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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of the International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic risk groups on the outcome of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings: a retrospective analysis of t
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Acquired chromosomal abnormalities are important prognostic factors in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with supportive care and with disease-modifying therapeutic interventions, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To assess the prognostic impact of cytogenetic characteristics after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation accurately, we investigated a homogeneous group of 523 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes who have received stem cells from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings. Overall survival at five years from transplantation in good, intermediate, and poor cytogenetic risk groups according to the International Prognostic Scoring System was 48%, 45% and 30%, respectively (P<0.01). Both the disease status (complete remission vs. not in complete remission) and the morphological classification at transplant in the untreated patients were significantly associated with probability of overall survival and relapse-free survival (P<0.01). The cytogenetic risk groups have no prognostic impact in untreated patients with refractory anemia ± ringed sideroblasts (P=0.90). However, combining the good and intermediate cytogenetic risk groups and comparing them to the poor-risk group showed within the other three disease-status-at-transplant groups a hazard ratio of 1.86 (95%CI: 1.41-2.45). In conclusion, this study shows that, in a large series of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes, poor-risk cytogenetics as defined by the standard International Prognostic Scoring System is associated with a relatively poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings except in patients who are transplanted in refractory anemia/refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts stage before progression to higher myelodysplastic syndrome stages.
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Early administration of donor lymphocyte infusions upon molecular relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia: a study by the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia relapsing after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors and/or by donor lymphocyte infusions. The best strategies and timing of administration of lymphocytes are unclear. We analyzed 155 patients who relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with disease detectable only by molecular methods and who subsequently received lymphocytes. Transplants were performed in first chronic phase (n=125) or in advanced disease (n=29) from identical siblings (n=84) or unrelated donors (n=71) between 1986 and 2003. They received lymphocytes either during molecular relapse (n=85) or upon progression to more advanced disease (1993 to 2004). The median interval from relapse to lymphocyte infusion was 210 (0-1673) days. The median follow up after it was 46 (3-135) months. Overall survival was 76±4% at five years after lymphocyte infusions (89±8% with sibling donors and 63±13% with unrelated donors (P=0.003)). Survival was 69±14% when lymphocytes were given within six months of the detection of molecular relapse and 81±10% (P=0.061) when given later; 81±11% if given at molecular relapse versus 71±12% (P=0.26) with more advanced disease. In multivariate analysis survival was worse if the donor was unrelated (HR 2.54 (95% CI: 1.15-5.53), P=0.021) and better with lymphocyte infusions beyond six months from molecular relapse (HR 0.4 (95%CI: 0.19-0.84), P=0.018). These data confirm the remarkable efficacy of lymphocyte infusions for this disease. There appears to be no advantage from administering it early upon detection of molecular relapse in patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia.
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Characterization of acute myeloid leukemia based on levels of global hydroxymethylation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) frequently harbor mutations in genes involved in the DNA (hydroxy)methylation pathway (DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1, and IDH2). In this study, we measured 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) levels in 206 clinically and molecularly well-characterized younger adult AML patients (?60 years) included in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell'Adulto (EORTC/GIMEMA) AML-12 06991 clinical trial and correlated the 5hmC levels with mutational status and overall survival (OS). In healthy control cells, 5hmC levels were confined to a narrow range (1.5-fold difference), whereas in AML cells, a much wider range was detected (15-fold difference). We identified 3 5hmC subpopulations in our patient cohort (low, intermediate, and high). The low 5hmC group consisted almost entirely of patients with TET2 or IDH mutations. As expected, TET2 and IDH mutated patients had significantly lower levels of 5hmC compared with patients without mutated TET2 and IDH1/2 (both P < .001). Interestingly, high 5hmC levels correlated with inferior OS (high vs intermediate 5hmC: P = .047, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.81). Multivariate analysis revealed that high 5hmC is an independent poor prognostic indicator for OS (high vs intermediate 5hmC: P = .01, HR = 2.10). This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00004128.
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Outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients transformed to myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia from severe aplastic anemia: a report from the MDS Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party and the Severe Aplastic Anemia Working Party of the
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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One hundred and forty patients who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) transformation after treatment of severe aplastic anemia (SAA) were identified in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) database. The median age at HSCT was 29 years (range, 1 to 66 years). The transplant donor was related in 49% cases and unrelated in 51% cases. The 5-year probability of relapse was 17%, and that of nonrelapse mortality was 41%. The 5-year overall survival was 45% ± 9%, better for patients untreated and patients in remission compared with patients with refractory disease. Our data indicate that allogeneic HSCT leads to prolonged survival in close to one-half of the patients transforming to MDS or AML from SAA.
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Clinical and biological impact of TET2 mutations and expression in younger adult AML patients treated within the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-12 clinical trial.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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We assessed the prognostic impact of TET2 mutations and mRNA expression in a prospective cohort of 357 adult AML patients < 60 years of age enrolled in the European Organization For Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/Gruppo Italiano Malattie Ematologiche dell' Adulto (GIMEMA) AML-12 06991 clinical trial. In addition the co-occurrence with other genetic defects and the functional consequences of TET2 mutations were investigated. TET2 mutations occurred in 7.6 % of the patients and were an independent marker of poor prognosis (p = 0.024). TET2 and IDH1/2 mutations strongly associated with aberrations in the DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A. Functional studies confirmed previous work that neither nonsense truncations, nor missense TET2 mutations, induced 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation. In addition, we now show that mutant TET2 forms did not act in a dominant negative manner when co-expressed with the wild-type protein. Finally, as loss-of-function TET2 mutations predicted poor outcome, we questioned whether low TET2 mRNA expression in cases of AML without TET2 mutations would affect overall survival. Notably, also AML patients with low TET2 mRNA expression levels showed inferior overall survival.
