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Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44 % boys) aged 12·5-17·5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (? = - 0·189, P< 0·001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (? = - 0·319, P< 0·001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents.
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Serum plant sterols as surrogate markers of dietary compliance in familial dyslipidemias.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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A well-balanced diet is the first-line treatment in hyperlipidemia. The objective was to study the association between serum phytosterols and dietary patterns to use them as surrogate markers of dietary compliance in primary dyslipidemias.
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Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers' sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers' sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries.
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Socioeconomic factors are associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and related biomarkers concentrations in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Because socioeconomic factors (SEFs) may influence dietary quality and vitamin intakes, this study aimed to examine associations between socioeconomic factors and folate and vitamin B12 intakes as well as their related biomarkers in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study. Vitamin intakes were obtained from two 24-hour recalls in 2253 participants (47% males). Vitamin B biomarkers were assessed in a subsample of 977 participants (46% males). Socioeconomic factors were assessed by questionnaire, and 1-way analysis of covariance and linear regression analysis were applied. For males and females, mean intakes of folate were 211.19 and 177.18 ?g/d, and for vitamin B12, 5.98 and 4.54 ?g/d, respectively. Levels of plasma folate, red blood cell folate, serum B12, and holotranscobalamin were 18.74, 807.19, 330.64, and 63.04 nmol/L in males, respectively, and 19.13, 770.16, 377.9, and 65.63 nmol/L in females, respectively. Lower folate intakes were associated with several SEFs, including maternal and paternal education in both sexes. Regarding folate biomarkers, lower plasma folate intakes were associated with single/shared care in males and with lower paternal occupation in females. Lower vitamin B12 intakes were associated with almost all the studied SEFs, except paternal occupation in both sexes. In females, when considering vitamin B12 biomarkers, lower plasma vitamin B12 was associated with lower maternal education and occupation, and lower holotranscobalamin was associated with lower maternal education and lower paternal occupation. In conclusion, from the set of socioeconomic determinants studied in a sample of European adolescents, maternal education and paternal occupation were more consistently associated with folate and vitamin B12 intakes and biomarkers concentrations.
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Physical activity and sedentary behaviour in European children: the IDEFICS study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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To estimate the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in European children, and to evaluate the relationship between media availability in personal space and physical activity in relation to total screen time.
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Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in european adolescents: the HELENA study.
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Evidence indicates low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] concentrations in European adolescents. Identification of potential determinants is therefore essential to guide public health initiatives aiming at optimizing vitamin D status across Europe. The aim of the study was to identify potential influencing factors of 25(OH)D concentrations in European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 y, participating in the multi-centre cross-sectional Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. A subset of 1,006 participants (46.8% males) was drawn from the main study. Measures of body composition, biochemical markers, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, physical activity, fitness, sleep time and vitamin D genetic polymorphism (rs1544410) were assessed. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted stratified by gender. In males, linear regression of 25(OH)D, suggested that (1) winter season (?=-0.364; p<0.01), (2) higher latitudes (?=-0.246; p<0.01), (3) BMI z-score (?=-0.198; p<0.05) and (4) retinol concentration (?=0.171; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. In females, (1) winter season (?=-0.370; p<0.01), (2) sleep time (?=-0.231; p<0.01), (3) supplement intake (?=0.221; p<0.05), (4) flexibility (?=0.184; p<0.05), (5) body fat % (?=0.201; p<0.05) (6), BMI z-score (?=-0.272; p<0.05), (7) higher latitudes (?=-0.219; p<0.01) and (8) handgrip strength (?=0.206; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. Season, latitude, fitness, adiposity, sleep time and micronutrient supplementation were highly related to 25(OH)D concentrations found in European adolescents.
