The intestinal microbiome might be an important contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that oral administration of Bifidobacterium species (spp.) (including B. longum, B. bifidum, B. infantis, and B. animalis) may both ameliorate insulin resistance and reduce the expressions of inflammatory adipocytokines. Male Swiss-Webster mice fed a high-fat diet with or without oral administration of Bifidobacterium spp. for 5 weeks were subjected to an insulin tolerance test and an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma levels of glucose at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after insulin injection or glucose administration were significantly lower in the Bifidobacterium spp. than in the control group (P < 0.05), showing the beneficial effect of oral administration on insulin resistance in obese Swiss mice. In addition, Bifidobacterium spp. increased the adiponectin mRNA level and decreased those of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin 6 in non-diabetic C57BL/6J mice fed a normal diet, indicating a molecular mechanism which may ameliorate the inflammatory state, thereby reducing insulin resistance. In conclusion, oral administration of Bifidobacterium spp. improves insulin resistance and glucose tolerance in obese mice by reducing inflammation, as it does in the lean state.
Resistance to artemisinin derivatives, the most potent antimalarial drugs currently used, has emerged in Southeast Asia and threatens to spread to Africa. We report a case of malaria in a man who returned to Vietnam after 3 years in Angola that did not respond to intravenous artesunate and clindamycin or an oral artemisinin-based combination.
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the anatomic localization of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in naturally infected pigs and to determine whether oral fluid could be used to detect the virus in infected animals. Two sows, seven 2-month-old grower pigs, and 70 6-month-old gilts were included in this study. PRRSV in sera and oral fluid were identified by nested reverse transcription PCR (nRT-PCR) while lung, tonsil, and tissue associated with oral cavity were subjected to nRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization. In sows, PRRSV was identified in oral fluid and tonsils. PRRSV was also detected in oral fluid, tonsils, salivary glands, oral mucosa, and lungs of all seven grower pigs. However, viremia was observed in only two grower pigs. Double staining revealed that PRRSV was distributed in macrophages within and adjacent to the tonsillar crypt epithelium. In gilts, the North American type PRRSV field strain was detected 3 to 8 weeks after introducing these animals onto the farm. These results confirm previous findings that PRRSV primarily replicates in tonsils and is then shed into oral fluid. Therefore, oral fluid sampling may be effective for the surveillance of PRRSV in breeding herds.
The objectives of this study were to quantify Salmonella counts on retail raw poultry meat in Vietnam and to phenotypically characterize (serovars and antibiotic resistance) the isolates. A total of 300 chicken carcasses were collected from two cities and two provinces in Vietnam. Salmonella counts on the samples were determined according to the most-probable-number (MPN) method of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS). A total of 457 isolates were serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Overall, 48.7% of chicken samples were Salmonella positive with a count of 2.0 log MPN per carcass. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in log MPN per carcass by the study variables (market type, storage condition, and chicken production system). There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in Salmonella-positive prevalence by chicken production system. Among the 22 Salmonella serovars identified, Albany was the most frequent (34.1%), followed by Agona (15.5%) and Dabou (8.8%). Resistance to at least one antibiotic was common (i.e., 73.3%), with high resistance to tetracycline (59.1%) and ampicillin (41.6%). Resistance to three antibiotics was the most frequently found multidrug resistance profile (17.7%, n = 81); the profile that was resistant to the highest number of drugs was resistant to nine antibiotics (0.7%, n = 3). Only Salmonella Albany posed phenotypic resistance to ceftriaxone (a drug of choice to treat severe cases of salmonellosis). The data revealed that, whereas Salmonella prevalence on raw poultry was high (48.7%), counts were low, which suggests that the exposure risk to Salmonella is low. However, improper storage of raw chicken meat and cross-contamination may increase Salmonella cell counts and pose a greater risk for infection. These data may be helpful in developing risk assessment models and preventing the transmission of foodborne Salmonella from poultry to humans in Vietnam.
