsu Province, China.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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CRF01_AE and subtype B are the two of major HIV-1 clades circulating in China. HIV spread more rapidly among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among populations with other risk behaviors. In Jiangsu province in China, the HIV-1 incidence among MSM was more than 3.8%. Our previous study showed that almost equal proportions of CRF01_AE, B, and CRF07_BC were circulating among MSM. Moreover, many kinds of CRF01Bs have been identified among MSM in Southeast Asia in recent years. It is therefore inevitable that recombination between CRF01_AE and subtype B will emerge among MSM in Jiangsu province in China. Here we identify a novel recombinant of CRF01_AE/B that has a distinctly different genome structure from other CRF01Bs and unique recombinant forms (URFs) previously identified. An analysis of the near full-length sequence of JS2010001 showed that it is composed of at least three interlaced CRF01_AE and B segments. Recently, many kinds of URFs and C circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) have emerged among MSM in China within a short period of time, which suggests that dual infection of HIV-1 among MSM in China is very common and that more effective intervening measures to prevent the spread of HIV among MSM should be taken.
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Blockage of RelB expression by gene silencing enhances the radiosensitivity of androgen?independent prostate cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Levels of the nuclear factor?kappa B (NF??B) alternative pathway member RelB have been shown to correlate with the effect of radiation therapy in prostate cancer. RelB expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer specimens. RM?1 cells were pretreated with RelB siRNA prior to radiation therapy, and RelB expression in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts was detected by real?time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The apoptotic rates of experimental RM?1 cell groups were assessed by flow cytometry. A clonogenic growth array was used to evaluate the radiosensitivity of RM?1 cell groups. The NF??B family member RelB was expressed at a high level in prostate cancer specimens. Compared with irradiated control cells, RM?1 cells transfected with RelB siRNA and treated with radiation therapy demonstrated a significant downregulation of RelB expression in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Notably, flow cytometry revealed that pretreatment of RM?1 cells with RelB siRNA enhanced the apoptotic rate in response to radiation therapy compared with controls. Clonogenic growth assay results revealed enhanced radiosensitivity of RelB siRNA cells at various dosage points compared with control groups. Blockage of the alternative NF??B pathway via RelB silencing is a promising approach to enhance the radiosensitivity of prostate cancer.
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Ozone oxidative preconditioning inhibits renal fibrosis induced by ischemia and reperfusion injury in rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is a crucial contributor to the development of renal fibrosis. Ozone has been proposed as a novel medical therapy for various conditions, including organ IRI. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) has a beneficial effect in preventing the development of renal fibrosis following IRI. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to 45 min of ischemia followed by 8 weeks of reperfusion. Prior to surgery, rats in the OzoneOP group were treated with ozone and those in the IRI and Sham groups were untreated. Blood samples were collected for the detection of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels. To assess tissue fibrosis, Masson's trichrome staining was performed. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to determine the localization of ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting were conducted to analyze the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, ?-SMA and Smad7. The levels of BUN and Cr did not significantly differ between groups. Rats pretreated with ozone showed markedly less interstitial fibrosis than untreated rats following IRI. In addition, immunohistochemistry revealed that ?-SMA expression was attenuated in the OzoneOP group compared with the IRI group. RT-qPCR and western blot analysis showed that OzoneOP inhibited the IRI-induced increases in ?-SMA and TGF-?1 expression levels, and that the IRI-induced reduction in the expression of Smad7 was inhibited in the OzoneOP group. The results indicate that OzoneOP has beneficial effects on ischemic renal fibrosis. OzoneOP may exert its protective effects by a mechanism involving modulation of the TGF-?1/Smad7 pathway.
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[Setting up a risk prediction model on metabolic syndrome among 35-74 year-olds based on the Taiwan MJ Health-checkup Database].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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This study aimed to provide an epidemiological modeling method to evaluate the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) development in the coming 5 years among 35-74 year-olds from Taiwan.