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Specific scoring systems to predict survival of patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after intensive antileukemic treatment based on results of the EORTC-GIMEMA AML-10 and intergroup CRIANT studies.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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High-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients have usually a less favorable outcome after intensive treatment compared with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. This may reflect different disease-related and patient-related factors. The purpose of this analysis is to identify disease-specific prognostic factors and to develop prognostic scores for both patient groups. A total of 692 patients in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-10 study and 289 patients in the CRIANT study received identical remission-induction and consolidation treatment. Estimated 5-year survival rate was 34 % in the AML-10 versus 27 % in the CRIANT study, and estimated disease-free survival was 40 % versus 28 %, respectively. In multivariate analysis, cytogenetic characteristics, white blood count, and age appeared prognostic for survival in both studies. French-American-British (FAB) subtype and performance status were prognostic in the AML-10 study only, whereas number of cytopenias and duration of antecedent hematologic disorder >6 months were prognostic in the CRIANT study only. The prognostic scores distinguish three groups with a 5-year survival rate of 54, 38, and 19 % in the AML-10 study versus 69, 37, and 5 % in the CRIANT study. The prognostic value of these scores has been validated on two external series. The new scoring systems form a practical tool to predict the outcome of individual MDS and AML patients treated with intensive antileukemic therapy.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia transformed to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the MPN Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Group
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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The clinical course of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia is potentially associated with long-term severe complications, such as evolution to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is currently the only potentially curative treatment for advanced polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia. We analyzed 250 consecutive patients with an initial diagnosis of polycythemia vera (n=120) or essential thrombocythemia (n=130), who underwent transplantation due to progression to myelofibrosis (n=193) or acute myeloid leukemia (n=57) and who were reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry between 1994 and 2010. Their median age was 56 years (range, 22-75) and in 52% of cases the interval between diagnosis and transplantation was 10 years or more. With a median follow-up from transplantation of 13 months, the 3-year overall survival rate and relapse incidence were 55% and 32%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the main parameters that negatively affected post-transplantation outcomes were older age (>55 years), a diagnosis at transplant of acute myeloid leukemia and the use of an unrelated donor. The overall 3-year cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 28%, but was significantly higher in older patients than in younger ones (>55 years, 35% versus 20%, P=0.032), in those transplanted from an unrelated donor rather than a related donor (34% versus 18%, P=0.034) and in patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia compared to myelofibrosis (29% versus 27%, P=0.045). This large retrospective study confirms that transplantation is potentially curative for patients with end-stage polycythemia vera/essential thrombocythemia progressing to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Relapse and non-relapse mortality remain unsolved problems for which innovative treatment approaches need to be assessed.
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Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Myelofibrosis with Leukemic Transformation: A Study from the Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Subcommittee of the CMWP of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Transformed acute myeloid leukemia in myelofibrosis results in a median survival of less than 5 months. We identified 46 of 1048 myelofibrosis patients in the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia evolving from myelofibrosis. The cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality at 1 year was 28% (95% confidence interval, 14 to 42) and of relapse at 3 years was 47% (95% confidence interval, 31 to 63). The 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 26% and 33%, respectively. The only significant factor for survival was complete remission versus no complete remission before transplantation (69% versus 22%, P = .008); however, complete remission was achieved only in 8 patients. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation can cure myelofibrosis patients transformed to leukemia.
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Diagnosis and treatment of primary myelodysplastic syndromes in adults: recommendations from the European LeukemiaNet.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Within the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) work package of the European LeukemiaNet, an Expert Panel was selected according to the framework elements of the National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Program. A systematic review of the literature was performed that included indexed original papers, indexed reviews and educational papers, and abstracts of conference proceedings. Guidelines were developed on the basis of a list of patient- and therapy-oriented questions, and recommendations were formulated and ranked according to the supporting level of evidence. MDSs should be classified according to the 2008 World Health Organization criteria. An accurate risk assessment requires the evaluation of not only disease-related factors but also of those related to extrahematologic comorbidity. The assessment of individual risk enables the identification of fit patients with a poor prognosis who are candidates for up-front intensive treatments, primarily allogeneic stem cell transplantation. A high proportion of MDS patients are not eligible for potentially curative treatment because of advanced age and/or clinically relevant comorbidities and poor performance status. In these patients, the therapeutic intervention is aimed at preventing cytopenia-related morbidity and preserving quality of life. A number of new agents are being developed for which the available evidence is not sufficient to recommend routine use. The inclusion of patients into prospective clinical trials is strongly recommended.
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Induction of myelodysplasia by myeloid-derived suppressor cells.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are age-dependent stem cell malignancies that share biological features of activated adaptive immune response and ineffective hematopoiesis. Here we report that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which are classically linked to immunosuppression, inflammation, and cancer, were markedly expanded in the bone marrow of MDS patients and played a pathogenetic role in the development of ineffective hematopoiesis. These clonally distinct MDSC overproduce hematopoietic suppressive cytokines and function as potent apoptotic effectors targeting autologous hematopoietic progenitors. Using multiple transfected cell models, we found that MDSC expansion is driven by the interaction of the proinflammatory molecule S100A9 with CD33. These 2 proteins formed a functional ligand/receptor pair that recruited components to CD33s immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM), inducing secretion of the suppressive cytokines IL-10 and TGF-? by immature myeloid cells. S100A9 transgenic mice displayed bone marrow accumulation of MDSC accompanied by development of progressive multilineage cytopenias and cytological dysplasia. Importantly, early forced maturation of MDSC by either all-trans-retinoic acid treatment or active immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing (ITAM-bearing) adapter protein (DAP12) interruption of CD33 signaling rescued the hematologic phenotype. These findings indicate that primary bone marrow expansion of MDSC driven by the S100A9/CD33 pathway perturbs hematopoiesis and contributes to the development of MDS.
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Autologous/reduced-intensity allogeneic stem cell transplantation vs autologous transplantation in multiple myeloma: long-term results of the EBMT-NMAM2000 study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Long-term follow-up of prospective studies comparing allogeneic transplantation to autologous transplantation in multiple myeloma is few and controversial. This is an update at a median follow-up of 96 months of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in Multiple Myeloma (NMAM)2000 study that prospectively compares tandem autologous/reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation (auto/RICallo) to autologous transplantation alone (auto). There are 357 myeloma patients up to age 69 years enrolled. Patients with an HLA-identical sibling were allocated to auto/RICallo (n = 108) and those without to auto alone (n = 249). At 96 months progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 22% and 49% vs 12% (P = .027) and 36% (P = .030) with auto/RICallo and auto respectively. The corresponding relapse/progression rate (RL) was 60% vs 82% (P = .0002). Non-relapse mortality at 36 months was 13% vs 3% (P = .0004). In patients with the del(13) abnormality corresponding PFS and OS were 21% and 47% vs 5% (P = .026), and 31% (P = .154). Long-term outcome in patients with multiple myeloma was better with auto/RICallo as compared with auto only and the auto/RICallo approach seemed to overcome the poor prognostic impact of del(13) observed after autologous transplantation. Follow up longer than 5 years is necessary for correct interpretation of the value of auto/RICallo in multiple myeloma.
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Immunogenicity of dendritic cells pulsed with MAGE3, Survivin and B-cell maturation antigen mRNA for vaccination of multiple myeloma patients.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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The introduction of autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) and novel drugs has improved overall survival in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, minimal residual disease (MRD) remains and most patients eventually relapse. Myeloma plasma cells express tumor-associated antigens (TAA), which are interesting targets for immunotherapy. In this phase 1 study, we investigated the safety and immunological effects of TAA-mRNA-loaded dendritic cell (DC) vaccination for treatment for MRD in MM after SCT. Mature monocyte-derived DCs were pulsed with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and electroporated with MAGE3, Survivin or B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) mRNA. Twelve patients were vaccinated three times with intravenous (5-22 × 10(6) DCs) and intradermal vaccines (4-11 × 10(6) DCs), at biweekly intervals. Immunological responses were monitored in blood and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) biopsies. All patients developed strong anti-KLH T-cell responses, but not KLH antibodies. In 2 patients, vaccine-specific T cells were detected in DTH biopsies. In one patient, we found MAGE3-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and CD3(+) T cells reactive against BCMA and Survivin. In the other patient, we detected low numbers of MAGE3 and BCMA-reactive CD8(+) T cells. Vaccination was well tolerated with limited toxicity. These findings illustrate that TAA-mRNA-electroporated mature DCs are capable of inducing TAA-T-cell responses in MM patients after SCT.
