Typhoid fever is a serious, systemic infection resulting in nearly 22 million cases and 216,500 deaths annually, primarily in Asia. Safe water, adequate sanitation, appropriate personal and food hygiene, and vaccination are the most effective strategies for prevention and control. In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended use of available typhoid vaccines to control endemic disease and outbreaks and strengthening of typhoid surveillance to improve disease estimates and identify high-risk populations (e.g., persons without access to potable water and adequate sanitation). This report summarizes the status of typhoid surveillance and vaccination programs in the WHO South-East Asia (SEAR) and Western Pacific regions (WPR) during 2009-2013, after the revised WHO recommendations. Data were obtained from the WHO/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form on Immunization, a supplemental survey of surveillance and immunization program managers, and published literature. During 2009-2013, 23 (48%) of 48 countries and areas of SEAR (11) and WPR (37) collected surveillance or notifiable disease data on typhoid cases, with most surveillance activities established before 2008. Nine (19%) countries reported implementation of typhoid vaccination programs or recommended vaccine use during 2009-2013. Despite the high incidence, typhoid surveillance is weak in these two regions, and vaccination efforts have been limited. Further progress toward typhoid fever prevention and control in SEAR and WPR will require country commitment and international support for enhanced surveillance, targeted use of existing vaccines and availability of newer vaccines integrated within routine immunization programs, and integration of vaccination with safe water, sanitation, and hygiene measures.
We conducted a nationwide survey to assess measles containing vaccine (MCV) coverage among children aged 1-9 years in Haiti and identify factors associated with vaccination before and during the 2012 nationwide supplementary immunisation activities (SIA).
Typhoid fever affects an estimated 22 million people annually and causes 216,000 deaths worldwide. We conducted an investigation in August and September 2010 to examine the acceptability of typhoid vaccine in Neno District, Malawi where a typhoid outbreak was ongoing. We used qualitative methods, including freelisting exercises, key informant and in-depth interviews, and group discussions. Respondents associated illness with exposure to "bad wind," and transmission was believed to be airborne. Typhoid was considered extremely dangerous because of its rapid spread, the debilitating conditions it produced, the number of related fatalities, and the perception that it was highly contagious. Respondents were skeptical about the effectiveness of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) interventions. The perceived severity of typhoid and fear of exposure, uncertainty about the effectiveness of WaSH measures, and widespread belief in the efficacy of vaccines in preventing disease resulted in an overwhelming interest in receiving typhoid vaccine during an outbreak.
An increasing proportion of childhood immunization visits include administration of multiple injections. Future introduction of vaccines to protect against multiple diseases will further increase the number of injections at routine immunization childhood visits, particularly in developing countries that are still scaling up introductions. Parental and healthcare provider attitudes toward multiple injections may affect acceptance of recommended vaccines, and understanding these attitudes may help to inform critical decisions about vaccine introduction.
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children<5 years worldwide. Currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction.
After a category 4 cyclone that caused extensive population displacement and damage to water and sanitation infrastructure in Fiji in March 2010, a typhoid vaccination campaign was conducted as part of the post-disaster response. During June-December 2010, 64,015 doses of typhoid Vi polysaccharide vaccine were administered to persons ? 2 years of age, primarily in cyclone-affected areas that were typhoid endemic. Annual typhoid fever incidence decreased during the post-campaign year (2011) relative to preceding years (2008-2009) in three subdivisions where a large proportion of the population was vaccinated (incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals: 0.23, 0.13-0.41; 0.24, 0.14-0.41; 0.58, 0.40-0.86), and increased or remained unchanged in 12 subdivisions where little to no vaccination occurred. Vaccination played a role in reducing typhoid fever incidence in high-incidence areas after a disaster and should be considered in endemic settings, along with comprehensive control measures, as recommended by the World Health Organization.
In 2007, the World Health Organization published the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance (GFIMS) outlining measures to enhance national surveillance for vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). The GFIMS emphasized that VPD surveillance should be integrated and placed in a unified framework building upon the strengths of existing surveillance systems to prevent duplication of activities common to all surveillance systems and to minimize human resource and supply expenditures. Unfortunately, there was little experience in actually developing integrated VPD surveillance. We describe the process of developing operational guidance for ministries of health to implement such an integrated surveillance system for multiple VPDs.