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Eye care use among rural adults in China: the Handan Eye Study.
Ophthalmic Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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To assess the use of eye care services in a rural population in North China and to analyze the factors associated with underuse of these services.
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[The application of network scale-up method on female sex workers and clients size estimation in Taizhou city].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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To estimate the size of female sex workers and clients in Taizhou city.
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[Association analysis of serum ?-glutamyltransferase with risk of metabolic syndrome in Beijing healthy population].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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To study the association of ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) with the development of the metabolic syndrome (MS).
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[Relationship between the expression of HBV mRNA in embryos and father-to-infant HBV transmission].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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To investigate father-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) by detecting HBV mRNA in the IVF embryos with paternal HBV infection.
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Transcriptional regulation of human MUC4 gene: identification of a novel inhibitory element and its nuclear binding protein.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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The human mucin 4 (MUC4) is aberrantly expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and tumor cell lines, while remaining undetectable in normal pancreas, indicating its important role in pancreatic cancer development. Although its transcriptional regulation has been investigated in considerable detail, some important elements remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the existence of a novel inhibitory element in the MUC4 promoter and characterize some of its binding proteins. By luciferase reporter assay, we located the inhibitory element between nucleotides -2530 and -2521 in the MUC4 promoter using a series of deletion and mutant reporter constructs. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) with Bxpc-3 cell nuclear extracts revealed that one protein or protein complex bind to this element. The proteins binding to this element were purified and identified as Yin Yang 1 (YY1) by mass spectrometry. Supershift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed that YY1 binds to this element in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, transient YY1 overexpression significantly inhibited MUC4 promoter activity and endogenous MUC4 protein expression. In conclusion, we reported here a novel inhibitory element in the human MUC4 promoter. This provides additional data on MUC4 gene regulation and indicates that YY1 may be a potential target for abnormal MUC4 expression.
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Purification, structure, lipid lowering and liver protecting effects of polysaccharide from Lachnum YM281.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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The extracellular polysaccharide (LEP) produced by Lachnum YM281 was obtained from the fermentation broth, and LEP-1b with molecular weight of 4.02×10(4) Da was separated and sequentially purified through DEAE-cellulose 52 column chromatography and Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. GC-MS, IR and NMR ((1)H, (13)C) spectroscopy analysis indicated that the repeat unit of LEP-1b was: [formula; see text] The effects of LEP-1b on the serum lipids, liver lipids levels and aminotransferase activities of model mice with hyperlipidemic fatty live were studied, and the results showed that LEP-1b had strong lipid lowering and liver protecting effects on mice with hyperlipidemic fatty live.
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Effects of quercetin on LPS-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in rabbits.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Quercetin is widely distributed in plants and has been reported to have effects of anti-inflammation and anti-thrombosis. In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of quercetin on LPS-induced experimental DIC in rabbits, and tried to clarify its mechanism against DIC.
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[Discussion on the Chinese edition of the WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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Discussion is made on three aspects of the Chinese section with regards to desperate translations, mistranslations and inconsistent translation format of the WHO Standard Acupuncture Point Locations in the Western Pacific Region (Chinese-English bilingual edition), in the hope to provide some constructive references to help perfecting this book.
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LRP6 mediates cAMP generation by G protein-coupled receptors through regulating the membrane targeting of G?(s).
Sci Signal
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Ligand binding to certain heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) stimulates the rapid synthesis of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) through the G protein ?(s) subunit, which activates adenylyl cyclase (AC). We found that the transmembrane receptor low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6), a co-receptor for Wnt proteins, bound to the G?(s)?? heterotrimer and that knockdown of LRP6 attenuated cAMP production by various GPCRs, including parathyroid hormone receptor 1 (PTH1R). Knockdown of LRP6 disrupted the localization of G?(s) to the plasma membrane, which led to a decrease in the extent of coupling of G?(s) to PTH1R and inhibited the production of cAMP and the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in response to PTH. PKA phosphorylated LRP6, which enhanced the binding of G?(s) to LRP6, its localization to the plasma membrane, and the production of cAMP in response to PTH. Decreased PTH-dependent cAMP production was observed in single cells in which LRP6 was knocked down or mutated at the PKA site by monitoring the cAMP kinetics. Thus, we suggest that the binding of G?(s) to LRP6 is required to establish a functional GPCR-G?(s)-AC signaling pathway for the production of cAMP, providing an additional regulatory component to the current GPCR-cAMP paradigm.