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Comparison of allogeneic stem cell transplantation and non-transplant approaches in elderly patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome: optimal statistical approaches and a critical appraisal of clinical results using non-randomized data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) from related or unrelated donors may cure patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a heterogeneous group of clonal stem cell disorders. We analysed 384 elderly patients (55-69 years) with advanced MDS who received either ASCT (n=247) and were reported to The European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) or a non -transplant approach (n=137) reported to the Düsseldorf registry. Besides an attempt to answer the question of "comparison", the purpose of this work is to explain the difficulties in comparing a non-transplant with a transplant cohort, when death before transplant is likely but unknown and the selection of patients for transplant is based on assumptions. It shows which methods are almost always biased and that even the most sophisticated approaches crucially rely on clinical assumptions. Using the most appropriate model for our data, we derive an overall univariate non-significant survival disadvantage for the transplant cohort (HR: 1.29, p = 0.11). We show that such an "average" hazard ratio is however misleading due to non-proportionality of the hazards reflecting early treatment related mortality, the occurring of which is logically correlated with the interval between diagnosis and transplant creating a disproportional drop in the (reconstructed) survival curve of the transplanted patients. Also in multivariate analysis (correcting for age > 60 (HR: 1.4, p = 0.02) and abnormal cytogenetics (HR: 1.46, p = 0.01)), transplantation seems to be worse (HR: 1.39, p = 0.05) but only in the (incorrect but commonly applied) model without time varying covariates. The long term (time depending) hazard ratio is shown to be virtually 1 and overall survival is virtually identical in both groups. Nonetheless no conclusion can be reached from a clinical point of view without assumptions which are by their very nature untestable unless all patients would be followed from diagnosis.
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Value of infliximab (Remicade®) in patients with low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome: final results of a randomized phase II trial (EORTC trial 06023) of the EORTC Leukemia Group.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2011
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Tumor-necrosis factor alpha activity has been correlated to ineffective erythropoiesis in lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Infliximab (Remicade(®)) is an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha chimeric antibody that is used in the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis or Crohns disease. Forty-six patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and a relatively low risk of developing acute leukemia were included in a randomized phase II study assessing the therapeutic activity of two dosages of infliximab administration (3 mg/kg vs. 5 mg/kg). The primary end point was the response rate. Responses were observed in 3 of 22 patients (13.1%) randomized to the 3 mg/kg arm, versus 0 of 21 patients randomized in the 5 mg/kg arm. According to the statistical design of the current study, neither of the two infliximab dose schedules tested showed sufficient activity as a single agent in this cohort of unselected patients with early myelodysplastic syndrome.
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Tandem autologous/reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem-cell transplantation versus autologous transplantation in myeloma: long-term follow-up.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Results of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo) in myeloma are controversial. In this trial autologous stem-cell transplantation (auto) followed by reduced-intensity conditioning matched sibling donor allo (auto-allo) was compared with auto only in previously untreated multiple myeloma.
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PD-1/PD-L1 interactions contribute to functional T-cell impairment in patients who relapse with cancer after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Tumor relapses remain a serious problem after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), despite the long-term persistence of minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA)-specific memory CD8(+) T cells specific for the tumor. We hypothesized that these memory T cells may lose their function over time in transplanted patients. Here, we offer functional and mechanistic support for this hypothesis, based on immune inhibition by programmed death-1 (PD-1) expressed on MiHA-specific CD8(+) T cells and the associated role of the PD-1 ligand PD-L1 on myeloid leukemia cells, especially under inflammatory conditions. PD-L1 was highly upregulated on immature human leukemic progenitor cells, whereas costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 were not expressed. Thus, immature leukemic progenitor cells seemed to evade the immune system by inhibiting T-cell function via the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. Blocking PD-1 signaling using human antibodies led to elevated proliferation and IFN-? production of MiHA-specific T cells cocultured with PD-L1-expressing leukemia cells. Moreover, patients with relapsed leukemia after initial MiHA-specific T-cell responses displayed high PD-L1 expression on CD34(+) leukemia cells and increased PD-1 levels on MiHA-specific CD8(+) T cells. Importantly, blocking PD-1/PD-L1 interactions augment proliferation of MiHA-specific CD8(+) memory T cells from relapsed patients. Taken together, our findings indicate that the PD-1/PD-L pathway can be hijacked as an immune escape mechanism in hematological malignancies. Furthermore, they suggest that blocking the PD-1 immune checkpoint offers an appealing immunotherapeutic strategy following alloSCT in patients with recurrent or relapsed disease.
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Clinical-grade generation of active NK cells from cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells for immunotherapy using a closed-system culture process.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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Natural killer (NK) cell-based adoptive immunotherapy is a promising treatment approach for many cancers. However, development of protocols that provide large numbers of functional NK cells produced under GMP conditions are required to facilitate clinical studies. In this study, we translated our cytokine-based culture protocol for ex vivo expansion of NK cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB) hematopoietic stem cells into a fully closed, large-scale, cell culture bioprocess. We optimized enrichment of CD34(+) cells from cryopreserved UCB units using the CliniMACS system followed by efficient expansion for 14 days in gas-permeable cell culture bags. Thereafter, expanded CD34(+) UCB cells could be reproducibly amplified and differentiated into CD56(+)CD3(-) NK cell products using bioreactors with a mean expansion of more than 2,000 fold and a purity of >90%. Moreover, expansion in the bioreactor yielded a clinically relevant dose of NK cells (mean: 2×10(9) NK cells), which display high expression of activating NK receptors and cytolytic activity against K562. Finally, we established a versatile closed washing procedure resulting in optimal reduction of medium, serum and cytokines used in the cell culture process without changes in phenotype and cytotoxic activity. These results demonstrate that large numbers of UCB stem cell-derived NK cell products for adoptive immunotherapy can be produced in closed, large-scale bioreactors for the use in clinical trials.
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Introduction of a quality management system and outcome after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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A comprehensive quality management system called JACIE (Joint Accreditation Committee International Society for Cellular Therapy and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation), was introduced to improve quality of care in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We therefore tested the hypothesis that the introduction of JACIE improved patient survival.
