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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns and vascular function.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Immune system activation occurs not only due to foreign stimuli, but also due to endogenous molecules. As such, endogenous molecules that are released into the circulation due to cell death and/or injury alarm the immune system that something has disturbed homeostasis and a response is needed. Collectively, these molecules are known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Mitochondrial DAMPs (mtDAMPs) are potent immunological activators due to the bacterial ancestry of mitochondria. Mitochondrial DAMPs are recognized by specific pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system, some of which are expressed in the cardiovascular system. Cell death leads to release of mtDAMPs that may induce vascular changes by mechanisms that are currently not well understood. This review will focus on recently published evidence linking mtDAMPs and immune system activation to vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.
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The influence of perivascular adipose tissue on vascular homeostasis.
Vasc Health Risk Manag
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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The perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is now recognized as an active contributor to vascular function. Adipocytes and stromal cells contained within PVAT are a source of an ever-growing list of molecules with varied paracrine effects on the underlying smooth muscle and endothelial cells, including adipokines, cytokines, reactive oxygen species, and gaseous compounds. Their secretion is regulated by systemic or local cues and modulates complex processes, including vascular contraction and relaxation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, and vascular inflammation. Recent evidence demonstrates that metabolic and cardiovascular diseases alter the morphological and secretory characteristics of PVAT, with notable consequences. In obesity and diabetes, the expanded PVAT contributes to vascular insulin resistance. PVAT-derived cytokines may influence key steps of atherogenesis. The physiological anticontractile effect of PVAT is severely diminished in hypertension. Above all, a common denominator of the PVAT dysfunction in all these conditions is the immune cell infiltration, which triggers the subsequent inflammation, oxidative stress, and hypoxic processes to promote vascular dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the currently known mechanisms by which the PVAT influences blood vessel function. The important discoveries in the study of PVAT that have been made in recent years need to be further advanced, to identify the mechanisms of the anticontractile effects of PVAT, to explore the vascular-bed and species differences in PVAT function, to understand the regulation of PVAT secretion of mediators, and finally, to uncover ways to ameliorate cardiovascular disease by targeting therapeutic approaches to PVAT.
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Long-term inhibition of xanthine oxidase by febuxostat does not decrease blood pressure in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Xanthine oxidase and its products, uric acid and ROS, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. We have previously reported that allopurinol inhibition of XO does not alter the progression of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension in rats. However other researchers have observed a reduction in blood pressure after allopurinol treatment in the same model. To resolve this controversy, in this study we used the newer and more effective XO inhibitor febuxostat, and hypothesized that a more complete XO blockade might impair hypertension development and its end-organ consequences. We used DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and administered vehicle (salt water) or febuxostat (orally, 5 mg/kg/day in salt water) in a short-term "reversal" experiment (2 weeks of treatment 3 weeks after DOCA-salt beginning) and a long-term "prevention" experiment (treatment throughout 4 weeks of DOCA-salt). We confirmed XO inhibition by febuxostat by measuring circulating and tissue levels of XO metabolites. We found an overall increase in hypoxanthine (XO substrate) and decrease in uric acid (XO product) levels following febuxostat treatment. However, despite a trend for reduced blood pressure in the last week of long-term febuxostat treatment, no statistically significant difference in hemodynamic parameters was observed in either study. Additionally, no change was observed in relative heart and kidney weight. Aortic media/lumen ratio was minimally improved by long-term febuxostat treatment. Additionally, febuxostat incubation in vitro did not modify contraction of aorta or vena cava to norepinephrine, angiotensin II or endothelin-1. We conclude that XO inhibition is insufficient to attenuate hypertension in the rat DOCA-salt model, although beneficial vascular effects are possible.
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Allopurinol does not decrease blood pressure or prevent the development of hypertension in the deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt rat model.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2010
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Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, disease in which reactive oxygen species levels and markers of oxidative stress are increased. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a reactive oxygen species-producing enzyme the activity of which may increase during hypertension. Studies on XO inhibition effects on blood pressure have yielded controversial results. We hypothesized that XO inhibition would decrease blood pressure or attenuate the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. We administered the XO inhibitor, allopurinol (50 mg/kg per day, orally) or its vehicle to rats during the established or development stages of DOCA-salt hypertension. We validated XO inhibition by high-performance liquid chromatography measurements of XO metabolites in urine, serum, and tissues demonstrating a decrease in products, increase in substrates, and detection of the active metabolite of allopurinol, oxypurinol. We monitored blood pressure continuously through radiotelemetry and performed gross evaluations of target organs of hypertension. Allopurinol treatment did not impact the course of DOCA-salt hypertension regardless of the timing of administration. Aside from a significant decrease in pulse pressure in allopurinol-treated rats, no positive differences were observed between the allopurinol and the vehicle-treated rats. We conclude that XO does not play an important role in the development or maintenance of hypertension in the rat DOCA-salt hypertension model.
