Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MS) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) are important avian pathogens and cause economic losses to the poultry industry. Molecular biology techniques are currently used for a rapid detection of these pathogens and the adoption of control measures of the diseases. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a technique for simultaneous detection of MG and MS by multiplex real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The complete assay (Multiplex MGMS) was designed with primers and probes specific for each pathogen and developed to be carried out in a single tube reaction. Vaccines, MG and MS isolates and DNA from other Mycoplasma species were used for the development and validation of the method. Further, 78 pooled clinical samples from different poultry flocks in Brazil were obtained and used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in comparison to 2 real time PCR assays specific for MG (MG PCR) and MS (MS PCR). The results demonstrated an agreement of 100% (23 positive and 44 negative samples) between Multiplex MGMS and MG PCR in the analysis of 67 samples from MG positive and negative poultry flocks, and an agreement of 96.9% between Multiplex MGMS and MS PCR in the analysis of 64 samples from MS positive and negative poultry flocks. Considering the single amplification tests as the gold standard, the Multiplex MGMS showed 100% of specificity and sensitivity in the MG analysis and 94.7% sensitivity and 100% specificity in the MS analysis. This new assay could be used for rapid analysis of MG and MS in the poultry industry laboratories.
The tongue plays an important role in the functions of speech, mastication, swallowing, and breathing. The tongue helps in the maintenance of proper dental alignment and arch stability. Adequate strength is essential for the tongue to perform these tasks. Recently the Biomechanical Engineering Group from Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil, developed a device to improve tongue strength evaluation. The purpose of this study is to describe and compare the main results obtained in tongue protrusion force measurements in different age groups using this new device. Fifteen healthy subjects were given a qualitative evaluation and determined to have normal tongue strength. They were separated by age in three groups: children, adults and elderly. They were then given a quantitative evaluation. Maximum and average forces were analyzed. The time taken to reach maximum force was also assessed. Higher values of maximum and average tongue force were obtained in the adult group, followed by the elderly group and the group of children. Older subjects had greater tongue force when compared to children. However, there were statistically significant differences in the average force and in the maximum force only between children and adults. Time taken to reach maximal isometric force was longer in the elderly group and shorter in the group of children than in the group of adults although no statistically significant difference was found between groups.
The understanding of complex heritable psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia could be clarified by examining endophenotypes within genetically isolated populations, such as the one found in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. The reduction of familial variability within a sample could allow the relationship between the cognitive and symptomatic manifestations of the illness and the genetic underpinnings to become more observable. This study investigates the neuropsychological test performances of 41 family members from four extended multiplex families within the Spanish origin population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica as potential endophenotypes for genetic studies.
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