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A polymorphism in the splice donor site of ZNF419 results in the novel renal cell carcinoma-associated minor histocompatibility antigen ZAPHIR.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Nonmyeloablative allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) can induce remission in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but this graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect is often accompanied by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here, we evaluated minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA)-specific T cell responses in two patients with metastatic RCC who were treated with reduced-intensity conditioning SCT followed by donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). One patient had stable disease and emergence of SMCY.A2-specific CD8+ T cells was observed after DLI with the potential of targeting SMCY-expressing RCC tumor cells. The second patient experienced partial regression of lung metastases from whom we isolated a MiHA-specific CTL clone with the capability of targeting RCC cell lines. Whole genome association scanning revealed that this CTL recognizes a novel HLA-B7-restricted MiHA, designated ZAPHIR, resulting from a polymorphism in the splice donor site of the ZNF419 gene. Tetramer analysis showed that emergence of ZAPHIR-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood occurred in the absence of GVHD. Furthermore, the expression of ZAPHIR in solid tumor cell lines indicates the involvement of ZAPHIR-specific CD8+ T cell responses in selective GVT immunity. These findings illustrate that the ZNF419-encoded MiHA ZAPHIR is an attractive target for specific immunotherapy after allogeneic SCT.
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T cells expressing the activating NK-cell receptors KIR2DS4, NKG2C and NKG2D are elevated in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and cytotoxic toward hematopoietic progenitor cell lines.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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To investigate the presence of T cells with natural killer cell receptors (NKR) in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and their potential involvement in clonal expansion of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-deficient hematopoietic stem cells by selective immune attack to normal and not GPI-deficient hematopoietic stem cells.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes: critical for cure?
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the treatment of choice for young patients (age ? 55 years) with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) characterized by poor-risk or intermediate-risk cytogenetics, who have a histocompatible related or unrelated donor. For patients who lack an human leukocyte antigen-compatible donor, autologous SCT, or chemotherapy may be good alternatives for those with MDS and with good-risk cytogenetic characteristics. Iron toxicity is an underestimated cause of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) treatment-related mortality. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, and monitoring of iron-induced organ damage are currently topics of investigation. Prospective studies on the prevention or treatment of iron toxicity before HSCT and/or after HSCT are necessary.
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Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of European intergroup randomized trial comparing autografting versus observation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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We present results of a phase 3 randomized trial of autografting in chronic lymphocytic leukemia versus observation for responding patients after first- or second-line treatment. The primary objective was to demonstrate that autografting improves the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) from 30% to 50%. There were 223 enrolled patients, 72% men and 28% women, 83% after first and 17% after second-line treatment. Binet stages were progressive A 13%, B 67%, C 20%; at randomization, 59% were in complete remission, and 41% in less than complete remission. Patients were randomized between autografting (n = 112) and observation (n = 111). Median EFS was 24.4 months (range, 16.7-32 months) in the observation group and 51.2 months (39.8-62.5 months) in the autografting group; the 5-year EFS was 24% and 42%, respectively (P < .001). Accordingly, the 5-year relapse incidence was 76% versus 54% (P < .001). Median time to relapse requiring therapy or death was 40 months (25-56 months) in the observation arm and 65 months (59-71 months) after autografting (P = .002). Cox modeling confirmed that autografting significantly improved EFS (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.65; P < .001). At 5 years, the probability of OS was 85.5% and 84.3% for autografting and observation, respectively (P = .77). In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, consolidating autografting reduces the risk of progression by more than 50% but has no effect on overall survival.
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The European LeukemiaNet: achievements and perspectives.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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The only way to cure leukemia is by cooperative research. To optimize research, the European LeukemiaNet integrates 105 national leukemia trial groups and networks, 105 interdisciplinary partner groups and about 1,000 leukemia specialists from 175 institutions. They care for tens of thousands of leukemia patients in 33 countries across Europe. Their ultimate goal is to cure leukemia. Since its inception in 2002, the European LeukemiaNet has steadily expanded and has unified leukemia research across Europe. The European LeukemiaNet grew from two major roots: 1) the German Competence Network on Acute and Chronic Leukemias; and 2) the collaboration of European Investigators on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. The European LeukemiaNet has improved leukemia research and management across Europe. Its concept has led to funding by the European Commission as a network of excellence. Other sources (European Science Foundation; European LeukemiaNet-Foundation) will take over when the support of the European Commission ends.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for myelodysplastic syndromes with bone marrow fibrosis.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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Bone marrow fibrosis in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome is associated with a poor outcome, but whether the outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation is related to the degree of bone marrow fibrosis is unknown.
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Efficacy and outcome of autologous transplantation in rare myelomas.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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As rare myelomas, i.e. the IgD, IgE, IgM and non-secretory forms, constitute only a small proportion of any study, relatively little is known about their prognosis in the era of peripheral stem cell transplantation.
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siRNA silencing of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on dendritic cells augments expansion and function of minor histocompatibility antigen-specific CD8+ T cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Tumor relapse after human leukocyte antigen-matched allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) remains a serious problem, despite the long-term presence of minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA)-specific memory T cells. Dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination boosting MiHA-specific T-cell immunity is an appealing strategy to prevent or counteract tumor recurrence, but improvement is necessary to increase the clinical benefit. Here, we investigated whether knockdown of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 on monocyte-derived DCs results in improved T-cell activation. Electroporation of single siRNA sequences into immature DCs resulted in efficient, specific, and long-lasting knockdown of PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression. PD-L knockdown DCs strongly augmented interferon-? and interleukin-2 production by stimulated T cells in an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction, whereas no effect was observed on T-cell proliferation. Moreover, we demonstrated that PD-L gene silencing, especially combined PD-L1 and PD-L2 knockdown, resulted in improved proliferation and cytokine production of keyhole limpet hemocyanin-specific CD4(+) T cells. Most importantly, PD-L knockdown DCs showed superior potential to expand MiHA-specific CD8(+) effector and memory T cells from leukemia patients early after donor lymphocyte infusion and later during relapse. These data demonstrate that PD-L siRNA electroporated DCs are highly effective in enhancing T-cell proliferation and cytokine production, and are therefore attractive cells for improving the efficacy of DC vaccines in cancer patients.
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Value of allogeneic versus autologous stem cell transplantation and chemotherapy in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and secondary acute myeloid leukemia. Final results of a prospective randomized European Intergroup Trial.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is usually considered the only curative treatment option for patients with advanced or transformed myelodysplastic syndromes in complete remission, but post-remission chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation are potential alternatives, especially in patients over 45 years old.
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Higher incidence of relapse in patients with acute myelocytic leukemia infused with higher doses of CD34+ cells from leukapheresis products autografted during the first remission.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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The stem cell source for autologous transplantation has shifted from bone marrow to peripheral blood (PB). We previously showed that relapse incidence in patients with acute myelocytic leukemia autografted in first remission (CR1) was greater with PB than bone marrow, and a poorer outcome was associated with a shorter CR1 to PB transplantation interval (? 80 days). Leukemic and normal progenitors are CD34(+) and can be concomitantly mobilized; we assessed whether an association exists between the infused CD34(+) cell dose and outcome. The infused CD34(+) cell doses were available for 772 patients autografted more than 80 days after CR1 and were categorized by percentiles. We selected the highest quintile (> 7.16 × 10(6)/kg) as the cutoff point. By multivariate analysis, relapse was more probable in patients who received the highest dose (hazard ratio = 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.95; P = .005), and leukemia-free survival was worse (hazard ratio = 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.93; P = .01). In conclusion, in patients autografted in first remission, relapse was higher and leukemia-free survival lower for those who received the highest CD34(+) PB doses.