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Serotonin receptors in rat jugular vein: presence and involvement in the contraction.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is released during platelet aggregation, a phenomenon commonly observed in blood clot formation and venous diseases. Once released, 5-HT can interact with its receptors in the peripheral vasculature to modify vascular tone. The goal of this study was to perform a detailed pharmacological characterization of the 5-HT receptors involved in the contractile response of the rat jugular vein (RJV) using recently developed drugs with greater selectivity toward 5-HT receptor subtypes. We hypothesized that, as for other blood vessels, the 5-HT(1B/1D) and 5-HT(2B) receptor subtypes mediate contraction in RJV alongside the 5-HT(2A) receptor subtype. Endothelium-intact RJV rings were set up in an isolated organ bath for isometric tension recordings, and contractile concentration-effect curves were obtained for 13 distinct serotonergic receptor agonists. Surprisingly, the 5-HT(1A) and the mixed 5-HT(1A/1B) receptor agonists (+/-)-2-dipropyl-amino-8-hydroxyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (8-OH-DPAT) and 5-methoxy-3 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl) (1H indole) (RU24969) caused contractions that were antagonized by the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist [O-methyl-3H]-N-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100135). The contractile curve to 5-HT was shifted to the right by WAY100135, 3-[2-[4-(4-fluoro benzoyl)-piperidin-1-yl]ethyl]-1H-quinazoline-2,4-dione (ketanserin; 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist), and 1-(2-chloro-3,4-dimethoxybenzyl)-6-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole hydrochloride (LY266097; 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonist). Ketanserin also caused rightward shifts of the contractile curves to 8-OH-DPAT, RU24969, and the 5-HT(2B) receptor agonist (alpha-methyl-5-(2-thienylmethoxy)-1H-indole-3-ethanamine) (BW723C86). Agonists for 5-HT(1B/1D/1F), 5-HT(3), 5-HT(6), and 5-HT(7) receptors were inactive. In real-time polymerase chain reaction experiments that have never been performed in this tissue previously, we observed mRNA expression for the 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B), and 5-HT(7) receptors, whereas no significant mRNA expression was found for 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(1B), and 5-HT(1D) receptors. These results support the 5-HT(2A) receptor as the main subtype targeted by 5-HT to contract the RJV.
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Uric acid does not affect the acetylcholine-induced relaxation of aorta from normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Uric acid (UA) results from xanthine oxidase (XO) catabolism of xanthine and is the final product of purine catabolism in humans. In this species, hyperuricemia is associated with gout, nephropathy, and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of hyperuricemia in vascular biology are overall controversial, UA has been described as an antioxidant and as potentially improving endothelial function. Hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that UA improves the endothelial function of aorta from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. UA (100 microM) in the presence of the uricase inhibitor oxonic acid (10 microM) did not modify relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) (1 nM-10 microM) in the aorta from nontreated, sham normotensive, and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats [response to 10 microM ACh for UA versus vehicle, respectively: nontreated = 37 +/- 7 versus 48 +/- 7%, sham = 53 +/- 15 versus 57 +/- 20%, DOCA = 81 +/- 4 versus 85 +/- 2% from 20 microM prostaglandin 2alpha (PGF(2alpha))-induced contraction]. Allopurinol (100 microM), a XO inhibitor, did not significantly alter the ACh-induced relaxation of sham and DOCA aortic rings (response to 10 microM ACh for allopurinol versus vehicle, respectively: sham = 61 +/- 5 versus 68 +/- 9%, DOCA = 87 +/- 6 versus 88 +/- 3% from 20 microM PGF(2alpha)-induced contraction). Uricemia, ranging from unmeasurable to 547 microM in sham and to 506 microM in DOCA rats, was not significantly different between these two groups. The expression and activity of XO, as well as the expression of uricase, were not different between sham and DOCA rat aorta. We conclude that, at least in vitro, UA does not affect the ACh-induced relaxation of normotensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.