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catena-Poly[[octa-aqua-bis-(?(4)-benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl-ato)trizinc] tetra-hydrate].
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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In the title compound, {[Zn(3)(C(9)H(3)O(6))(2)(H(2)O)(8)]·4H(2)O}(n), there are two crystallographically independent Zn(II) ions. One presents a trigonal-bipyramidal coordination geometry defined by five O atoms [three from two carboxyl-ate groups of two benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxyl-ate (BTC) ligands and the other two deriving from three water mol-ecules], while the other lies on an inversion centre and exists in a slightly distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry defined by six O atoms (two from two carboxyl-ate groups of two BTC ligands and the others from four water mol-ecules). A three-dimensional framework is further strengthened via O-H?O hydrogen-bonding inter-actons.
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Apoptotic role of TGF-? mediated by Smad4 mitochondria translocation and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II interaction.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Smad4, originally isolated from the human chromosome 18q21, is a key factor in transducing the signals of the TGF-? superfamily of growth hormones and plays a pivotal role in mediating antimitogenic and proapoptotic effects of TGF-?, but the mechanisms by which Smad4 induces apoptosis are elusive. Here we report that Smad4 directly translocates to the mitochondria of apoptotic cells. Smad4 gene silencing by siRNA inhibits TGF-?-induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells and UV-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Cell fractionation assays demonstrated that a fraction of Smad4 translocates to mitochondria after long time TGF-? treatment or UV exposure, during which the cells were under apoptosis. Smad4 mitochondria translocation during apoptosis was also confirmed by fluorescence observation of Smad4 colocalization with MitoTracker Red. We searched for mitochondria proteins that have physical interactions with Smad4 using yeast two-hybrid screening approach. DNA sequence analysis identified 34 positive clones, five of which encoded subunits in mitochondria complex IV, i.e., one clone encoded cytochrome c oxidase COXII, three clones encoded COXIII and one clone encoded COXVb. Strong interaction between Smad4 with COXII, an important apoptosis regulator, was verified in yeast by ?-gal activity assays and in mammalian cells by immunoprecipitation assays. Further, mitochondrial portion of cells was isolated and the interaction between COXII and Smad4 in mitochondria upon TGF-? treatment or UV exposure was confirmed. Importantly, targeting Smad4 to mitochondria using import leader fusions enhanced TGF-?-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the results suggest that Smad4 promote apoptosis of the cells through its mitochondrial translocation and association with mitochondria protein COXII.
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Prevalence of primary open angle glaucoma in a rural adult Chinese population: the Handan eye study.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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To estimate the prevalence and associations of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) in a rural population of northern China.
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[Study of an adherence rating score system for tuberculosis patients in China].
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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To develop an adherence rating score (ARS) system specific for tuberculosis (TB) patients.
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Normal macular thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography in healthy eyes of adult Chinese persons: the Handan Eye Study.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2010
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To describe macular thickness measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in healthy eyes of adult Chinese persons.