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Body composition changes during interventions to treat overweight and obesity in children and adolescents; a descriptive review.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Nutrition, physical activity and behavior-modifying techniques are widely applied components of interventions treating obesity. Our aim was to review available information on the short and long term effects of intervention treatment on body fat composition of overweight and obese children and adolescents and, to obtain a further understanding on how different body composition techniques detect longitudinal changes. In total, thirteen papers were included; seven included a multidisciplinary intervention component, five applied a combined dietary and physical activity intervention and one a physical activity intervention. Body composition techniques used included anthropometric indices, bioelectrical impedance analysis, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Percentage of fat mass change was calculated in when possible. Findings suggested, no changes were observed in fat free mass after 16 weeks of nutritional intervention and the lowest decrease on fat mass percentage was obtained. However, the highest fat mass percentage with parallel increase in fat free mass, both assess by DXA was observed in a multi-component intervention applied for 20 weeks. In conclusion, more studies are needed to determine the best field body composition method to monitor changes during overweight treatment in children and adolescents.
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Relative validity of the Childrens Eating Habits Questionnaire-food frequency section among young European children: the IDEFICS Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To compare, specifically by age group, proxy-reported food group estimates obtained from the food frequency section of the Childrens Eating Habits questionnaire (CEHQ-FFQ) against the estimates of two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls (24-HDR). DESIGN: Estimates of food group intakes assessed via the forty-three-food-group CEHQ-FFQ were compared with those obtained by a computerized 24-HDR. Agreement on frequencies of intakes (equal to the number of portions per recall period) between the two instruments was examined using crude and de-attenuated Pearsons correlation coefficients, cross-classification analyses, weighted kappa statistics (? w) and Bland-Altman analysis. SETTING: Kindergartens/schools from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) Study cross-sectional survey (2007-2008). SUBJECTS: Children aged 2-9 years (n 2508, 50·4 % boys). RESULTS: The CEHQ-FFQ provided higher intake estimates for most of the food groups than the 24-HDR. De-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients ranged from 0·01 (sweetened fruit) to 0·48 (sweetened milk) in children aged 2-<6 years (mean = 0·25) and from 0·01 (milled cereal) to 0·44 (water) in children aged 6-9 years (mean = 0·23). An average of 32 % and 31 % of food group intakes were assigned to the same quartile in younger and older children, respectively, and classification into extreme opposite quartiles was ?12 % for all food groups in both age groups. Mean ? w was 0·20 for 2-<6-year-olds and 0·17 for 6-9-year-olds. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of association estimates assessed by the CEHQ-FFQ and the 24-HDR varied by food group and by age group. Observed level of agreement and CEHQ-FFQ ability to rank children according to intakes of food groups were considered to be low.
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Reproducibility and validity of a food frequency questionnaire in assessing dietary intakes of low-income Caucasian postpartum women living in Sheffield, United Kingdom.
Matern Child Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility and validity of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing dietary intakes of low-income, Caucasian, English-speaking, postpartum women living in Sheffield, United Kingdom. Data was obtained from a cross-sectional sample of the Healthy Start study; a population-based survey of mothers and infants. Participants completed two FFQs at 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Measures from 24-hour dietary recalls (24HDRs) were collected at 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks postpartum. In the reproducibility study, crude Pearsons correlation coefficients ranged from 0.40 (riboflavin) to 0.73 (thiamine), mean value 0.54. In the validation study, crude Pearson correlation coefficients between the FFQ and the measures from the 24HDRs ranged from 0.10 (B12) to 0.55 (manganese), mean value 0.34. Energy-adjustments and corrections for attenuation had no significant effect on the strength of the correlation both observed in the reproducibility and validity study. On average, 68% of the participants were classified correctly, and 3% were misclassified into the extreme opposite quintile of the distribution. The authors conclude that the questionnaire performed well for the majority of nutrients examined and that is a valid tool for ranking individuals according to nutrient distribution.
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Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from traditional families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. Hunger, taste, health concerns and parents or guardian were the most important influences on the adolescents food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents.
