The physiology of insulin signaling under normal and disease conditions is well studied in classical insulin target tissues, but not in podocytes. To examine insulin stimulation of podocyte GLUT4 translocation, we established a protocol involving treatment with the PPAR? agonist fenofibrate to induce E11 podocyte differentiation within 48 hours rather than 7-10 days, which is required for differentiation under the reported protocol. This allowed us to transiently introduce GLUT4 reporter cDNA and RNAi and thereby to examine the regulatory pathway involved. Here we demonstrate that treatment with 200 ?M fenofibrate for 36 hours following transfection had a dramatic effect on podocyte morphology, induced several podocyte specific protein expression markers (G protein-coupled receptor 137B, chloride intracellular channel 5, and nephrin) and resulted in insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. In addition, Nucleobindin-2 was found to constitutively associate with Septin 7 (the repressor of GLUT4 translocation), and knockdown of Nucleobindin-2 was found to completely abrogate insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. Together, these data suggest that Nucleobindin-2 may repress Septin7-induced inhibition of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in podocytes.
Somatic mutations of the catalytic subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PRKACA) gene have recently been identified in about 35% of cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs), with the affected patients showing overt Cushing's syndrome. Since we recently reported higher prevalence of mutations of the KCNJ5 gene and associations with autonomous cortisol secretion in Japanese aldosterone-producing adenomas than in Western countries, there might be different features of CPAs between Japan and the West. We therefore investigated mutations of the PRKACA gene in Japanese patients with several adrenal tumors secreting cortisol, including overt Cushing's syndrome, subclinical Cushing's syndrome, and aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) co-secreting cortisol operated on at Gunma University Hospital. Of the 13 patients with CPA who showed overt Cushing's syndrome, 3 (23%) had recurrent somatic mutations of the PRKACA gene, p.L206R (c.617 T>G), and there were no mutations in subclinical Cushing's syndrome. Among 33 APAs, 24 had somatic mutations of the KCNJ5 gene, either G151R or L168R, 11 (33%) had autonomous cortisol secretion, but there were no mutations of the PRKACA gene. We established a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and revealed that the mutated allele was expressed at a similar level to the wild-type allele. These findings demonstrated that 1) the prevalence of Japanese patients with CPA who showed overt Cushing's syndrome and whose somatic mutations in the PRKACA gene was similar to that in Western countries, 2) the mutation might be specific for CPAs causing overt Cushing's syndrome, and 3) the mutant PRKACA allele was expressed appropriately in CPAs.
Obesity arises from impaired energy balance, which is centrally coordinated by leptin through activation of the long form of leptin receptor (Leprb). Obesity causes central leptin resistance. However, whether enhanced peripheral leptin sensitivity could overcome central leptin resistance remains obscure. A peripheral metabolic organ targeted by leptin is the liver, with low Leprb expression. We here show that mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and obese patients with hepatosteatosis exhibit increased expression of hepatic helicase with zinc finger 2, a transcriptional coactivator (Helz2), which functions as a transcriptional coregulator of several nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in vitro. To explore the physiological importance of Helz2, we generated Helz2-deficient mice and analyzed their metabolic phenotypes. Helz2-deficient mice showing hyperleptinemia associated with central leptin resistance were protected against HFD-induced obesity and had significantly up-regulated hepatic Leprb expression. Helz2 deficiency and adenovirus-mediated liver-specific exogenous Leprb overexpression in wild-type mice significantly stimulated hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase on HFD, whereas Helz2-deficient db/db mice lacking functional Leprb did not. Fatty acid-? oxidation was increased in Helz2-deficeint hepatocytes, and Helz2-deficient mice revealed increased oxygen consumption and decreased respiratory quotient in calorimetry analyses. The enhanced hepatic AMP-activated protein kinase energy-sensing pathway in Helz2-deficient mice ameliorated hyperlipidemia, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance by reducing lipogenic gene expression and stimulating lipid-burning gene expression in the liver. These findings together demonstrate that Helz2 deficiency ameliorates HFD-induced metabolic abnormalities by stimulating endogenous hepatic Leprb expression, despite central leptin resistance. Hepatic HELZ2 might be a novel target molecule for the treatment of obesity with hepatosteatosis.