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Establishment of a turbot fin cell line and its susceptibility to turbot reddish body iridovirus.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2010
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A turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, fin (TF) cell line was established and susceptibility to turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) was determined in this study. Primary culture of TF cells was initiated from fin tissue pieces partially digested with trypsin, collagenase II and hyaluronidase. Digested tissue pieces were cultured at 24 degrees C in Leibovitz-15 medium (pH 7.2), supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum, carboxymethyl chitosan, N-acetylglucosamine hydrochloride, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor. The cultured TF cells, in fibroblast shape, proliferated to 100% confluency 50 days later. A TF cell line, with a population doubling time of 45.6 h at passage 80, has been established and subcultured to passage 133. Chromosome analyses indicated that the TF cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with a modal chromosome number of 44 which displayed the normal diploid karyotype of S. maximus at least up to passage 80. TRBIV susceptibility testing demonstrated that cytopathic effect and propagated viral particles were observed in TF cells after TRBIV infection. In conclusion, a continuous TRBIV susceptible TF cell line has been established successfully, and the cell line may serve as a valuable tool for studies of cell-virus interactions and has applications for different kinds of cytotechnological studies as well.
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Differences in natural killer cell quantification and receptor profile expression in HIV-1 infected Chinese children.
Cell. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2010
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Natural killer (NK) cells are believed to play a role in the progression of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) disease, and NK cell levels are reduced in individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection. To assess the effects on quantity of NK cells and the changes of NK cell receptors in HIV-1 infected children via mother-to-child transmission, the percentage of NK cells is quantified and the changes in the NK cell receptor profiles in 20 HIV-1 infected children who are not progressing into AIDS were examined. The results showed that NK cell percentage was decreased in the HIV-1 infected children. The expression of NKp30 on NK cells was increased, while the expressions of CD16, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80, NTB-A, CD244, KIR2D, KIR3DL1 and NKG2D on NK cells were decreased in the HIV-1 infected children. NK cell cytolytic activity was elevated in HIV-1 infected children. These results indicate that the acute changes in NK cell percentage and NK cell receptors in HIV-1 infected children are different from the HIV-1 infected adult individuals. Moreover, serum concentrations of IL-18 were elevated in HIV-infected children compared to HIV-uninfected controls. These differences probably play a role in protecting against transmission of maternal HIV-1 virus and guiding the therapeutic strategies for HIV-1 infected children.
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TGF-beta type II receptor phosphorylates PTH receptor to integrate bone remodelling signalling.
Nat. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism by activating PTH type I receptor (PTH1R). Here we show that transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII) forms an endocytic complex with PTH1R in response to PTH and regulates signalling by PTH and TGF-beta. TbetaRII directly phosphorylates the PTH1R cytoplasmic domain, which modulates PTH-induced endocytosis of the PTH1R-TbetaRII complex. Deletion of TbetaRII in osteoblasts increases the cell-surface expression of PTH1R and augments PTH signalling. Conditional knockout of TbetaRII in osteoblasts in mice results in a high bone mass with increased trabecular bone and decreased cortical bone, similar to the bone phenotype in mice expressing a constitutively active PTH1R. Disruption of PTH signalling by injection of PTH(7-34) or ablation of PTH1R rescues the bone phenotype of TbetaRII knockout mice. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized function for TbetaRII and a mechanism for integration of PTH and local growth factor at the membrane receptor level.
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[Comparison of two diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome applied in health check-up population aged 12-19 years in Taiwan].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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To compare the differences of two recommended diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome (MS) in a health check-up population aged 12-19 years in Taiwan province.
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In vitro effect of ozagrel on mushroom tyrosinase.
Protein J.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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This investigation, in vitro, shows that ozagrel, an antithrombotic drug, inhibited both monophenolase and diphenolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase when L: -tyrosine and L: -DOPA were assayed spectrophotometrically, respectively. The IC(50) values, for monophenolase and diphenolase activities, were 1.35 and 3.45 mM, respectively. Ozagrel was estimated to be a reversible mixed-type inhibitor of diphenolase activity with the constants (K (S1), K (S2), K (i1), and K (i2)) determined to be 2.21, 3.89, 0.454, and 0.799 mM, repectively. Increasing ozagrel concentrations provoked longer lag periods as well as a concomitant decrease in the monophenolase activity. Inhibition experiment demonstrated that ozagrel bound the enzyme at a site distincted from the substrate active site, but it bound to either E (Enzyme) or ES (Enzyme-Substrate) complex.