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Dexamethasone compared to prednisolone for adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma: final results of the ALL-4 randomized, phase III trial of the EORTC Leukemia Group.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Corticosteroids are a standard component of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Our aim was to determine whether dexamethasone results in a better outcome than prednisolone.
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Impact of genomic risk factors on outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
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Non-HLA gene polymorphisms have been shown to influence outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Results were derived from heterogeneous, small populations and their value remains a matter of debate.
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Randomized trial of two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin as induction monotherapy for newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukaemia in older patients not considered candidates for intensive chemotherapy. A phase II study of the EORTC and GIMEMA leuka
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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This study compared two schedules of low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) as induction monotherapy for untreated acute myeloid leukaemia in older patients unfit for intensive chemotherapy, to identify the more promising regimen for further study. Patients were randomized to receive either best supportive care or a course of GO according to one of two schedules: 3 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3 and 5 (arm A), or GO 6 mg/m(2) on day 1 and 3 mg/m(2) on day 8 (arm B). Primary endpoint was the rate of disease non-progression (DnP), defined as the proportion of patients either achieving a response or maintaining a stable disease following GO induction in each arm. Fifty-six patients were randomized in the two GO arms (A, n = 29; B, n = 27). The rate of DnP was 38% [90% confidence interval (CI), 23-55] in arm A, and 63% (90% CI, 45-78) in arm B. Peripheral cytopenias were the most common adverse events for both regimens. The all-cause early mortality rate was 14% in arm A and 11% in arm B. The day 1 + 8 schedule, which was associated with the highest rate of DnP, met the statistical criteria to be selected as the preferred regimen for phase III comparison with best supportive care.
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Hematopoietic stem cells exhibit a specific ABC transporter gene expression profile clearly distinct from other stem cells.
BMC Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters protect cells against unrelated (toxic) substances by pumping them across cell membranes. Earlier we showed that many ABC transporters are highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) compared to more committed progenitor cells. The ABC transporter expression signature may guarantee lifelong protection of HSCs but may also preserve stem cell integrity by extrusion of agents that trigger their differentiation. Here we have studied whether non-hematopoietic stem cells (non-HSCs) exhibit a similar ABC transporter expression signature as HSCs.
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An alternatively spliced CXCL16 isoform expressed by dendritic cells is a secreted chemoattractant for CXCR6+ cells.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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DC are professional APCs that initiate and regulate adaptive immune responses by interacting with naïve and memory T cells. Chemokines released by DC play an essential role in T cell recruitment and in the maintenance of antigen-specific T cell-DC conjugates. Here, we characterized the expression of the T cell-attracting chemokine CXCL16 by murine DC. We demonstrate that through alternative RNA splicing, DC not only express the previously characterized transmembrane CXCL16 isoform, which can be cleaved from the cell surface, but also a novel isoform lacking the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Transfection of HEK293 cells shows that this novel isoform, termed CXCL16v, is not expressed on the cell membrane but is secreted as a protein of approximately 10 kDa. Quantitative PCR demonstrates that CXCL16v is broadly expressed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues resembling the tissue distribution of DC. Indeed, CXCL16v mRNA is expressed significantly by spleen DC and BM-DC. Moreover, we show that mature DC have increased CXCL16v mRNA levels and express transmembrane and soluble CXCL16 proteins. Finally, we show that CXCL16v specifically attracts cells expressing the chemokine receptor CXCR6. Our data demonstrate that mature DC express secreted, transmembrane, and cleaved CXCL16 isoforms to recruit and communicate efficiently with CXCR6(+) lymphoid cells.
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High log-scale expansion of functional human natural killer cells from umbilical cord blood CD34-positive cells for adoptive cancer immunotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2010
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Immunotherapy based on natural killer (NK) cell infusions is a potential adjuvant treatment for many cancers. Such therapeutic application in humans requires large numbers of functional NK cells that have been selected and expanded using clinical grade protocols. We established an extremely efficient cytokine-based culture system for ex vivo expansion of NK cells from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB). Systematic refinement of this two-step system using a novel clinical grade medium resulted in a therapeutically applicable cell culture protocol. CD56(+)CD3(-) NK cell products could be routinely generated from freshly selected CD34(+) UCB cells with a mean expansion of >15,000 fold and a nearly 100% purity. Moreover, our protocol has the capacity to produce more than 3-log NK cell expansion from frozen CD34(+) UCB cells. These ex vivo-generated cell products contain NK cell subsets differentially expressing NKG2A and killer immunoglobulin-like receptors. Furthermore, UCB-derived CD56(+) NK cells generated by our protocol uniformly express high levels of activating NKG2D and natural cytotoxicity receptors. Functional analysis showed that these ex vivo-generated NK cells efficiently target myeloid leukemia and melanoma tumor cell lines, and mediate cytolysis of primary leukemia cells at low NK-target ratios. Our culture system exemplifies a major breakthrough in producing pure NK cell products from limited numbers of CD34(+) cells for cancer immunotherapy.
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Somatic mutations of the histone methyltransferase gene EZH2 in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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In myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), deletions of chromosome 7 or 7q are common and correlate with a poor prognosis. The relevant genes on chromosome 7 are unknown. We report here that EZH2, located at 7q36.1, is frequently targeted in MDS. Analysis of EZH2 deletions, missense and frameshift mutations strongly suggests that EZH2 is a tumor suppressor. As EZH2 functions as a histone methyltransferase, abnormal histone modification may contribute to epigenetic deregulation in MDS.
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Recent advances in the understanding of iron overload in sideroblastic myelodysplastic syndrome.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal haematopoietic stem cell malignancies. A subgroup, the so-called sideroblastic MDS, shows ring sideroblasts in the bone marrow aspirate that represent mitochondrial iron accumulation. Patients with sideroblastic MDS also develop systemic iron overload and generally have a low-risk MDS. Therefore it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for iron accumulation and the associated toxicity in these patients. Recently, low levels of the iron-regulatory peptide hepcidin were found to contribute to body iron overload in beta-thalassaemia patients. A similar mechanism may account for systemic iron accumulation in sideroblastic MDS. Mitochondrial iron accumulation is observed in several subtypes of MDS, and predominantly in refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts. The presence of ring sideroblasts is also the diagnostic hallmark in patients with inherited forms of sideroblastic anaemia. The ever-increasing insights into the affected pathways in inherited sideroblastic anaemia may lead to a better comprehension of the pathogenesis of mitochondrial iron accumulation in MDS patients. Overall, an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for iron overload in MDS will lead to novel treatment strategies to reduce both systemic and mitochondrial iron overload, resulting in less tissue damage and more effective erythropoiesis.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for patients 50 years or older with myelodysplastic syndromes or secondary acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2009
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This study was performed to examine the characteristics of transplant activity for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) older than 50 years within the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and to evaluate the factors predicting outcome within this group of patients.