Emerging evidence has indicated that the transcription and processing of precursor mRNA (pre-mRNA) are functionally coupled to modulate gene expression. In collaboration with coregulators, several steroid hormone receptors have previously been shown to directly affect alternative pre-mRNA splicing coupled to hormone-induced gene transcription; however, the roles of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and its coregulators in alternative splicing coordinated with transcription remain unknown. In the present study, we constructed a luciferase reporter and CD44 alternative splicing (AS) minigene driven by a minimal promoter carrying 2 copies of the palindromic thyroid hormone-response element. We then examined whether TR could modulate pre-mRNA processing coupled to triiodothyronine (T3)-induced gene transcription using luciferase reporter and splicing minigene assays in HeLa cells. In the presence of cotransfected TR?1, T3 increased luciferase activities along with the inclusion of the CD44 variable exons 4 and 5 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In contrast, cotransfected TR?1 did not affect the exon-inclusion of the CD44 minigene driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter. T3-induced two-exon inclusion was significantly increased by the cotransfection of the TR-associated protein, 150-kDa, a subunit of the TRAP/Mediator complex that has recently been shown to function as a splicing factor. In contrast, T3-induced two-exon inclusion was significantly decreased by cotransfection of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor, which was previously shown to function as a corepressor of TR. These results demonstrated that liganded TR in cooperation with its associating cofactors could modulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing coupled to gene transcription.
Thyroid storm (TS) is a life-threatening endocrine emergency. However, the pathogenesis of TS is poorly understood. A 40-year-old man was admitted to a nearby hospital with body weight loss and jaundice. Five days after a contrasted abdominal computerized tomography (CT) scan, he exhibited high fever and disturbance of consciousness. He was diagnosed with TS originating from untreated Graves' disease and was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) of our hospital. The patient exhibited impaired consciousness (E4V1M4 in Glasgow coma scale), high fever (39.3 °C), and atrial flutter with a pulse rate 162/min, and was complicated by heart failure, acute hepatic failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC). His circulating level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), a serum marker of an activated immune response, was highly elevated (7,416 U/mL, reference range: 135-483). Multiple organ failure (MOF) and DIC were successfully managed by multimodality treatments using inorganized iodide, glucocorticoids, anti-thyroid drugs, beta-blockers, and diuretics as well as an anticoagulant agent and the transfusion of platelet concentrate and fresh frozen plasma. sIL-2R levels gradually decreased during the initial treatment, but were still above the reference range even after thyroidectomy. Mild elevations in serum levels of sIL-2R have previously been correlated with thyroid hormone levels in non-storm Graves' disease. The present study demonstrated, for the first time, that circulating sIL-2R levels could be markedly elevated in TS. The marked increase in sIL-2R levels was speculated to represent an inappropriate generalized immune response that plays an unknown role in the pathogenesis of TS.
Previously we reported that the phosphorylation of Synip on serine 99 is required for Synip dissociation from Syntaxin4 and insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also reported that the dissociated Synip remains anchored to the plasma membrane by binding to Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate. Recently Synip was reported to arrest SNARE-dependent membrane fusion as a selective t-SNARE binding inhibitor. In this study, we have found that Synip is expressed in podocytes although at a somewhat lower level than in adipocytes. To determine whether phosphorylation of Synip on serine 99 is required for insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation and glucose uptake in podocytes we expressed a phosphorylation deficient Synip mutant (S99A-Synip) that inhibited insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation and 2-deoxyglucose uptake in adipocytes. We conclude that serine 99 phosphorylation of Synip is required for Glut4 translocation and glucose uptake in both adipocytes and podocytes, suggesting that defects in Synip phosphorylation may underlie insulin resistance and associated diabetic nephropathy.
Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) increase with age; however, their relationship remains unclear. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the relationship between SCH and indices of metabolic syndrome and follow up subjects for 1 year.
