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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Decreased HIV Type 1 Transcription in CCR5-?32 Heterozygotes During Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Individuals who are heterozygous for the CCR5-?32 mutation provide a natural model to examine the effects of reduced CCR5 expression on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) persistence. We evaluated the HIV reservoir in 18 CCR5-?32 heterozygotes and 54 CCR5 wild-type individuals during suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Cell-associated HIV RNA levels (P = .035), RNA to DNA transcriptional ratios (P = .013), and frequency of detectable HIV 2-long terminal repeat circular DNA (P = .013) were significantly lower in CD4(+) T cells from CCR5-?32 heterozygotes. Cell-associated HIV RNA was significantly correlated with CCR5 surface expression on CD4(+) T cells (r(2) = 0.136; P = .002). Our findings suggest that curative strategies should further explore manipulation of CCR5.
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HIV-1 drug resistance in the iPrEx preexposure prophylaxis trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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The iPrEx study demonstrated that combination oral emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF) as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) protects against HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men and transgender women. Selection for drug resistance could offset PrEP benefits.
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Role of microRNA modulation in the interferon-?/ribavirin suppression of HIV-1 in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interferon-? (IFN-?) treatment suppresses HIV-1 viremia and reduces the size of the HIV-1 latent reservoir. Therefore, investigation of the molecular and immunologic effects of IFN-? may provide insights that contribute to the development of novel prophylactic, therapeutic and curative strategies for HIV-1 infection. In this study, we hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the IFN-?-mediated suppression of HIV-1. To inform the development of novel miRNA-based antiretroviral strategies, we investigated the effects of exogenous IFN-? treatment on global miRNA expression profile, HIV-1 viremia, and potential regulatory networks between miRNAs and cell-intrinsic anti-HIV-1 host factors in vivo.
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Effects of Alpha Interferon Treatment on Intrinsic Anti-HIV-1 Immunity In Vivo.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Alpha interferon (IFN-?) suppresses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in vitro by inducing cell-intrinsic retroviral restriction mechanisms. We investigated the effects of IFN-?/ribavirin (IFN-?/riba) treatment on 34 anti-HIV-1 restriction factors in vivo. Expression of several anti-HIV-1 restriction factors was significantly induced by IFN-?/riba in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected individuals. Fold induction of cumulative restriction factor expression in CD4(+) T cells was significantly correlated with viral load reduction during IFN-?/riba treatment (r(2) = 0.649; P < 0.016). Exogenous IFN-? induces supraphysiologic restriction factor expression associated with a pronounced decrease in HIV-1 viremia.
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Prospective antiretroviral treatment of asymptomatic, HIV-1 infected controllers.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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The study of HIV-infected "controllers" who are able to maintain low levels of plasma HIV RNA in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) may provide insights for HIV cure and vaccine strategies. Despite maintaining very low levels of plasma viremia, controllers have elevated immune activation and accelerated atherosclerosis. However, the degree to which low-level replication contributes to these phenomena is not known. Sixteen asymptomatic controllers were prospectively treated with ART for 24 weeks. Controllers had a statistically significant decrease in ultrasensitive plasma and rectal HIV RNA levels with ART. Markers of T cell activation/dysfunction in blood and gut mucosa also decreased substantially with ART. Similar reductions were observed in the subset of "elite" controllers with pre-ART plasma HIV RNA levels below conventional assays (<40 copies/mL). These data confirm that HIV replication persists in controllers and contributes to a chronic inflammatory state. ART should be considered for these individuals (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01025427).
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Expression profile of host restriction factors in HIV-1 elite controllers.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Several host-encoded antiviral factors suppress HIV-1 replication in a cell-autonomous fashion in vitro. The relevance of these defenses to the control of HIV-1 in vivo remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that cellular restriction of HIV-1 replication plays a significant role in the observed suppression of HIV-1 in "elite controllers", individuals who maintain undetectable levels of viremia in the absence of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We comprehensively compared the expression levels of 34 host restriction factors and cellular activation levels in CD4+ T cells and sorted T cell subsets between elite controllers, HIV-1-infected (untreated) non-controllers, ART-suppressed, and uninfected individuals.