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Plant and animal protein intake and its association with overweight and obesity among the Belgian population.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2010
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The objective of the present study was to assess animal and plant protein intakes in the Belgian population and to examine their relationship with overweight and obesity (OB). The subjects participated in the Belgian National Food Consumption Survey conducted in 2004. Food consumption was assessed by using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. About 3083 participants ( ? 15 years of age; 1546 males, 1537 females) provided completed dietary information. Animal protein intake (47 g/d) contributed more to total protein intakes of 72 g/d than plant protein intake, which accounted for 25 g/d. Meat and meat products were the main contributors to total animal protein intakes (53 %), whereas cereals and cereal products contributed most to plant protein intake (54 %). Males had higher animal and plant protein intakes than females (P < 0·001). Legume and soya protein intakes were low in the whole population (0·101 and 0·174 g/d, respectively). In males, animal protein intake was positively associated with BMI (? = 0·013; P = 0·001) and waist circumference (WC; ? = 0·041; P = 0·002). Both in males and females, plant protein intake was inversely associated with BMI (males: ? = - 0·036; P < 0·001; females: ? = - 0·046; P = 0·001) and WC (male: ? = - 0·137; P < 0·001; female: ? = - 0·096; P = 0·024). In conclusion, plant protein intakes were lower than animal protein intakes among a representative sample of the Belgian population and decreased with age. Associations with anthropometric data indicated that plant proteins could offer a protective effect in the prevention of overweight and OB in the Belgian population.
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Are the benefits of the Healthy Start food support scheme sustained at three months postpartum? Results from the Sheffield before and after study.
Matern Child Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2010
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Early results examining nutritional behaviour of Caucasian, English-speaking, postpartum women living in Sheffield, who were beneficiaries or eligible for the Welfare Food Scheme (WFS) or the Healthy Start (HS) scheme, suggested significant between-groups differences. The aim of this study was to examine whether differences observed at 4 weeks postpartum were sustained over time. Eighty-six WFS and 64 HS participants were recruited at baseline and, thereafter, 53 WFS and 33 HS participants at week 8, and 47 WFS and 39 HS participants at week 12. Dietary intakes were assessed by an interviewer-administered, semi-quantified food frequency questionnaire. At 4 weeks, HS women had higher energy intakes compared to WFS women, (9.7 MJ and 8.1 MJ, respectively). Differences were also sustained at 8 weeks, (8.8 MJ and 7.2 MJ) and 12 weeks (9.4 MJ and 7.6 MJ) for the HS and WFS participants, respectively. Within-groups, energy and most of nutrient intakes did not change appreciably over time. Consumption of fruit and vegetables at baseline, were significantly higher (P = 0.023) for participants under the HS scheme (3.4 portions) compared to WFS participants (2.7 portions). Differences were sustained over time as HS women reported consuming 4.1 and 3.7 portions/day respectively at 8 and 12 weeks, as opposed to 2.8 and 2.7 portions/day reported by WFS women. The study findings provided evidence of the potential effectiveness of the HS scheme in a population subgroup at risk of dietary deficiencies. Early findings could provide a useful snapshot of the diet of such mobile population and should be further exploited.
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Effect of the introduction of Healthy Start on dietary behaviour during and after pregnancy: early results from the before and after Sheffield study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
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The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the introduction of a new food-support benefit Healthy Start (HS) on dietary intakes and eating patterns of low-income, Caucasian, pregnant and postpartum women living in Sheffield (UK). A before-and-after study comparing nutritional behaviour of participants, who were beneficiaries or eligible for the Welfare Food Scheme (WFS) (phase 1) or HS (phase 2), was conducted. Dietary intakes and eating patterns were assessed using a validated semi-quantified FFQ. In phase 1, 176 WFS subjects (ninety pregnant and eighty-six postpartum) were recruited and in phase 2, there were 160 HS subjects (ninety-six pregnant and sixty-four postpartum). The results suggested that pregnant and postpartum HS women significantly increased their daily intakes of energy, Fe, Ca, folate and vitamin C compared with the WFS women. Observed differences remained significant after controlling for potential confounding effects of known factors, i.e. education and age. HS women were more likely to meet the recommended nutrient intakes for Fe, folate, Ca and vitamin C. HS women ate significantly more mean portions of fruit and vegetables per d (P = 0.004 and P = 0.023) respectively. None of the HS recipients was receiving HS vitamin supplements. The present study showed that pregnant and postpartum HS women increased their food consumption, and a higher proportion of them than the earlier WFS scheme met the recommended intakes for Ca, folate, Fe and vitamin C.