Cardiovascular complications, including cardiomegaly, myocardial ischemia and left ventricular hypertrophy, are some of the major determinants of the mortality rate in patients with Cushings syndrome. We herein report the case of a patient with Cushings syndrome caused by an adrenal adenoma who presented with congestive heart failure secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy. Follow-up echocardiography showed a marked improvement in the left ventricular cardiac function, and the plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels regressed after successful treatment. "Reversible" dilated cardiomyopathy is rarely associated with Cushings syndrome; however, it should be recognized. Administering appropriate treatment in a timely manner can reverse this cardiomyopathy along with the other symptoms of Cushings syndrome.
Using yeast two-hybrid screen, we previously isolated HELZ2 (helicase with zinc finger 2, transcriptional coactivator) that functions as a coregulator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor? (PPAR?). To further delineate its molecular function, we here identified thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein3 (THRAP3), a putative component of the Mediator complex, as a protein stably associating with HELZ2 using immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry analyses. In immunoprecipitation assays, Thrap3 could associate with endogenous Helz2 as well as Pparg in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. HELZ2 interacts with the serine/arginine-rich domain and Bcl2 associated transcription factor1-homologous region in THRAP3, whereas THRAP3 directly binds 2 helicase motifs in HELZ2. HELZ2 and THRAP3 synergistically augment transcriptional activation mediated by PPAR?, whereas knockdown of endogenous THRAP3 abolished the enhancement by HELZ2 in reporter assays. Thrap3, similar to Helz2, is evenly expressed in the process of adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Knockdown of Thrap3 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using short-interfering RNA did not influence the expression of Krox20, Klf5, Cebpb, or Cebpd during early stages of adipocyte differentiation, but significantly attenuated the expression of Pparg, Cebpa, and Fabp4/aP2 and accumulation of lipid droplets. Pharmacologic activation of Pparg by troglitazone could not fully restore the differentiation of Thrap3-knockdown adipocytes. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, endogenous Helz2 and Thrap3 could be co-recruited, in a ligand-dependent manner, to the PPAR?-response elements in Fabp4/aP2 and Adipoq gene enhancers in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. These findings collectively suggest that Thrap3 could play indispensable roles in terminal differentiation of adipocytes by enhancing PPAR?-mediated gene activation cooperatively with Helz2.
Selective Alzheimers disease (AD) indicator 1 (Seladin-1) has been identified as a gene down-regulated in the degenerated lesions of AD brain. Up-regulation of Seladin-1 reduces the accumulation of ?-amyloid and neuronal death. Thyroid hormone (TH) exerts an important effect on the development and maintenance of central nervous systems. In the current study, we demonstrated that Seladin-1 gene and protein expression in the forebrain was increased in thyrotoxic mice compared with that of euthyroid mice. However, unexpectedly, no significant decrease in the gene and protein expression was observed in hypothyroid mice. Interestingly, an agonist of liver X receptor (LXR), TO901317 (TO) administration in vivo increased Seladin-1 gene and protein expression in the mouse forebrain only in a hypothyroid state and in the presence of mutant TR-?, suggesting that LXR-? would compensate for TR-? function to maintain Seladin-1 gene expression in hypothyroidism and resistance to TH. TH activated the mouse Seladin-1 gene promoter (-1936/+21 bp) and site 2 including canonical TH response element (TRE) half-site in the region between -159 and -154 bp is responsible for the positive regulation. RXR-?/TR-? heterodimerization was identified on site 2 by gel-shift assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed the recruitment of TR-? to site 2 and the recruitment was increased upon TH administration. On the other hand, LXR-? utilizes a distinct region from site 2 (-120 to -102 bp) to activate the mouse Seladin-1 gene promoter. Taking these findings together, we concluded that TH up-regulates Seladin-1 gene expression at the transcriptional level and LXR-? maintains the gene expression.