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Prevalence and associations of epiretinal membranes in a rural Chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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To determine the prevalence and association of epiretinal membranes (ERMs), as assessed by retinal photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT), in a Chinese population.
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Refractive errors in a rural Chinese adult population the Handan eye study.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for myopia and other refractive errors in a rural, adult, Chinese population.
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Changes in NK cell counts and receptor expressions and emergence of CD3(dim)/CD56+ cells in HIV-1 infected patients in China.
Viral Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Natural killer (NK) cells are believed to play a role in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) disease progression, and NK cell levels are reduced in individuals with chronic HIV-1 infection. In the present study, we compared the frequency and phenotype of peripheral blood CD3-CD56+ NK cells in HIV-1 infected patients in China who were infected through different routes of transmission, including heterosexual and homosexual sexual contact, and blood transmission through injection drug use or importation of blood or blood products. The results showed significantly reduced numbers of CD3-CD56+ NK cells with no association with route of transmission. The expression of CD16 on CD3-CD56+ NK cells in HIV-1 infected patients was similar to that in healthy controls. Among the examined receptor (KIR3DL1, NKp80, NKp44, CD244, NKG2D, and NTBA) expressions, only KIR3DL1 and NKp80 expressions on CD3-CD56+ NK cells were suppressed in HIV-1-infected patients compared to healthy controls, and no significant difference was observed between patients upon comparison of different routes of transmission. A subset of CD3(dim)/CD56+ cells was dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected patients. This study suggests that changes in NK cell count and receptors are not related to the route of HIV-1 transmission. A new subset of CD3(dim)/CD56+ cells emerged only in HIV-1-infected patients, and may play a role in limiting viral spread, eliminating infected cells, and slowing the progression from HIV-1 infection to AIDS.
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Arabidopsis microtubule-associated protein AtMAP65-2 acts as a microtubule stabilizer.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Nine genes that encode proteins of the MAP65 family have been identified in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In this study, we reported that AtMAP65-2, a member of the AtMAP65 family, could strongly stabilize microtubules (MTs). Bacterially-expressed AtMAP65-2 fusion proteins induced the formation of large MT bundles in vitro. Although AtMAP65-2 showed little effect on MT assembly or nucleation, AtMAP65-2 greatly stabilized MTs that were subjected to low-temperature treatment in vitro. Analyses of truncated versions of AtMAP65-2 indicated that the region that encompassed amino acids 495-578, which formed a flexible extended loop, played a crucial role in the stabilization of MTs. Analysis of suspension-cultured Arabidopsis cells that expressed the AtMAP65-2-GFP fusion protein showed that AtMAP65-2 co-localized with MTs throughout the cell cycle. Cortical MTs that were decorated with AtMAP65-2-GFP were more resistant to the MT-disrupting drug propyzamide and to ice treatment in vivo. The results of this study demonstrate that AtMAP65-2 strongly stabilizes MTs and is involved in the regulation of MT organization and dynamics.