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Association of cervical biopsy with HIV type 1 genital shedding among women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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HIV-1 genital shedding is associated with increased HIV-1 transmission risk. Inflammation and ulceration are associated with increased shedding, while highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been shown to have a protective effect. We sought to examine the impact of cervical biopsies, a routine component of cervical cancer screening, on HIV-1 genital RNA levels in HIV-infected women on HAART. We enrolled HIV-1-infected women undergoing cervical biopsy for diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 in this prospective cohort study. All were stable on HAART for at least 3 months. Clinical and demographic information as well as plasma HIV-1 viral load were collected at the baseline visit. Specimens for cervical HIV-1 RNA were collected immediately prior to biopsy, and 2 and 7 days afterward. Quantitative PCR determined HIV-1 concentration in cervical specimens at each time point to a lower limit of detection of 40 copies/specimen. Among the 30 participants, five (16.6%) women had detectable cervical HIV-1 RNA at baseline, of whom four (80%) had detectable HIV-1 RNA after cervical biopsy, with no significant increase in viral load in the follow-up specimens. Only one woman (3.3%) with undetectable baseline cervical HIV-1 RNA had detection postbiopsy. Detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA was the only factor associated with baseline cervical HIV-1 RNA. In women on HAART, an increase in cervical HIV-1 RNA detection or concentration was not associated with cervical biopsy. These findings help provide safety data regarding cervical cancer screening and diagnosis in HIV-infected women and inform postprocedure counseling.
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Is there an association between HIV-1 genital shedding and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 among women on antiretroviral therapy?
J Low Genit Tract Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Given the high prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2/3 among HIV-infected women, we sought to examine the relationship between CIN 2/3 and HIV-1 genital shedding among women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
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Targeting of conserved gag-epitopes in early HIV infection is associated with lower plasma viral load and slower CD4(+) T cell depletion.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We aimed to investigate whether the character of the immunodominant HIV-Gag peptide (variable or conserved) targeted by CD8(+) T cells in early HIV infection would influence the quality and quantity of T cell responses, and whether this would affect the rate of disease progression. Treatment-naive HIV-infected study subjects within the OPTIONS cohort at the University of California, San Francisco, were monitored from an estimated 44 days postinfection for up to 6 years. CD8(+) T cells responses targeting HLA-matched HIV-Gag-epitopes were identified and characterized by multicolor flow cytometry. The autologous HIV gag sequences were obtained. We demonstrate that patients targeting a conserved HIV-Gag-epitope in early infection maintained their epitope-specific CD8(+) T cell response throughout the study period. Patients targeting a variable epitope showed decreased immune responses over time, although there was no limitation of the functional profile, and they were likely to target additional variable epitopes. Maintained immune responses to conserved epitopes were associated with no or limited sequence evolution within the targeted epitope. Patients with immune responses targeting conserved epitopes had a significantly lower median viral load over time compared to patients with responses targeting a variable epitope (0.63 log(10) difference). Furthermore, the rate of CD4(+) T cell decline was slower for subjects targeting a conserved epitope (0.85% per month) compared to subjects targeting a variable epitope (1.85% per month). Previous studies have shown that targeting of antigens based on specific HLA types is associated with a better disease course. In this study we show that categorizing epitopes based on their variability is associated with clinical outcome.
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Comparative frequencies of HIV low-level viremia between real-time viral load assays at clinically relevant thresholds.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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The introduction of new real-time PCR HIV-1 assays with higher sensitivity and broader dynamic range has resulted in detection of low-level viremia (LLV) (? 50 copies/mL) in some patients who previously had undetectable HIV-1 viral load (VL) (<50 copies/mL) with end-point PCR assays. It is therefore important to compare the performance of end-point and newer real-time PCR assays at medically relevant decision points.
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Central nervous system immune activation characterizes primary human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection even in participants with minimal cerebrospinal fluid viral burden.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Central nervous system (CNS) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and immune activation lead to brain injury and neurological impairment. Although HIV enters the nervous system soon after transmission, the magnitude of infection and immunoactivation within the CNS during primary HIV infection (PHI) has not been characterized.
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Modification of the Abbott RealTime assay for detection of HIV-1 plasma RNA viral loads less than one copy per milliliter.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Although commercial tests are approved for detection of HIV-1 plasma viral loads ? 20 copies per milliliter (ml), only one specialized research assay has been reported to detect plasma viral loads as low as 1 copy/ml. This manuscript describes a method of concentrating HIV-1 virions from up to 30 ml of plasma, which can be combined with a commercial viral load test to create a widely available, reproducible assay for quantifying plasma HIV RNA levels less than 1 copy/ml. Using this pre-analytically modified assay, samples with a known level of 0.5 copy/ml were detected in 8 of 12 replicates (mean 0.47 copy/ml; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14-0.81 copy/ml) and samples with a known level of 1.0 copy/ml were detected in 13 of 13 replicates (mean 1.96 copy/ml; 95% CI 1.42-2.50 copy/ml). By concentrating virus from 30 ml of plasma, HIV RNA could be measured in 16 of 19 samples (84%) from 12 of 12 subjects (mean 2.77 copy/ml; 95% CI 0.86-4.68 copy/ml). The measured viral load correlated inversely (r = -0.78; p = 0.028) with the total duration of viral suppression (viral load<40 copies/ml).