Selective Alzheimers disease (AD) indicator-1 (Seladin-1) gene has been identified as a gene, whose expression is down-regulated in the vulnerable region in the brain of AD patients. Thyroid hormone (TH) is important to maintain the function of central nervous system and TH receptor (TR) is known to crosstalk with liver X receptor (LXR) on the lipid metabolism-related gene promoter. Recently, we have demonstrated that TR-? up-regulates the mouse Seladin-1 gene promoter at the transcriptional levels and LXR-? compensates the promoter activation only when the thyroid function is insufficient. In the current study, we have identified that TH and an LXR artificial agonist, TO901317 (TO) activated the human Seladin-1 promoter (-1024/+57 base pair (bp)) including consensus TH response element (TRE) half site (site A: -381 to -375 bp), and the site A mutation deteriorated the activation by TH and TO. Both TR-? and LXR-? heterodimerize with retinoid X receptor (RXR)-? on the site A, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that TR-?, LXR-? and RXR-? are recruited to the site A. Moreover, TR-? and LXR-? functionally compete for the promoter activation in CV1 cells. Taken together, we concluded that TR-? and LXR-? competitively up-regulate the human Seladin-1 promoter, sharing the same response element, site A.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by parathyroid, gastro-entero-pancreatic and anterior pituitary tumors. Although the tissue selectivity of tumors in specific endocrine organs is the very essence of MEN1, the mechanisms underlying the tissue-selectivity of tumors remain unknown. The product of the Men1 gene, menin, and mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) have been found to cooperatively regulate p27(Kip1)/CDKN1B (p27) and p18(Ink4C)/CDKN2C (p18) genes. However, there are no reports on the tissue distribution of these MEN1-related genes. We investigated the expression of these genes in the endocrine and non-endocrine organs of wild-type, Men1 knockout and MLL knockout mice. Men1 mRNA was expressed at a similar level in endocrine and non-endocrine organs. However, MLL, p27 and p18 mRNAs were predominantly expressed in the endocrine organs. Notably, p27 and MLL mRNAs were expressed in the pituitary gland at levels approximately 12- and 17-fold higher than those in the liver. The heterozygotes of Men1 knockout mice the levels of MLL, p27 and p18 mRNAs did not differ from those in the wild-type mice. In contrast, heterozygotes of MLL knockout mice showed significant reductions in p27 mRNA as well as protein levels in the pituitary and p27 and p18 in the pancreatic islets, but not in the liver. This study demonstrated for the first time the predominant expression MEN1-related genes, particularly MLL and p27, in the endocrine organs, and a tissue-specific haploinsuffiency of MLL, but not menin, may lead to a decrease in levels of p27 and p18 mRNAs in endocrine organs. These findings may provide basic information for understanding the mechanisms of tissue selectivity of the tumorigenesis in patients with MEN1.
We describe a rare case of congenital hypothyroidism and an extremely high serum thyrotropin (TSH) level caused by a combination of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) and a lingual thyroid. As the RTH mutant, R316C, was new, the optimum dose of levothyroxine was unclear. To aid in assessment of the therapy, we characterized the mutant R316C thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and compared it with a common mutant, R316H, using in vitro studies.
We recently identified a novel satiety peptide, nesfatin-1, containing 82 amino acids derived from the precursor peptide, nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), from a troglitazone (TZ)-induced cDNA library. We examined the molecular mechanism underlying TZ-induced NUCB2 mRNA expression. Although TZ induced the mRNA expression in HTB185 cells, a nuclear run-on assay revealed no significant change in the transcription of the gene. Surprisingly, HTB185 cells possessed no functional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. We therefore examined the effect of TZ on the mRNAs stability. The half-life of NUCB2 mRNA was approximately 6 h, and incubation with TZ increased this to 27 h. Furthermore, this increase was completely inhibited by an ERK inhibitor, PD98059, and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was significantly increased after 30 min incubation with TZ. In addition, we cloned the entire NUCB2 gene and identified four adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs) in the 3 untranslated region (UTR), to which several proteins of HTB185 extracts treated with TZ bound. The reporter assay fused with 3UTR showed that the second and third AREs were crucial. Furthermore, the human NUCB2 gene spanned 55 kb and contained 14 exons and 13 introns. The transcriptional start site formed clusters around 246 bp upstream from the translational start site. We confirmed that a construct containing 5889 bp of the promoter region was very active in neuron-derived cell lines but not stimulated by TZ. These findings demonstrated a novel action of derivatives of thiazolidinediones, oral insulin-sensitizing antidiabetic agents, to stabilize the mRNA of NUCB2 through AREs in the 3UTR by activating the ERK1/2 pathway independently of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma.