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Sustained BMP signaling in osteoblasts stimulates bone formation by promoting angiogenesis and osteoblast differentiation.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Angiogenesis and bone formation are tightly coupled during the formation of the skeleton. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is required for both bone development and angiogenesis. We recently identified endosome-associated FYVE-domain protein (endofin) as a Smad anchor for BMP receptor activation. Endofin contains a protein-phosphatase pp1c binding domain, which negatively modulates BMP signals through dephosphorylation of the BMP type I receptor. A single point mutation of endofin (F872A) disrupts interaction between the catalytic subunit pp1c and sensitizes BMP signaling in vitro. To study the functional impact of this mutation in vivo, we targeted expression of an endofin (F872A) transgene to osteoblasts. Mice expressing this mutant transgene had increased levels of phosphorylated Smad1 in osteoblasts and showed increased bone formation. Trabecular bone volume was significantly increased in the transgenic mice compared with the wildtype littermates with corresponding increases in trabecular bone thickness and number. Interestingly, the transgenic mice also had a pronounced increase in the density of the bone vasculature measured using contrast-enhanced microCT imaging of Microfil-perfused bones. The vessel surface and volume were both increased in association with elevated levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in osteoblasts. Endothelial sprouting from the endofin (F872A) mutant embryonic metatarsals cultured ex vivo was increased compared with controls and was abolished by an addition of a VEGF neutralizing antibody. In conclusion, osteoblast targeted expression of a mutant endofin protein lacking the pp1c binding activity results in sustained signaling of the BMP type I receptor, which increases bone formation and skeletal angiogenesis.
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Clonidine induces calcitonin gene-related peptide expression via nitric oxide pathway in endothelial cells.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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The present study was to determine whether clonidine could induce calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) production and the underlying mechanisms. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with clonidine and the dose-effect or time-effect relationship of clonidine on CGRP production was examined. Yohimbine (a alpha(2)-adrenoceptor blocker) and L-NAME (an antagonist of nitric oxide synthase, NOS) were chosen to explore the role of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor and nitric oxide pathway in the effect of clonidine on endothelial cell-derived CGRP production. The level of CGRP mRNA or protein was detected by Real Time-PCR or radioimmunoassay. Nitric oxide content was measured by nitroreduction assay. The study showed that clonidine was able to induce CGRP mRNA (alpha- and beta-isoforms) expression in a dose-dependent manner in endothelial cells. The effect of clonidine on endothelial cell-derived CGRP synthesis and secretion was attenuated in the presence of yohimbine. L-NAME treatment could also inhibit clonidine-induced CGRP synthesis and secretion concomitantly with the decreased NO content in culture medium. These results suggest that clonidine could stimulate CGRP synthesis and secretion in endothelial cells through the activation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor, which is related to the NO pathway.
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Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in rural China: the Handan Eye Study.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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To describe the age- and gender-specific prevalence, characteristics, and severity of diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a rural population in northern China.
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[Estimation on the risk of 5-years obesity development among adults aged 30 - 59, based on the Taiwan MJ Health-checkup Database].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
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This study aimed to provide an epidemiological modeling in evaluating the risk of developing obesity within 5 years in Taiwan population aged 30 - 59 years.
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[Repair of lower extremity traumatic soft tissue defect with ALT polyfoliate perforator flap].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
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Application of anterior lateral thigh flap (ALT) polyfoliate perforator flap for lower extremity soft tissue defect.
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Over-expressing transporters associated with antigen processing increases antitumor immunity response in prostate cancer.
Cell. Immunol.
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As we know, prostate cancer down-regulates expression of HLA-1 Antigen Processing Machinery (APM) and has defects in the antigen presentation pathway. In vitro, the prostate cancer cell (PC-3 cells) infected with Lentivirus TAP1 can efficiently over-express TAP1 and Tapasin, and HLA-1 was also up-regulated on the surface of the infected cells. The lentivirus TAP1 infection increased the apoptosis rate of PC-3 cells. In addition, with the co-cluture PC-3 cells and lymphocytes, TAP1 augmented the expression of CD3?CD8?CD38? T cell. Importantly, administration of Lentivirus TAP1 to prostate cancer cells in a xenograft mouse model can prolong survival and increase the CD4? T cells, and CD8? T cells as well as decrease Foxp3? T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In summary, a recombinant lentivirus expressing TAP1 can effectively increase prostate cancer tumor-specific immune response.