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Unrelated stem cell transplantation after reduced intensity conditioning for patients with multiple myeloma relapsing after autologous transplantation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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From 2002 to 2007, 49 myeloma patients who relapsed following autologous SCT were included in a prospective multicenter trial to determine the efficacy of a reduced melphalan/fludarabine regimen followed by allogeneic SCT from unrelated donors. All patients showed leucocyte and platelet engraftment after a median of 15 and 19 d, respectively. Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) occurred in 25% of patients and 35% had chronic GvHD. Overall response rate at day 100 was 95% including 46% complete remission (CR). Cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality at 1 year was 25% [95% confidence interval (CI): 13-37%] and was significantly lower for human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched compared to -mismatched SCT (10% vs. 53%, P = 0.001). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years was 55% (95% CI: 40-70%). After a median follow up of 43 months, the estimated 5-year progression-free and overall survival rates were 20% and 26% respectively and were significantly better for matched in CR at day 100 (41% vs. 7%, P = 0.04 and 56% vs. 16%, P = 0.02). We conclude that optimal donor selection is mandatory for a low non-relapse mortality and high relapse incidence, which remains a major concern, should be improved by including post-transplant strategies to upgrade remission status.
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Chemokine induction by all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in acute promyelocytic leukemia: triggering the differentiation syndrome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2009
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In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), differentiation therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and/or arsenic trioxide can induce a differentiation syndrome (DS) with massive pulmonary infiltration of differentiating leukemic cells. Because chemokines are implicated in migration and extravasation of leukemic cells, chemokines might play a role in DS. ATRA stimulation of the APL cell line NB4 induced expression of multiple CC-chemokines (CCLs) and their receptors (> 19-fold), resulting in increased chemokine levels and chemotaxis. Induction of CCL2 and CCL24 was directly mediated by ligand-activated retinoic acid receptors. In primary leukemia cells derived from APL patients at diagnosis, ATRA induced chemokine production as well. Furthermore, in plasma of an APL patient with DS, we observed chemokine induction, suggesting that chemokines might be important in DS. Dexamethasone, which efficiently reduces pulmonary chemokine production, did not inhibit chemokine induction in APL cells. Finally, chemokine production was also induced by arsenic trioxide as single agent or in combination with ATRA. We propose that differentiation therapy may induce chemokine production in the lung and in APL cells, which both trigger migration of leukemic cells. Because dexamethasone does not efficiently reduce leukemic chemokine production, pulmonary infiltration of leukemic cells may induce an uncontrollable hyperinflammatory reaction in the lung.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation after reduced-intensity conditioning in patients with myelofibrosis: a prospective, multicenter study of the Chronic Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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From 2002 to 2007, 103 patients with primary myelofibrosis or postessential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera myelofibrosis and a median age of 55 years (range, 32-68 years) were included in a prospective multicenter phase 2 trial to determine efficacy of a busulfan (10 mg/kg)/fludarabine (180 mg/m(2))-based reduced-intensity conditioning regimen followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation from related (n = 33) or unrelated donors (n = 70). All but 2 patients (2%) showed leukocyte and platelet engraftment after a median of 18 and 22 days, respectively. Acute graft-versus-host disease grade 2 to 4 occurred in 27% and chronic graft-versus-host disease in 43% of the patients. Cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 1 year was 16% (95% confidence interval, 9%-23%) and significantly lower for patients with a completely matched donor (12% vs 38%; P = .003). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years was 22% (95% confidence interval, 13%-31%) and was influenced by Lille risk profile (low, 14%; intermediate, 22%; and high, 34%; P = .02). The estimated 5-year event-free and overall survival was 51% and 67%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, age older than 55 years (hazard ratio = 2.70; P = .02) and human leukocyte antigen-mismatched donor (hazard ratio = 3.04; P = .006) remained significant factors for survival. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT 00599547.
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Risk score for outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective analysis.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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It was investigated whether the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation risk score, previously established for chronic myeloid leukemia, could be used to predict outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for hematological disease in general.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with refractory anaemia with matched related and unrelated donors: delay of the transplant is associated with inferior survival.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) for patients with refractory anaemia may result in a 50% event-free survival, but the high non-relapse mortality (NRM) precludes a general application of this therapeutic modality. This study evaluated the impact of various pre-transplant variables, including disease duration, intensity of the conditioning regimen, type of donor and year of transplantation on outcome. The study population consisted of 374 patients; 244 were transplanted from human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical siblings and 130 patients from matched unrelated donors. The median age was 39 years. One hundred and two patients were transplanted after reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). The overall 4-year survival was 52%. The 4-year survival of patients transplanted with HLA-identical sibling donors and matched unrelated donors was 52% and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed an improved survival (P = 0.05) and a lower NRM (P = 0.02) when the transplantation was performed in recent years. Increasing age, and disease duration of >12 months were associated with inferior survival. RIC resulted in a similar survival despite an increased relapse risk (P = 0.02). This improved outcome permits alloSCT in patients older than 50 years of age, even with the use of matched unrelated donors. AlloSCT should be preferentially performed early after diagnosis after careful analysis of prognostic variables.
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Higher incidence of relapse with peripheral blood rather than marrow as a source of stem cells in adults with acute myelocytic leukemia autografted during the first remission.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2009
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The cell source for autologous stem cell transplantation has shifted from bone marrow (BM) to peripheral blood (PB). In acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), for patients who receive transplants during first complete remission (CR1), no prospective randomized study has compared relapse incidence (RI) to cell source.
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Standardization of flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes: report from the first European LeukemiaNet working conference on flow cytometry in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2009
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The myelodysplastic syndromes are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell diseases characterized by cytopenia(s), dysplasia in one or more cell lineages and increased risk of evolution to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recent advances in immunophenotyping of hematopoietic progenitor and maturing cells in dysplastic bone marrow point to a useful role for multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) in the diagnosis and prognostication of myelodysplastic syndromes. In March 2008, representatives from 18 European institutes participated in a European LeukemiaNet (ELN) workshop held in Amsterdam as a first step towards standardization of FCM in myelodysplastic syndromes. Consensus was reached regarding standard methods for cell sampling, handling and processing. The group also defined minimal combinations of antibodies to analyze aberrant immunophenotypes and thus dysplasia. Examples are altered numbers of CD34(+) precursors, aberrant expression of markers on myeloblasts, maturing myeloid cells, monocytes or erythroid precursors and the expression of lineage infidelity markers. When applied in practice, aberrant FCM patterns correlate well with morphology, the subclassification of myelodysplastic syndromes, and prognostic scoring systems. However, the group also concluded that despite strong evidence for an impact of FCM in myelodysplastic syndromes, further (prospective) validation of markers and immunophenotypic patterns are required against control patient groups as well as further standardization in multi-center studies. Standardization of FCM in myelodysplastic syndromes may thus contribute to improved diagnosis and prognostication of myelodysplastic syndromes in the future.