We have recently reported that an alternative splicing variant of liver X receptor (LXR)-beta acts as an RNA co-activator, which is referred to as LXRBSV. The in vivo role of LXRBSV is yet to be clarified. The LXRBSV gene is expressed in various tissues including the liver and brain. We evaluated the gene expression of LXRBSV in various regions of the brain using real-time quantitative PCR assays in the current study and found that LXRBSV is abundantly expressed in the pituitary. 5-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5-RACE) revealed that the transcriptional start site (TSS) of LXRBSV is located 40 base pairs (bp) downstream of LXR-beta. We prepared two promoter constructs: -1598/+35 bp and -1598/+75 bp in pGL4 for LXR-beta and LXRBSV, respectively. The latter promoter construct demonstrated significantly higher activity than the former construct in GH3 cells derived from the rat pituitary. On the contrary, the promoter activities of these two constructs were indistinguishable in Hepa1-6 cells derived from mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, the promoter region specific for LXRBSV itself exerted promoter activity in GH3 cells but not in Hepa1-6 cells. Taken together, we have concluded that LXRBSV is preferentially transcribed and expressed in the pituitary, indicating that LXRBSV plays a role in regulating pituitary gene expression. These data provide clues to elucidating the physiological relevance of LXRBSV.
We report the isolation and functional characterization of a novel transcriptional co-activator, termed LXRBSV. LXRBSV is an alternative splicing variant of liver X receptor (LXR)-beta LXRBSV has an intronic sequence between exons 2 and 3 in the mouse LXR-beta gene. The LXRBSV gene is expressed in various tissues including the liver and brain. We sub-cloned LXRBSV into pSG5, a mammalian expression vector, and LXRBSV in pSG5 augmented human Sterol Response Element Binding Protein (SREBP)-1c promoter activity in HepG2 cells in a ligand (TO901317) dependent manner. The transactivation mediated by LXRBSV is selective for LXR-beta. The LXRBSV protein was deduced to be 64 amino acids in length; however, a GAL4-LXRBSV fusion protein was not able to induce transactivation. Serial deletion constructs of LXRBSV demonstrated that the intronic sequence inserted in LXRBSV is required for its transactivation activity. An ATG mutant of LXRBSV was able to induce transactivation as wild type. Furthermore, LXRBSV functions in the presence of cycloheximide. Taken together, we have concluded that LXRBSV acts as an RNA transcript not as a protein. In the current study, we have demonstrated for the first time that an alternative splicing variant of a nuclear receptor acts as an RNA co-activator.
Leptin exerts its metabolic effects by binding to the leptin receptor (Ob-R). In humans, the promoter of the Ob-R gene-related protein (Ob-RGRP) gene and the B219/Ob-R promoter have been speculated to spatially and temporarily regulate Ob-R gene transcription; however, the promoter function of the Ob-R gene has not been directly analyzed. Using 5 rapid amplification of the cDNA end, we isolated novel ob-r transcripts starting from the 3 portions of the B219/ob-r 5-untranslated region in the adult mouse brain. The proximal promoter containing these start sites showed robust activity in neuron-derived, but not non-neuronal cell lines. The promoter activity was comparable with that of the ob-rgrp promoter in a neuronal cell, but significantly weaker in non-neuronal cells. Deletion analyses identifying two enhancer elements were located in this promoter. The identification of a novel ob-r gene promoter might provide a useful tool to study neuron specific expression and hormonal regulation of the ob-r gene.