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A novel recombinant fibrinogenase of Agkistrodon acutus venom protects against hyperacute rejection via degradation of complements.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
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Hyperacute rejection (HAR) is a main barrier in xenotransplantation, which is mediated by the combination of natural antibody to the xenograft and complement activation. Current therapies have focus on the inhibition of complement by development of complement inhibitor and transgenic animal organ. Here, we investigated the effects of rFII, a recombinant fibrinogenase from Agkistrodon acutus venom, on complement and HAR. The degradation effect of rFII on complement was tested by SDS-PAGE, CH50 examination, ELISA Kit and cofocal immunofluorescence microscopy in vitro and in vivo. An ex-vivo rat-to-human perfusion model and a vivo guinea-pig-to-rat heat HAR model were used to determine the protection of rFII against HAR. Our investigation indicated that rFII could significantly degrade human C5, C6, and C9, decrease the activity of complement, and inhibit the MAC deposition on HUVECs membrane in vitro. In addition, serum levels of C1q, C3 and C4 in rat were gradually reduced after infusion of rFII. Importantly, in an ex vivo rat-to-human perfusion model, the survival of rat hearts perfused with human serum treated with rFII (83.36 ± 16.63 min) were significantly longer than that of hearts perfused with fresh human serum(15.94 ± 4.75 min). At the time of 15 minutes after perfusion, functions of hearts added with 50 ug/ml rFII sustained well with heart rates at 283 ± 65.32 beats/minute and LVDP at 13.70 ± 5.45 Kpa, while that of hearts perfused with fresh human serum were severely damaged by HAR with heart rates at 107.77 ± 40.31 beats/minute and LVDP at 1.01 ± 0.83 Kpa. We also found that rFII significantly decreased the levels of C1q, C3 and C4 in human fresh serum perfusate. In a vivo guinea-pig-to-rat heat HAR model, the survival of rat hearts treated with rFII were significantly longer than that of hearts perfused with normal saline; and relieved heart damage by complete activation. Our finding demonstrates the anti-complement property of rFII and its protection against HAR, indicating that rFII might be as a potential therapeutic agent for xenotransplantation.
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The second short-term warm ischemia after vascular anastomosis did not affect early renal function recovery in renal transplantation: a case report.
Front Med
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Ischemic postconditioning was defined as rapid intermittent interruptions of blood flow in the early phase of reperfusion, which has been found to be protective against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in animal models but not in clinical trials.We describe a case that the allograft renal vein was twisted because of the surgeons mistake, which caused the warm ischemia of allograft after reperfusion. The allograft restored blood flow without second reperfusion and cold preservation after 9 min of warm ischemia. The patient was followed up for 3 months and the allograft worked well without complications.
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Matrix IGF-1 maintains bone mass by activation of mTOR in mesenchymal stem cells.
Nat. Med.
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Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), the most abundant growth factor in the bone matrix, maintains bone mass in adulthood. We now report that IGF-1 released from the bone matrix during bone remodeling stimulates osteoblastic differentiation of recruited mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), thus maintaining proper bone microarchitecture and mass. Mice with knockout of the IGF-1 receptor (Igf1r) in their pre-osteoblastic cells showed lower bone mass and mineral deposition rates than wild-type mice. Further, MSCs from Igf1rflox/flox mice with Igf1r deleted by a Cre adenovirus in vitro, although recruited to the bone surface after implantation, were unable to differentiate into osteoblasts. We also found that the concentrations of IGF-1 in the bone matrix and marrow of aged rats were lower than in those of young rats and directly correlated with the age-related decrease in bone mass. Likewise, in age-related osteoporosis in humans, we found that bone marrow IGF-1 concentrations were 40% lower in individuals with osteoporosis than in individuals without osteoporosis. Notably, injection of IGF-1 plus IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), but not injection of IGF-1 alone, increased the concentration of IGF-1 in the bone matrix and stimulated new bone formation in aged rats. Together, these results provide mechanistic insight into how IGF-1 maintains adult bone mass, while also providing a further rationale for its therapeutic targeting to treat age-related osteoporosis.