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Partial T cell-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation following reduced-intensity conditioning creates a platform for immunotherapy with donor lymphocyte infusion and recipient dendritic cell vaccination in multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in multiple myeloma (MM) may induce a curative graft-versus-myeloma (GVM) effect. Major drawback in unmanipulated reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) SCT is the risk of severe and longstanding graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). This study demonstrates that transplantation with a partial T cell-depleted graft creates a platform for boosting GVM immunity by preemptive donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) and recipient dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, with limited GVHD. All 20MM patients engrafted successfully. Chimerism analysis in 19 patients evaluable at 3 months revealed that 7 patients were complete donor, whereas 12 patients were mixed chimeric. Grade II acute GVHD (aGVHD) occurred in 7 patients (35%) and only 4 patients (21%) developed chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Fourteen patients received posttransplantation immunotherapy, 8 preemptive DLI, 5 patients both DLI and DC vaccination, and 1 patient DC vaccination only. DC vaccination was associated with limited toxicity, and none of these patients developed GVHD. Importantly, overall treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 1 year was low (10%). Moreover, the overall survival (OS) is 84% with median follow-up of 27 months, and none of the patients died from progressive disease. These findings illustrate that this novel approach is associated with limited GVHD and mortality, thus creating an ideal platform for adjuvant immunotherapy.
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Efficient activation of LRH-1-specific CD8+ T-cell responses from transplanted leukemia patients by stimulation with P2X5 mRNA-electroporated dendritic cells.
J. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
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Alloreactive CD8+ T cells targeting minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA) on malignant cells of the recipient play a pivotal role in graft-versus-tumor responses observed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). However, these MiHA-specific CD8+ T-cell responses do not result in complete eradication of tumor cells in all patients. Furthermore, CD8+ memory T cells persisting after DLI do not always efficiently expand with recurrence of the disease. Adjuvant immunotherapy using dendritic cells (DC) loaded with hematopoietic-restricted MiHA may boost antitumor CD8+ T-cell immunity without inducing graft-versus-host disease. Here, we explored the use of mRNA-electroporated DC to stimulate MiHA-specific CD8+ T-cell responses. We demonstrate that electroporation of mature DC with P2X5 mRNA encoding for hematopoietic-restricted MiHA LRH-1 results in high expression of both mRNA and protein, and has no negative effect on the mature phenotype and migratory capacity of the DC. Furthermore, these DC can efficiently stimulate LRH-1-specific CD8+ effector T cells to proliferate and produce interferon-gamma. In addition, LRH-1-specific CD8+ memory T cells that are present in patient-derived peripheral blood mononuclear cells at long periods post-DLI can be effectively activated by stimulation with P2X5 mRNA-electroporated DC to proliferate and degranulate upon target cell recognition. These results indicate that adjuvant immunotherapy using DC electroporated with mRNA encoding hematopoietic-restricted MiHA mismatched between patients and donors may enhance the graft versus tumor response induced by stem cell transplantation and DLI.
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Myeloid leukemic progenitor cells can be specifically targeted by minor histocompatibility antigen LRH-1-reactive cytotoxic T cells.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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CD8(+) T cells recognizing minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHAs) on leukemic stem and progenitor cells play a pivotal role in effective graft-versus-leukemia reactivity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Previously, we identified a hematopoiesis-restricted MiHA, designated LRH-1, which is presented by HLA-B7 and encoded by the P2X5 purinergic receptor gene. We found that P2X5 is significantly expressed in CD34(+) leukemic subpopulations from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Here, we demonstrate that LRH-1-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses are frequently induced in myeloid leukemia patients following donor lymphocyte infusions. Patients with high percentages of circulating LRH-1-specific CD8(+) T cells had no or only mild graft-versus-host disease. Functional analysis showed that LRH-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) isolated from 2 different patients efficiently target LRH-1-positive leukemic CD34(+) progenitor cells from both CML and AML patients, whereas mature CML cells are only marginally lysed due to down-regulation of P2X5. Furthermore, we observed that relative resistance to LRH-1 CTL-mediated cell death due to elevated levels of antiapoptotic XIAP could be overcome by IFN-gamma prestimulation and increased CTL-target ratios. These findings provide a rationale for use of LRH-1 as immunotherapeutic target antigen to treat residual or persisting myeloid malignancies after allogeneic SCT.
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Acquired mutations in TET2 are common in myelodysplastic syndromes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a heterogeneous group of neoplastic hematopoietic disorders. Several recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been associated with MDS, but the genes affected have remained largely unknown. To identify relevant genetic lesions involved in the pathogenesis of MDS, we conducted SNP array-based genomic profiling and genomic sequencing in 102 individuals with MDS and identified acquired deletions and missense and nonsense mutations in the TET2 gene in 26% of these individuals. Using allele-specific assays, we detected TET2 mutations in most of the bone marrow cells (median 96%). In addition, the mutations were encountered in various lineages of differentiation including CD34(+) progenitor cells, suggesting that TET2 mutations occur early during disease evolution. In healthy tissues, TET2 expression was shown to be elevated in hematopoietic cells with highest expression in granulocytes, in line with a function in myelopoiesis. We conclude that TET2 is the most frequently mutated gene in MDS known so far.
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Aberrant expression of the hematopoietic-restricted minor histocompatibility antigen LRH-1 on solid tumors results in efficient cytotoxic T cell-mediated lysis.
Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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CD8(+) T cells recognizing minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA) on solid tumor cells may mediate effective graft-versus-tumor (GVT) reactivity after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Previously, we identified LRH-1 as a hematopoietic-restricted MiHA encoded by the P2X5 gene. Here, we report that LRH-1 is aberrantly expressed on solid tumor cells. P2X5 mRNA expression is demonstrated in a significant portion of solid tumor cell lines, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), melanoma, colorectal carcinoma, brain cancer and breast cancer. Importantly, P2X5 gene expression was also detected in a subset of primary solid tumor specimens derived from RCC, brain cancer and breast cancer patients. Furthermore, P2X5 expressing solid tumor cells can be effectively targeted by LRH-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes under inflammatory conditions. The expression of HLA-B7 and CD54 on tumor cells increases upon cytokine stimulation resulting in improved T cell activation as observed by higher levels of degranulation and enhanced tumor cell lysis. Overall, hematopoietic-restricted MiHA LRH-1 is aberrantly expressed on solid tumor cells and may be used as target in GVT-specific immunotherapy after SCT.