19S regulatory particles (19SRP) of 26S proteasome participate in multiple steps of gene transcription in yeast. We previously showed that Tat-binding protein-1 (TBP-1), an ATPase of 19SRP, interacts with thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and enhances TR-mediated transcription synergistically with steroid receptor coactivator-1 (SRC-1). To further elucidate the roles of ATPases and a non-ATPase component of 19SRP in gene regulation by TR, we investigated whether knockdown (KO) of TBP-1, TRIP1 or Rpn10 using small interfering RNA affects TR-mediated transactivation in HeLa cells. KO of individual subunits attenuated TR-mediated transactivation through the thyroid hormone response element (TRE) in the absence or presence of cotransfected SRC-1 without altering TR and SRC-1 protein levels. KO of TBP-1 disrupted ligand-induced loading of TR, SRC-1, and RNA polymerase II in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Collectively, both ATPase and non-ATPase components of 19SRP play critical roles in TR-mediated transactivation by coordinating the proper loading of liganded TR to TRE.
The 26S proteasome, which degrades ubiquitinated proteins, appears to contribute to the cyclical loading of androgen receptor (AR) to androgen response elements of target gene promoters; however, the mechanism whereby the 26S proteasome modulates AR recruitment remains unknown. Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we previously identified Tat-binding protein-1 (TBP-1), an adenosine triphosphatase of 19S regulatory particles of the 26S proteasome, as a transcriptional coactivator of thyroid hormone receptor. Independently, TBP-1-interacting protein (TBPIP) was also identified as a coactivator of several nuclear receptors, including AR. Here, we investigated whether TBP-1 could interact with and modulate transcriptional activation by AR cooperatively with TBPIP. TBP-1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in human tissues, including the testis and prostate, as well as in LNCaP cells. TBP-1 directly bound TBPIP through the amino-terminal domain possessing the leucine zipper structure. AR is physically associated with TBP-1 and TBPIP in vitro and in LNCaP cells. TBP-1 similarly and additively augmented AR-mediated transcription upon coexpression with TBPIP, and the ATPase domain, as well as leucine zipper structure in TBP-1, was essential for transcriptional enhancement. Overexpression of TBP-1 did not alter AR protein and mRNA levels. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, TBP-1 was transiently recruited to the proximal androgen response element of the prostate-specific antigen gene promoter in a ligand-dependent manner in LNCaP cells. These findings suggest that a component of 19S regulatory particles directly binds AR and might participate in AR-mediated transcriptional activation in cooperation with TBPIP.
Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) is a histone methyltransferase that activates gene transcription and associates with menin. In multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (Men1), a mutation of menin caused decreased expression of the p27(Kip1) and p18(Ink4C) genes and deregulated cell growth. We hypothesized that the same pathway might be involved in sporadic pituitary adenomas.
Nesfatin-1 is a novel anorexic peptide that reduces the food intake of rodents when administered either intraventricularly or intraperitoneally. However, the molecular mechanism of intracellular signaling via Nesfatin-1 is yet to be resolved. In the current study, we investigated the ability of different neuronal cell lines to respond to Nesfatin-1 and further elucidated the signal transduction pathway of Nesfatin-1. To achieve this, we transfected several cell lines with various combinations of reporter vectors containing different kinds of response elements and performed reporter assays with Nesfatin-1, its active midsegment encoding 30 amino acid residues (M30) and M30-derived mutants. Notably, we found that both Nesfatin-1 as well as M30, significantly increased cAMP response element (CRE) reporter activity in a mouse neuroblastoma cell line, NB41A3. An antagonist of Melanocortin 3/4 receptor, SHU9119, aborted the promoter activity, and a mutant M30, which exerts no anorexic effect in vivo did not induce the CRE reporter activity in NB41A3 cells. Western blotting analyses revealed that Nesfatin-1 and M30 significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of CRE-binding protein (CREB), without altering the intracellular cAMP levels. Further, our study showed that a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitor and an L-type Calcium (Ca(2+)) channel blocker abolished the M30-induced CREB phosphorylation. Furthermore, the radio-receptor assay revealed that (125)I-Nesfatin-1 binds in a saturable fashion to the membrane fractions of the mouse hypothalamus and NB41A3 cells, with Kd values of 0.79 nM and 0.17 nM, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate the presence of a Nesfatin-1-specific receptor on the cell surface of NB41A3 cells and mouse hypothalamus. Our study highlights that Nesfatin-1, via its receptor, induces the phosphorylation of CREB, thus activating the intracellular signaling cascade in neurons.