Sirtuins are protein deacetylases regulating metabolism and stress responses. The seven human Sirtuins (Sirt1-7) are attractive drug targets, but Sirtuin inhibition mechanisms are mostly unidentified. We report the molecular mechanism of Sirtuin inhibition by 6-chloro-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazole-1-carboxamide (Ex-527). Inhibitor binding to potently inhibited Sirt1 and Thermotoga maritima Sir2 and to moderately inhibited Sirt3 requires NAD(+), alone or together with acetylpeptide. Crystal structures of several Sirtuin inhibitor complexes show that Ex-527 occupies the nicotinamide site and a neighboring pocket and contacts the ribose of NAD(+) or of the coproduct 2-O-acetyl-ADP ribose. Complex structures with native alkylimidate and thio-analog support its catalytic relevance and show, together with biochemical assays, that only the coproduct complex is relevant for inhibition by Ex-527, which stabilizes the closed enzyme conformation preventing product release. Ex-527 inhibition thus exploits Sirtuin catalysis, and kinetic isoform differences explain its selectivity. Our results provide insights in Sirtuin catalysis and inhibition with important implications for drug development.
Current insulin therapy via subcutaneous administration can lead to occasional hypoglycemia and peripheral hyperinsulinemia, due to its nonphysiological route. This study evaluates the feasibility of using bovine insulin and exendin-4 in a form of combination therapy, as orally delivered by nanoparticles composed of chitosan and poly(?-glutamic acid) (CS/?PGA NPs), to control blood glucose levels in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) undergoing the oral glucose tolerance test. Experimental results indicate that CS/?PGA NPs could enhance the intestinal paracellular permeation; consequently, the exogenous bovine insulin and exendin-4 could be delivered into the liver and pancreas, where they could elicit their glucoregulatory activities. In response to the stimulus of exogenously delivered bovine insulin and the endogenously secreted rat insulin stimulated by the ingested exendin-4, significant glucose utilizations were found in the cardiac and skeletal muscles, resulting in the glucose-lowering effect. Owing to its synergic stimulation effects, the hypoglycemic effect of oral ingestion of NPs containing bovine insulin and exendin-4 was significantly greater than that of the group solely treated with insulin NPs. Above results demonstrate that oral combination therapy with bovine insulin and exendin-4 improves the modulation of blood glucose levels in T2DM rats, making it highly promising for treating those T2DM patients not adequately controlled by the current insulin therapy.
Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases that regulate metabolism and aging processes and are considered to be attractive therapeutic targets. Most available sirtuin modulators are little understood mechanistically, hindering their improvement. SRT1720 was initially described as an activator of human Sirt1, but it also potently inhibits human Sirt3. Here, the molecular mechanism of the inhibition of Sirt3 by SRT1720 is described. A crystal structure of Sirt3 in complex with SRT1720 and an NAD(+) analogue reveals that the compound partially occupies the acetyl-Lys binding site, thus explaining the reported competition with the peptide substrate. The compound packs against a hydrophobic protein patch and binds with its opposite surface to the NAD(+) nicotinamide, resulting in an exceptionally tight sandwich-like interaction. The observed arrangement rationalizes the uncompetitive inhibition with NAD(+), and binding measurements confirm that the nicotinamide moiety of NAD(+) supports inhibitor binding. Consistently, no inhibitor is bound in a second crystal structure of Sirt3 that was solved complexed with ADP-ribose and crystallized in the presence of SRT1720. These results reveal a novel sirtuin inhibitor binding site and mechanism, and provide a structural basis for compound improvement.
Sirtuins are protein deacetylases regulating aging processes and various physiological functions. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in red wine, activates human Sirt1 and inhibits Sirt3, and it can mimic calorie restriction effects, such as lifespan extension in lower organisms. The mechanism of Sirtuin modulation by resveratrol is not well understood. We used 4-bromo-resveratrol (5-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)vinyl)-1,3-benzenediol) to study Sirt1 and Sirt3 modulation. Despite its similarity to the Sirt1 activator resveratrol, the compound potently inhibited both, Sirt1 and Sirt3. Crystal structures of Sirt3 in complex with a fluorophore-labeled and with a native substrate peptide, respectively, in presence of 4-bromo-resveratrol reveal two compound binding sites. Biochemical studies identify the internal site and substrate competition as the mechanism for inhibition, providing a drug target site, and homology modeling suggests that the second, allosteric site might indicate the site for Sirt1 activation.
The receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANK) and its ligand RANKL, which belong to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-ligand family, mediate osteoclastogenesis. The crystal structure of the RANKL ectodomain (eRANKL) in complex with the RANK ectodomain (eRANK) combined with biochemical assays of RANK mutants indicated that three RANK loops (Loop1, Loop2, and Loop3) bind to the interface of a trimeric eRANKL. Loop3 is particularly notable in that it is structurally distinctive from other TNF-family receptors and forms extensive contacts with RANKL. The disulfide bond (C125-C127) at the tip of Loop3 is important for determining the unique topology of Loop3, and docking E126 close to RANKL, which was supported by the inability of C127A or E126A mutants of RANK to bind to RANKL. Inhibitory activity of RANK mutants, which contain loops of osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble decoy receptor to RANKL, confirmed that OPG shares the similar binding mode with RANK and OPG. Loop3 plays a key role in RANKL binding. Peptide inhibitors designed to mimic Loop3 blocked the RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclast precursors, suggesting that they could be developed as therapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoporosis and bone-related diseases. Furthermore, some of the RANK mutations associated with autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (ARO) resulted in reduced RANKL-binding activity and failure to induce osteoclastogenesis. These results, together with structural interpretation of eRANK-eRANKL interaction, provided molecular understanding for pathogenesis of ARO.
Ribosomal RNA sequences (361 or 362bp) of the second internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS-2) and a portion of mitochondrial cox1 (423bp) for Fasciola spp. obtained from specimens collected in indigenous and hybrid goats and sheep in Vietnam were characterized for genotypic status and hybridization/introgression. Alignment of 48 ITS-2 sequences (also those from goats and sheep in this study) indicates that F. gigantica and F. hepatica differ typically from each other at seven sites whereas one of these is a distinguishing deletion (T) at the 327th position in F. gigantica relative to F. hepatica. The isolates from the mountainous goats in the North of Vietnam (Yen Bai province) showed the ITS-2 composition relatively identical to that of F. hepatica. The ITS-2 sequences from populations of Fasciola isolates in goats had probably experienced introgression/hybridization as reported previously in other ruminants and humans. All Vietnamese goat-of-origin specimens had high pairwise percentage of mitochondrial cox1 sequences to F. gigantica (97-100%), and very low identity to F. hepatica (91-93%), suggesting their maternal linkage to be traced to F. gigantica. The presence of hybrid and/or introgressed populations of liver flukes bearing genetic material from both F. hepatica and F. gigantica in the goats/sheep in Vietnam, regardless of indigenous or imported hosts, appears to be the first demonstration from a tropical country.
Sirtuins are protein deacetylases regulating metabolism, stress responses, and aging processes, and they were suggested to mediate the lifespan extending effect of a low calorie diet. Sirtuin activation by the polyphenol resveratrol can mimic such lifespan extending effects and alleviate metabolic diseases. The mechanism of Sirtuin stimulation is unknown, hindering the development of improved activators. Here we show that resveratrol inhibits human Sirt3 and stimulates Sirt5, in addition to Sirt1, against fluorophore-labeled peptide substrates but also against peptides and proteins lacking the non-physiological fluorophore modification. We further present crystal structures of Sirt3 and Sirt5 in complex with fluorogenic substrate peptide and modulator. The compound acts as a top cover, closing the Sirtuins polypeptide binding pocket and influencing details of peptide binding by directly interacting with this substrate. Our results provide a mechanism for the direct activation of Sirtuins by small molecules and suggest that activators have to be tailored to a specific Sirtuin/substrate pair.
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