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Association of disparities in known minor histocompatibility antigens with relapse-free survival and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) can induce remission in patients with hematologic malignancies due to graft-versus-tumor (GVT) responses. This immune-mediated antitumor effect is often accompanied by detrimental graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), however. Both GVT and GVHD are mediated by minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA)-specific T cells recognizing peptide products from polymorphic genes that differ between recipient and donor. In this study, we evaluated whether mismatches in a panel of 17 MiHAs are associated with clinical outcome after partially T cell-depleted allo-SCT. Comprehensive statistical analysis revealed that DNA mismatches for one or more autosomal-encoded MiHAs was associated with increased relapse-free survival in recipients of sibling transplants (P = .04), particularly in those with multiple myeloma (P = .02). Moreover, mismatches for the ubiquitous Y chromosome-derived MiHAs resulted in a higher incidence of acute GVHD grade III-IV (P = .004), whereas autosomal MiHA mismatches, ubiquitous or restricted to hematopoietic cells, were not associated with severe GVHD. Finally, we found considerable differences among MiHAs in their capability of inducing in vivo T cell responses using dual-color tetramer analysis of peripheral blood samples collected after allo-SCT. Importantly, detection of MiHA-specific T cell responses was associated with improved relapse-free survival in recipients of sibling transplants (P = .01). Our findings provide a rationale for further boosting GVT immunity toward autosomal MiHAs with a hematopoietic restriction to improve outcomes after HLA-matched allo-SCT.
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Rationale for the clinical application of flow cytometry in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes: position paper of an International Consortium and the European LeukemiaNet Working Group.
Leuk. Lymphoma
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An international working group within the European LeukemiaNet gathered, aiming to determine the role of flow cytometry (FC) in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). It was agreed that FC has a substantial application in disease characterization, diagnosis and prognosis. FC may also be useful in predicting treatment responses and monitoring novel and standard therapeutic regimens. In this article the rationale is discussed that flow cytometry should be integrated as a part of diagnostic and prognostic scoring systems in MDS.
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Parameters detected by geriatric and quality of life assessment in 195 older patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia are highly predictive for outcome.
Haematologica
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Myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia exemplify the complexity of treatment allocation in older patients as options range from best supportive care, non-intensive treatment (e.g. hypomethylating agents) to intensive chemotherapy/hematopoietic cell transplantation. Novel metrics for non-disease variables are urgently needed to help define the best treatment for each older patient. We investigated the feasibility and prognostic value of geriatric/quality of life assessments aside from established disease-specific variables in 195 patients aged 60 years or over with myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia. These patients were grouped according to treatment intensity and assessed. Assessment consisted of eight instruments evaluating activities of daily living, depression, mental functioning, mobility, comorbidities, Karnofsky Index and quality of life. Patients with a median age of 71 years (range 60-87 years) with myelodysplastic syndromes (n=63) or acute myeloid leukemia (n=132) were treated either with best supportive care (n=47), hypomethylating agents (n=73) or intensive chemotherapy/hematopoietic cell transplantation (n=75). After selection of variables, pathological activities of daily living and quality of life/fatigue remained highly predictive for overall survival in the entire patient group beyond disease-related risk factors adverse cytogenetics and blast count of 20% or over. In 107 patients treated non-intensively activities of daily living of less than 100 (hazard ratio, HR 2.94), Karnofsky Index below 80 (HR 2.34) and quality of life/fatigue of 50 or over (HR 1.77) were significant prognosticators. Summation of adverse features revealed a high risk of death (HR 9.36). In-depth evaluation of older patients prior to individual treatment allocation is feasible and provides additional information to standard assessment. Patients aged 60 years or over with newly diagnosed myelodysplastic syndromes/acute myeloid leukemia and impairments in activities of daily living, Karnofsky Index below 80%, quality of life/fatigue of 50 or over, are likely to have poor outcomes.
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Autologous and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation for transformed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (Richters syndrome): A retrospective analysis from the chronic lymphocytic leukemia subcommittee of the chronic leukemia working party and lymphoma working pa
J. Clin. Oncol.
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Patients with Richters syndrome (RS) have a poor prognosis with conventional chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome after autologous stem-cell transplantation (autoSCT) or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT) in RS.
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Intensive consolidation therapy compared with standard consolidation and maintenance therapy for adults with acute myeloid leukaemia aged between 46 and 60 years: final results of the randomized phase III study (AML 8B) of the European Organization for Re
Ann. Hematol.
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The most effective post-remission treatment to maintain complete remission (CR) in adults aged between 46 and 60 years with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is uncertain. Previously untreated patients with AML in CR after induction chemotherapy with daunorubicin and cytarabine were randomized between two intensive courses of consolidation therapy containing high-dose cytarabine, combined with amsacrine or daunorubicin and a standard consolidation and maintenance therapy containing standard dose cytarabine and daunorubicin. One hundred fifty-eight CR patients were assigned to the intensive group and 157 patients to the standard group. After a median follow-up of 7.5 years, the 4-year survival rate was 32 % in the intensive group versus 34 % in the standard group (P = 0.29). In the intensive group, the 4-year relapse incidence was lower than in the standard group: 55 and 75 %, respectively (P = 0.0003), whereas treatment-related mortality incidence was higher: 22 versus 3 % (P < 0.0001). Two intensive consolidation courses containing high-dose cytarabine as post-remission treatment in patients with AML aged between 46 and 60 years old did not translate in better long-term outcome despite a 20 % lower relapse incidence. Better supportive care and prevention of treatment-related complications may improve the overall survival after intensified post-remission therapy in this age group.
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Competing risks in epidemiology: possibilities and pitfalls.
Int J Epidemiol
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In studies of all-cause mortality, the fundamental epidemiological concepts of rate and risk are connected through a well-defined one-to-one relation. An important consequence of this relation is that regression models such as the proportional hazards model that are defined through the hazard (the rate) immediately dictate how the covariates relate to the survival function (the risk).
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Improved PFS after autologous stem cell transplantion does not translate into better Quality of Life in CLL: lessons from the randomized EBMT-Intergroup study.
Am. J. Hematol.
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In chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) medical progress is driven by clinical studies with relapse-free survival (RFS) as the primary endpoint. The randomized EBMT-Intergroup trial compared high-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantion (ASCT) to observation and demonstrated a substantial improvement of RFS without showing improved overall survival for the transplant arm. Here we report quality of life (QoL) information of the first three years following randomization from that study. The main objective was to assess the impact of treatment on QoL over time. Two secondary analyses were performed to further investigate the impact of ASCT and relapse on QoL. In the primary analysis, we demonstrate an adverse impact of ASCT on QoL which was largest at 4 months and continued throughout the first year after randomization. Further, we demonstrated a sustained adverse impact of relapse on QoL which worsened over time. Despite better disease control by ASCT the side effects thus turned the net effect towards inferior QoL in the first year and comparable QoL in the following two years after randomization. This study emphasizes the importance of information concerning QoL impacts when patients are counseled about treatments aimed at improving RFS in the absence of a survival benefit.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.