The insulin responsive Glut4 transport vesicles contain the v-SNARE protein Vamp2 that associate with the plasma membrane t-SNARE protein Syntaxin 4 to drive insulin-stimulated Glut4 translocation in skeletal muscle and adipocytes. The syntaxin 4 interacting protein (Synip) binds to syntaxin 4 in the basal state and dissociates in the insulin-stimulated state allowing for the subsequent binding of Vamp2 containing Glut4 vesicles and fusion with the plasma membrane. In this study, we have found that Synip binds phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3), but not phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate (PIP) or phosphatidylinositol 3,4-biphosphate (PIP2) through the Synip WW domain as deletion of this domain (Synip ?WW) failed to bind PIP3. Over-expressed Synip ?WW in 3T3L1 adipocytes reduced the basal levels of Glut4 at the plasma membrane with no effect on the binding to syntaxin 4 in vitro. Subcellular fractionation demonstrated that the amount of Synip ?WW at the PM was decreased in response to insulin in 3T3L1 adipocytes whereas the amount of Synip WT increased. These data suggest that in the presence of insulin, the dissociated Synip remains anchored to the plasma membrane by binding to PIP3.
Adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA) are rarely associated with the clear co-secretion of cortisol. Somatic mutations of the potassium channel KCNJ5 gene, with the hotspots G151R and L168R, have been recently identified in patients with APA. However, whether APAs that secrete cortisol have these mutations remains unclear. We examined three patients with APAs showing clear autonomous secretion of cortisol who possessed a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) with a failure of the serum cortisol level to drop below 3.0 ?g/dL, a morning plasma ACTH level of less than 10 pg/mL, and suppressed accumulation in the intact adrenal on (131)I- adosterol scintigraphy, or postoperative adrenal insufficiency. Laparoscopic adrenectomy revealed all tumors to be golden yellow, and histological examination confirmed them to be adrenocortical adenomas. All these patients required replacement therapy with hydrocortisone after surgery. Sequencing demonstrated that 2 of three cases showed a mutation of the KCNJ5 gene, one with c.451G>A, p.G151R and one with c.503T>G, p.L168R. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes including CYP11B1, CYP11B2, HSD3B2, CYP17A1, CYP11A1 and KCNJ5 in the 3 cases did not differ from those in 8 pure APAs not showing any of the above conditions for autonomous cortisol secretion. In addition, all 8 pure APAs harbored mutations of the KCNJ5 gene. These findings suggested that at least some aldosterone- and cortisol-co-secreting adrenal tumors have mutations of the KCNJ5 gene, suggesting the origin to be APA, and pure APAs may show a high incidence of KCNJ5 mutations.
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a major stimulator of thyrotropin-stimulating hormone (TSH) synthesis in the anterior pituitary, though precisely how TRH stimulates the TSH? gene remains unclear. Analysis of TRH-deficient mice differing in thyroid hormone status demonstrated that TRH was critical for the basal activity and responsiveness to thyroid hormone of the TSH? gene. cDNA microarray and K-means cluster analyses with pituitaries from wild-type mice, TRH-deficient mice and TRH-deficient mice with thyroid hormone replacement revealed that the largest and most consistent decrease in expression in the absence of TRH and on supplementation with thyroid hormone was shown by the TSH? gene, and the NR4A1 gene belonged to the same cluster as and showed a similar expression profile to the TSH? gene. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that NR4A1 was expressed not only in ACTH- and FSH- producing cells but also in thyrotrophs and the expression was remarkably reduced in TRH-deficient pituitary. Furthermore, experiments in vitro demonstrated that incubation with TRH in GH4C1 cells increased the endogenous NR4A1 mRNA level by approximately 50-fold within one hour, and this stimulation was inhibited by inhibitors for PKC and ERK1/2. Western blot analysis confirmed that TRH increased NR4A1 expression within 2 h. A series of deletions of the promoter demonstrated that the region between bp -138 and +37 of the TSH? gene was responsible for the TRH-induced stimulation, and Chip analysis revealed that NR4A1 was recruited to this region. Conversely, knockdown of NR4A1 by siRNA led to a significant reduction in TRH-induced TSH? promoter activity. Furthermore, TRH stimulated NR4A1 promoter activity through the TRH receptor. These findings demonstrated that 1) TRH is a highly specific regulator of the TSH? gene, and 2) TRH mediated induction of the TSH? gene, at least in part by sequential stimulation of the NR4A1-TSH? genes through a PKC and ERK1/2 pathway.