In 2010, global immunization partners posed the question, "Do new vaccine introductions (NVIs) have positive or negative impacts on immunization and health systems of countries?" An Ad-hoc Working Group was formed for WHOs Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization (SAGE) to examine this question through five approaches: a published literature review, a grey literature review, in-depth interviews with regional and country immunization staff, in-depth studies of recent NVIs in 3 countries, and a statistical analysis of the impact of NVI on DTP3 coverage in 176 countries. The WHO Health System Framework of building blocks was used to organize the analysis of these data to assess potential areas of impact of NVI on health systems. In April 2012, the Ad-hoc Working Group presented its findings to SAGE. While reductions in disease burden and improvements in disease and adverse events surveillance, training, cold chain and logistics capacity and injection safety were commonly documented as beneficial impacts, opportunities for strengthening the broader health system were consistently missed during NVI. Weaknesses in planning for human and financial resource needs were highlighted as a concern. Where positive impacts on health systems following NVI occurred, these were often in areas where detailed technical guidance or tools and adequate financing were available. SAGE supported the Ad-hoc Working Groups conclusion that future NVI should explicitly plan to optimize and document the impact of NVI on broader health systems. Furthermore, opportunities for improving integration of delivery of immunization services, commodities, and messages with other parts of the health system should be actively sought with the recognition that integration is a bidirectional process. To avoid the gaps in planning for NVI that can compromise existing immunization and health systems, donors and partners should provide sufficient and timely support to facilitate country planning. Areas for future research were also identified. Finally, to support countries in using NVI as an opportunity to strengthen immunization and health systems, the WHO guidance for countries on new vaccine introduction is being updated to reflect ways this might be accomplished.
Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex emergencies. However, experience and guidelines for reactive use after an outbreak has started are limited. In 2010, after over a century without epidemic cholera, an outbreak was reported in Haiti after an earthquake. As intensive nonvaccine cholera control measures were initiated, the feasibility of OCV use was considered. We reviewed OCV characteristics and recommendations for their use and assessed global vaccine availability and capacity to implement a vaccination campaign. Real-time modeling was conducted to estimate vaccine impact. Ultimately, cholera vaccination was not implemented because of limited vaccine availability, complex logistical and operational challenges of a multidose regimen, and obstacles to conducting a campaign in a setting with population displacement and civil unrest. Use of OCVs is an option for cholera control; guidelines for their appropriate use in epidemic and emergency settings are urgently needed.
Waning immunity or secondary vaccine failure (SVF) has been anticipated by some as a challenge to global measles elimination efforts. Although such cases are infrequent, measles virus (MeV) infection can occur in vaccinated individuals following intense and/or prolonged exposure to an infected individual and may present as a modified illness that is unrecognizable as measles outside of the context of a measles outbreak. The immunoglobulin M response in previously vaccinated individuals may be nominal or fleeting, and viral replication may be limited. As global elimination proceeds, additional methods for confirming modified measles cases may be needed to understand whether SVF cases contribute to continued measles virus (MeV) transmission. In this report, we describe clinical symptoms and laboratory results for unvaccinated individuals with acute measles and individuals with SVF identified during MeV outbreaks. SVF cases were characterized by the serological parameters of high-avidity antibodies and distinctively high levels of neutralizing antibody. These parameters may represent useful biomarkers for classification of SVF cases that previously could not be confirmed as such using routine laboratory diagnostic techniques.
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are a leading cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and neurological impairment. Congenital transmission of CMV can occur with maternal primary infection, reactivation, or reinfection during pregnancy. We reviewed studies of CMV shedding in bodily fluids (defined as CMV detected by culture or CMV DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction). Following diagnosis at birth, children with congenital CMV infection exhibited the highest prevalences of CMV shedding (median?=?80%, number of sample population prevalences [N]?=?6) and duration of shedding, with a steep decline by age five. Healthy children attending day care shed more frequently (median?=?23%, N?=?24) than healthy children not attending day care (median?=?12%, N?=?11). Peak shedding prevalences in children occurred at 1-2?years of age, confirming that young children are the key transmission risk for pregnant women. CMV shedding among children was more prevalent in urine specimens than in oral secretions (median prevalence difference?=?11.5%, N?=?12). Adults with risk factors such as STD clinic attendance had higher shedding prevalences (median?=?22%, N?=?20) than adults without risk factors (median?=?7%, N?=?44). In adults with risk factors, CMV was shed more frequently in urine; in adults without risk factors genital shedding was most common. The prevalence of CMV shedding in nine sample populations of pregnant women increased with advancing gestation. In seven sample populations of children with congenital CMV infection, higher viral load at birth was consistently associated with an elevated risk of SNHL. Higher CMV viral load at birth also consistently correlated with the presence of symptoms of congenital CMV at birth. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Congenital CMV infection is caused by in utero mother-to-fetus transmission and is a leading cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities. The highest risk of disability is to children born to women who have a primary infection during pregnancy, which can be detected by measuring seroconversion. We reviewed studies that reported rates of CMV seroconversion in different populations. Among pregnant women, annual seroconversion rates typically ranged from 1 to 7% (summary annual rate = 2.3%, 95% CI = 2.1-2.4%). Healthcare workers, including those caring for infants and children, had seroconversion rates similar to pregnant women (summary annual rate = 2.3%, 95% CI = 1.9-2.9%). Among day-care providers, seroconversion rates ranged from 0 to 12.5% (summary annual rate = 8.5%, 95% CI = 6.1-11.6%). Parents whose child was not shedding CMV were much less likely to seroconvert (summary annual rate = 2.1%, 95% CI = 0.3-6.8%) than were parents who had a child shedding CMV (summary annual rate = 24%, 95% CI = 18-30%). Nevertheless, over the course of a year, most parents exposed to a CMV-shedding child do not become infected. Other groups with elevated risk included families with a CMV-shedding member, female minority adolescents and women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics. The relatively low rate of CMV seroconversion in most populations is encouraging for behavioural interventions and for vaccine strategies attempting to prevent infection during pregnancy.