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Differential expression of pancreatitis-associated protein and thrombospondins in arterial versus venous tissues.
J. Vasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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Arteries and veins modulate cardiovascular homeostasis and contribute to hypertension pathogenesis. Functional differences between arteries and veins are based upon differences in gene expression. To better characterize these expression patterns, and to identify candidate genes that could be manipulated selectively in the venous system, we performed whole genome expression profiling of arteries and veins.
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Impaired ?-adrenoceptor-induced relaxation in small mesenteric arteries from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats is due to reduced K(Ca) channel activity.
Pharmacol. Res.
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?-Adrenoceptor (?-AR)-mediated relaxation plays an important role in the regulation of vascular tone. ?-AR-mediated vascular relaxation is reduced in various disease states and aging. We hypothesized that ?-AR-mediated vasodilatation is impaired in DOCA-salt hypertension due to alterations in the cAMP pathway. ?-AR-mediated relaxation was determined in small mesenteric arteries from DOCA-salt hypertensive and control uninephrectomized (Uni) rats. To exclude nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX) pathways, relaxation responses were determined in the presence of l-NNA and indomethacin, NO synthase inhibitor and COX inhibitors, respectively. Isoprenaline (ISO)-induced relaxation was reduced in arteries from DOCA-salt compared to Uni rats. Protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors (H89 or Rp-cAMPS) or adenylyl cyclase inhibitor (SQ22536) did not abolish the difference in ISO-induced relaxation between the groups. Forskolin (adenylyl cyclase activator)-induced relaxation was similar between the groups. The inhibition of IK(Ca)/SK(Ca) channels (TRAM-34 plus UCL1684) or BK(Ca) channels (iberiotoxin) reduced ISO-induced relaxation only in Uni rats and abolished the relaxation differences between the groups. The expression of SK(Ca) channel was decreased in DOCA-salt arteries. The expression of BK(Ca) channel ? subunit was increased whereas the expression of BK(Ca) channel ? subunit was decreased in DOCA-salt arteries. The expression of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), which is a binding protein for BK(Ca) channel and negatively modulates its activity, was increased in DOCA-salt arteries. These results suggest that the impairment of ?-AR-mediated relaxation in DOCA-salt mesenteric arteries may be attributable to altered IK(Ca)/SK(Ca) and/or BK(Ca) channels activities rather than cAMP/PKA pathway. Impaired ?-AR-stimulated BK(Ca) channel activity may be due to the imbalance between its subunit expressions and RACK1 upregulation.
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One-month serotonin infusion results in a prolonged fall in blood pressure in the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt hypertensive rat.
ACS Chem Neurosci
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A 7-day infusion of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) causes a sustained fall in elevated blood pressure in the male deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rat. As hypertension is a long-term disease, we presently test the hypothesis that a longer (30 day) 5-HT infusion could cause a sustained fall in blood pressure in the established hypertensive DOCA-salt rat. This time period (?4 weeks) was also sufficient to test whether 5-HT could attenuate the development of DOCA-salt hypertension. 5-HT (25 ?g/kg/min; sc) or vehicle (Veh) was delivered via osmotic pump to (1) established DOCA-salt rats for one month, (2) Sprague-Dawley rats prior to DOCA-salt administration for one month, and blood pressure and heart rate measured telemetrically. On the final day of 5-HT infusion, free platelet poor plasma 5-HT concentrations were significantly higher in 5-HT versus Veh-infused rats, and mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in 5-HT-infused (135 ± 4 mmHg vs Veh-infused 151 ± 7 mmHg) established DOCA-salt rats. By contrast, 5-HT-infusion did not prevent the development of DOCA-salt hypertension (144 ± 7 mmHg vs Veh = 156 ± 6 mmHg). Isometric contraction of aortic strips was measured, and neither the potency nor maximum contraction to the alpha adrenergic receptor agonist phenylephrine (PE) or 5-HT were modified by infusion of 5-HT (established or preventative infusion), and maximum aortic relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) was modestly but not significantly enhanced (?15% improvement). This study demonstrates 5-HT is capable of lowering blood pressure in established DOCA-salt hypertensive rats over the course of one month in a mechanism that does not significantly modify or is dependent on modified vascular responsiveness. This finding opens the possibility that elevation of 5-HT levels could be useful in the treatment of hypertension.
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