Thyroid storm (TS) is life threatening. Its incidence is poorly defined, few series are available, and population-based diagnostic criteria have not been established. We surveyed TS in Japan, defined its characteristics, and formulated diagnostic criteria, FINAL-CRITERIA1 and FINAL-CRITERIA2, for two grades of TS, TS1, and TS2 respectively.
Background: Thyrotoxic storm is a life-threatening condition requiring emergency treatment. The condition arises in thyrotoxic patients who manifest decompensation in multiple organs, often triggered by severe stress. Neither its epidemiological data nor diagnostic criteria have been fully established. We attempted to clarify the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of thyroid storm, initially using nationwide surveys and then formulate diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm. Methods and Subjects: To perform the nationwide survey on thyroid storm, we first developed tentative diagnostic criteria for thyroid storm, mainly based upon the literature (the first edition). The tentative diagnostic criteria, which included the requirement that thyrotoxicosis be present, defined definite and suspected cases based on the prerequisite item (the presence of thyrotoxicosis) and combinations of typical clinical features. We then conducted the initial and second nationwide surveys using these criteria, targeting all hospitals in Japan with eight-layered random extraction. Using the results of the second survey, we analyzed the relationship of the major features of thyroid storm to mortality and to certain other features. Finally, based upon the findings of these surveys, we revised the diagnostic criteria. Results: According to the initial nationwide survey, the number of definite and suspected thyroid storm cases was estimated to be 1,283 ± 105 (95% confidence interval: 1,077 - 1,489) per five years (0.20 persons/100,000 Japanese population/year). Thyroid storm occurred in 0.22% of thyrotoxic patients. The second nationwide survey obtained detailed clinico-epidemiologic features of 282 definite and 74 suspected cases. The mortality rates of definite and suspected cases were 11.0% and 9.5%, respectively. Finally, based on the results of these surveys, we propose a revision of the diagnostic criteria (the second edition). Conclusions: Thyrotoxic storm is still a life-threatening disorder with over 10% mortality in Japan. We newly formulated diagnostic criteria for this disorder.
Nucleobindin-2 is a 420 amino acid EF-hand Ca²? binding protein that can be further processed to generate an 82 amino terminal peptide termed Nesfatin-1. To examine the function of secreted Nucleobindin-2 in adipocyte differentiation, cultured 3T3-L1 cells were incubated with either 0 or 100 nM of GST, GST-Nucleobindin-2, prior to and during the initiation of adipocyte differentiation. Nucleobindin-2 treatment decreased neutral lipid accumulation (Oil-Red O staining) and expression of several marker genes for adipocyte differentiation (PPAR?, aP2, and adipsin). When Nucleobindin- 2 was constitutively secreted into cultured medium, cAMP content and insulin stimulated CREB phosphorylation were significantly reduced. On the other hand, intracellularly overexpressed Nucleobindin-2 failed to affect cAMP content and CREB phosphorylation. Taken together, these data indicate that secreted Nucleobindin-2 is a suppressor of adipocyte differentiation through inhibition of cAMP production and insulin signal.
Mutations of the KCNJ5 gene have recently been identified in patients with aldosterone-producing adenomas (APA).
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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.