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Differential persistence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance mutation classes.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance (TDR) mutations can become replaced over time by emerging wild-type viral variants with improved fitness. The impact of class-specific mutations on this rate of mutation replacement is uncertain.
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Early virologic failure and the development of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV-infected Ugandan children.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Without virologic testing, HIV-infected African children starting antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are at risk for undetected virologic failure and the development of ARV resistance. We sought to determine the prevalence of early virologic failure (EVF), to characterize the evolution of ARV-resistance mutations and to predict the impact on second-line therapy.
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Novel application of Locked Nucleic Acid chemistry for a Taqman assay for measuring diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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There remains a need for sensitive and cost-effective assays to monitor therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. However, the genetic diversity of HIV poses difficulties for traditional real-time PCR assays that require long oligonucleotides probes. LNA™ probes may be useful in overcoming these limits to traditional probe design. A new application of LNA™ chemistry in a Taqman assay applicable to a wide range of HIV-1 subtypes is described. This assay, based on a 13-mer LNA™ probe that matches the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos database, exhibited a wide dynamic range (10(1)-10(7) copies of HIV DNA), high sensitivity (limit of detection of 1 copy of HIV DNA in 10(5) cells), and broad applicability to a range of HIV-1 subtypes (including A, B, C, D, F, H, B/C, and A/E CRFs). Using the LNA™ probe assay, HIV-1 DNA was detected in all dried blood spots (DBS) from treatment naïve HIV-1 positive Ugandan children, and HIV DNA levels significantly correlated with viral RNA levels in plasma (r=0.765, p<0.0001). This approach to Taqman probe design should be explored further for use in diagnosis and monitoring of HIV in resource-limited settings, especially where several subtypes co-circulate.
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Transmitted drug resistance in persons with acute/early HIV-1 in San Francisco, 2002-2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
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Transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance (TDR) is an ongoing public health problem, representing 10-20% of new HIV infections in many geographic areas. TDR usually arises from two main sources: individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) who are failing to achieve virologic suppression, and individuals who acquired TDR and transmit it while still ART-naïve. TDR rates can be impacted when novel antiretroviral medications are introduced that allow for greater virologic suppression of source patients. Although several new HIV medications were introduced starting in late 2007, including raltegravir, maraviroc, and etravirine, it is not known whether the prevalence of TDR was subsequently affected in 2008-2009.
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Cerebrospinal fluid in HIV-1 systemic viral controllers: absence of HIV-1 RNA and intrathecal inflammation.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2010
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A subset of HIV-infected patients, termed elite viral controllers, maintain undetectable plasma HIV RNA levels in the absence of therapy. In this group, host-mediated viral control may be accompanied by chronic systemic inflammation. It is unknown whether either infection or chronic inflammation is present within the central nervous system of these individuals.
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Rapid progressing allele HLA-B35 Px restricted anti-HIV-1 CD8+ T cells recognize vestigial CTL epitopes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2010
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The HLA-B*35-Px allele has been associated with rapid disease progression in HIV-1 infection, in contrast to the HLA-B*35-Py allele.
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Assessment of population-based HIV RNA levels in a rural east African setting using a fingerprick-based blood collection method.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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Population-based human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA levels (viral load [VL]) are proposed metrics for antiretroviral therapy (ART) program effectiveness. We estimated population-based HIV RNA levels using a fingerprick-based approach in a rural Ugandan community implementing rapid ART scale-up.
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The cerebrospinal fluid proteome in HIV infection: change associated with disease severity.
Clin Proteomics
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Central nervous system (CNS) infection is a nearly universal feature of untreated systemic HIV infection with a clinical spectrum that ranges from chronic asymptomatic infection to severe cognitive and motor dysfunction. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has played an important part in defining the character of this evolving infection and response to treatment. To further characterize CNS HIV infection and its effects, we applied advanced high-throughput proteomic methods to CSF to identify novel proteins and their changes with disease progression and treatment.
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Changes in Population HIV RNA Levels in Mbarara, Uganda During Scale-Up of HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Access.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
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In a rural Ugandan community scaling up antiretroviral therapy (ART), we sought to determine if population based HIV RNA levels (population viral load) decreased from 2011-2012.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.