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Validation of the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents by comparison with biomarkers, nutrient and food intakes: the HELENA study.
Br. J. Nutr.
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Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim to address the nutritional requirements at population level in order to prevent diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle. Diet quality indices can be used to assess the compliance with these FBDG. The present study aimed to investigate whether the newly developed Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) is a good surrogate measure for adherence to FBDG, and whether adherence to these FBDG effectively leads to better nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in adolescents. Participants included 1804 European adolescents who were recruited in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes and blood concentration biomarkers were investigated using multilevel regression analysis corrected for centre, age and sex. DQI-A scores were associated with food intake in the expected direction: positive associations with nutrient-dense food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and inverse associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo-transcobalamin and n-3 fatty acid serum levels. The present study has shown good validity of the DQI-A by confirming the expected associations with food and nutrient intakes and some biomarkers in blood.
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Diet-obesity associations in children: approaches to counteract attenuation caused by misreporting.
Public Health Nutr
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Measurement errors in dietary data lead to attenuated estimates of associations between dietary exposures and health outcomes. The present study aimed to compare and evaluate different approaches of handling implausible reports by exemplary analysis of the association between dietary intakes (total energy, soft drinks, fruits/vegetables) and overweight/obesity in children.
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Food consumption and screen-based sedentary behaviors in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med
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To examine the association between time spent on different sedentary behaviors and consumption of certain food and beverage groups in a sample of European adolescents.
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Relationship between markers of body fat and calcaneal bone stiffness differs between preschool and primary school children: results from the IDEFICS baseline survey.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between markers of body fat and bone status assessed as calcaneal bone stiffness in a large sample of European healthy pre- and primary school children. Participants were 7,447 children from the IDEFICS study (spread over eight different European countries), age 6.1 ± 1.8 years (range 2.1-9.9), 50.5 % boys. Anthropometric measurements (weight, height, bioelectrical impedance, waist and hip circumference, and tricipital and subscapular skinfold thickness) as well as quantitative ultrasonographic measurements to determine calcaneal stiffness index (SI) were performed. Partial correlation analysis, linear regression analysis, and ANCOVA were stratified by sex and age group: preschool boys (n = 1,699) and girls (n = 1,599) and primary school boys (n = 2,062) and girls (n = 2,087). In the overall study population, the average calcaneal SI was equal to 80.2 ± 14.0, ranging 42.4-153. The results showed that preschool children with higher body fat had lower calcaneal SI (significant correlation coefficients between -0.05 and -0.20), while primary school children with higher body fat had higher calcaneal SI (significant correlation coefficients between 0.05 and 0.13). After adjusting for fat-free mass, both preschool and primary school children showed an inverse relationship between body fat and calcaneal stiffness. To conclude, body fat is negatively associated with calcaneal bone stiffness in children after adjustment for fat-free mass. Fat-free mass may confound the association in primary school children but not in preschool children. Muscle mass may therefore be an important determinant of bone stiffness.
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Associations of dietary calcium, vitamin D, milk intakes, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D with bone mass in Spanish adolescents: the HELENA study.
J Clin Densitom
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Adequate nutrition is needed for the accrual of bone mass during the pre- and postpubertal growth periods. This study aimed to examine the associations between dietary calcium, vitamin D (calciferol), and milk intakes and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status and bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in Spanish adolescents, aged 12.5-17.5 years, participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). Bone mass was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and diet via 2 nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls (n=227; 48% males). A random subsample of 101 adolescents (46% males) had available measures of 25(OH)D. Multiple linear regression was applied. Significant adjusted associations were observed in males, among milk intakes and BMC and BMD. Also in males, whole-body, head, and right arm BMD were positively related to calcium intakes. In females, 25(OH)D was positively related among others to whole-body, subtotal, and left and right arm BMC and BMD. It could be speculated that diet is not a limiting factor of bone mass development in this group of healthy adolescents, and further research on the effect of other factors in addition to diet in a larger sample should be undertaken.
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Parental education and frequency of food consumption in European children: the IDEFICS study.
Public Health Nutr
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To assess the relationship between parental education level and the consumption frequency of obesity-related foods in European children.
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