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A novel fibrinogenase from Agkistrodon acutus venom protects against DIC via direct degradation of thrombosis and activation of protein C.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
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The incidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), which leads to multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality, has remained constant in recent years. At present, treatments of DIC have focused on preventing cytokine induction, inhibiting coagulation processes and promoting fibrinolysis. Recent clinical trials have supported the use of antithrombin and activated protein C supplementation in DIC. To better understand the mechanism of treatment on DIC, we here report a novel fibrinogenase from Agkistrodon acutus (FIIa) that effectively protected against LPS-induced DIC in a rabbit model, and detected the tissue factors expression in HUVE cells after using FIIa. In vivo, administration of FIIa reduced hepatic and renal damage, increased the concentration of fibrinogen, the activities of protein C, the platelet count, APTT, PT, FDP, the level of AT-III and t-PA, decreased the level of PAI-1, and increased survival rate in LPS-induced DIC rabbits. In vitro experiments, we further confirmed that FIIa up-regulated the expression of t-PA and u-PA, down-regulated the expression of PAI-1, and directly activated protein C. Our findings suggest that FIIa could effectively protect against DIC via direct degradation of microthrombi and activation of protein C as well as provide a novel strategy to develop a single proteinase molecule for targeting the main pathological processes of this disease.
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Tolerogenic dendritic cells generated by RelB silencing using shRNA prevent acute rejection.
Cell. Immunol.
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It is well known that adoptive transfer of donor-derived tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) helps to induce immune tolerance. RelB, one of NF-?B subunits, is a critical element involved in DC maturation. In the present study, our results showed tolerogenic DCs could be acquired via silencing RelB using small interfering RNA. Compared with imDCs, the tolerogenic DCs had more potent ability to inhibit mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and down-regulate Th1 cytokines and prompt the production of Th2 cytokines. They both mediated immune tolerance via the increased of T cell apoptosis and generation of regulatory T cells. Administration of donor-derived tolerogenic DCs significantly prevented the allograft rejection and prolonged the survival time in a murine heart transplantation model. Our results demonstrate donor-derived, RelB-shRNA induced tolerogenic DCs can significantly induce immune tolerance in vitro and in vivo.
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Small metal soft tissue foreign body extraction by using 3D CT guidance: a reliable method.
Eur J Radiol
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To introduce a useful and accurate technique for the locating and removal of small metal foreign bodies in the soft tissues.
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Emergence of peripheral CD3+CD56+ cytokine-induced killer cell in HIV-1-infected Chinese children.
Int. Immunol.
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Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells are immune effector cells characterized by co-expression of CD3 and CD56 molecules. We examined the quantities of CIK cells and the changes of these cell expressing NK cell receptors in HIV-1-positive children infected via mother-to-child transmission. The percentage of CIK cells was quantified and the changes in the surface cell receptor profiles in 18 HIV-1-infected children were examined. We found that CIK cell percentages were dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected children. Furthermore, the expressions of CD16, NKp30, NKp44, NKp46, NKp80 and CD244 on CIK cells were decreased, while the expressions of KIR3DL1 and NKG2D on CIK cells were increased in HIV-1-infected children. However, the expressions of KIR2D and NTB-A on CIK cells did not change in the HIV-1-infected children. CIK cells possessed the characteristics of promoting the maturation of dendritic cells and killing functions in HIV-1-infected children. Moreover, serum concentrations of IL-4 and IFN-? were significantly increased in HIV-1-infected children compared with the HIV-negative controls. These changes likely occurred as a protective mechanism against transmission of maternal HIV-1 virus and thereby helped to limit viral spread, eliminate infected cells and help HIV-1-infected patients to slow the progression to AIDS.
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Lentiviral-mediated shRNA against RelB induces the generation of tolerogenic dendritic cells.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
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Lentiviral-mediated shRNA against RelB was used to produce tolerogenic dendritic cells from murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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