Cytomegalovirus establishes a lifelong latent infection following primary infection that can periodically reactivate with shedding of infectious virus. Primary infection, reactivation and reinfection during pregnancy can all lead to in utero transmission to the developing fetus. Congenital CMV infections are a major cause of permanent hearing loss and neurological impairment. In this literature review, we found that CMV infection was relatively common among women of reproductive age, with seroprevalence ranging from 45 to 100%. CMV seroprevalence tended to be highest in South America, Africa and Asia and lowest in Western Europe and United States. Within the United States, CMV seroprevalence showed substantial geographic variation as well, differing by as much as 30 percentage points between states, though differences might be explained by variation in the types of populations sampled. Worldwide, seroprevalence among non-whites tended to be 20-30 percentage points higher than that of whites (summary prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.57-1.61). Females generally had higher seroprevalences than males, although in most studies the differences were small (summary PR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.11-1.14). Persons of lower socioeconomic status were more likely to be CMV seropositive (summary PR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.32-1.35). Despite high seroprevalences in some populations, a substantial percentage of women of reproductive age are CMV seronegative and thus at risk of primary CMV infection during pregnancy. Future vaccine or educational campaigns to prevent primary infection in pregnant women may need to be tailored to suit the needs of different populations.
To determine the birth prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in a population-based sample of newborns by use of dried blood spots compared with previous studies that used established detection methods, and to evaluate risk factors and birth outcomes for congenital CMV infection.
To highlight the complications involved in interpreting laboratory tests of measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) for confirmation of infection during a measles outbreak in a highly vaccinated population after conducting a mass immunization campaign as a control measure.
We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to examine the impact of new vaccine introduction on countries immunization and broader health systems. Six publication databases were searched using 104 vaccine and health system-related search terms. The search yielded 15,795 unique articles dating from December 31, 1911 to September 29, 2010. Based on review of the title and abstract, 654 (4%) of these articles were found to be potentially relevant and were referred for full review. After full review, 130 articles were found to be relevant and included in the analysis. These articles represented vaccines introduced to protect against 10 different diseases (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, human papilloma virus infection, influenza, Japanese encephalitis, meningococcal meningitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae disease, rotavirus diarrhea and typhoid), in various formulations and combinations. Most reviewed articles (97 [75%]) reported experiences in high-income countries. New vaccine introduction was most efficient when the vaccine was introduced into an existing delivery platform and when introduced in combination with a vaccine already in the routine childhood immunization schedule (i.e., as a combination vaccine). New vaccine introduction did not impact coverage of vaccines already included in the routine childhood immunization schedule. The need for increased cold chain capacity was frequently reported. New vaccines facilitated the introduction and widespread use of auto-disable syringes into the immunization and the broader health systems. The importance of training and education for health care workers and social mobilization was frequently noted. There was evidence in high-income countries that new vaccine introduction was associated with reduced health-care costs. Future evaluations of new vaccine introductions should include the systematic and objective assessment of the impacts on a countrys immunization system and broader health system, especially in lower-income countries.
Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Effective vaccine and non-vaccine interventions to prevent and control pneumonia are urgently needed to reduce the global burden of the disease. This paper explores practical strategies and policies for integrating interventions to prevent and treat pneumonia with routine immunization services, and it investigates the challenges involved in such integration. The primary pneumonia prevention and treatment strategies that are implemented during routine childhood immunization visits are vaccination of children against the disease, caretaker education and referral of children to medical services when necessary.
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