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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Use and results of consensus definitions in pancreatic surgery: a systematic review.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Because of the lack of standardized definitions of complications in gastrointestinal operations, consensus definitions have been developed in recent years. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the available consensus definitions and to report their use, acceptance, and results.
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Molecular analysis of pancreatic acinar cell cystadenomas: Evidence of a non-neoplastic nature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The biology of pancreatic acinar cell cystadenomas has not been clearly defined. However, a non-neoplastic process, caused by a cell differentiation failure leading to a cystic transformation, has been discussed, as well as a benign neoplastic lesion. Pancreatic acinar cell cystadenomas usually consist of thin-walled unilocular or multilocular cysts, and mural nodules have been described in two cases of a recent series. In one of these nodules, chromosomal imbalances were detected, which provided preliminary evidence for a neoplastic process. The aim of the current study was to further characterize the lesions by molecular analyses. In four cases without mural nodules, the clonality was assessed by performing mutational analyses within the highly variable displacement-loop region of the mitochondrial DNA. As a result, no closer correlation was identified between different foci within the tumors than between the tumors and adjacent normal pancreatic acinar tissue, indicating polyclonality of these lesions. Further molecular analyses revealed no mutations of the ?-catenin and K-ras genes. In addition, no immunohistochemical evidence was identified for mutations of Smad4 or p53. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated that pancreatic acinar cell cystadenomas are non-neoplastic lesions, with the potential exception of those rare cases with mural nodules.
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Comparative analysis of late functional outcome following preoperative radiation therapy or chemoradiotherapy and surgery or surgery alone in rectal cancer.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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This study evaluates the anorectal and genitourinary function of patients treated by preoperative short-term radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery and surgery alone for rectal cancer.
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Impact of Preoperative Diabetes on Long-Term Survival After Curative Resection of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is coupled to the risk and symptomatic onset of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The important question whether DM influences the prognosis of resected PDAC has not been systematically evaluated in the literature. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the impact of preoperative DM on survival after curative surgery.
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Validation of the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer definition and severity grading of anastomotic leakage.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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The International Study Group of Rectal Cancer (ISREC) has proposed a generally applicable definition and severity grading of (AL) after sphincter-preserving resection of the rectum. This work has been carried out to test for validity.
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MHC class II expression in pancreatic tumors: a link to intratumoral inflammation.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
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Major histocompatibility complex class II antigens (MHC class II) are constitutively expressed by professional antigen presenting cells and present antigenic peptides to specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. MHC class II expression, however, can also be induced on epithelial cells and in a variety of solid tumors. We tested MHC class II expression on tissue samples derived from patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET). Immunohistochemistry revealed MHC class II expression in 86 of 112 (76.8%) PDAC samples and in 30 of 43 (70.0%) PET samples. In PDAC and PET, MHC class II expression correlated significantly with severity and activity of intratumoral inflammation, as well as with the infiltration of CD4+ T lymphocytes. High MHC class II expression significantly correlated with a better histological grade of differentiation in PDAC. In vitro MHC class II expression could be induced on PDAC tumor cell lines by interferon-?. These cells were then able to present the staphylococci enterotoxin B superantigen to T lymphocytes, which resulted in T cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that MHC class II expression on pancreatic tumor cells is induced by the intratumoral inflammatory reaction in pancreatic tumors.
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Low expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is a prognostic marker for poor survival in pancreatic cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been characterised as a cancer stem cell marker in different types of tumours. Additionally, it plays a pivotal role in gene regulation and endows tumour cells with augmented chemoresistance. Recently, ALDH1A1 has been described as a prognostic marker in a pancreatic cancer tissue microarray. The aim of this study was to reevaluate the expression of ALDH1A1 as a prognostic marker on whole-mount tissue sections.
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Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Erythropoietin (Epo) administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
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Expression of galectin-3 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Galectin-3 influences neoangiogenesis, tumor cell adhesion, and tumor-immune-escape mechanisms. Hence, the expression of galectin-3 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) was evaluated. Galectin-3 expression in PDAC cell lines was proven by the presence of intracellular protein and by release into the supernatant. Furthermore, galectin-3 was found in the majority of human tissue samples. Serum concentrations of galectin-3 in PDAC patients did not differ significantly from healthy donors and did not correlate with established tumor markers. In conclusion, galectin-3 is expressed in PDAC tissues suggesting a role in tumor development; however, no relationship between expression and clinical findings could be established.
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Impact of the histone deacetylase inhibitor 4-phenylbutyrate on the clearance of apoptotic pancreatic carcinoma cells by human macrophages.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been found to have potent anticancer activities, partly induced by tumour cell apoptosis. The clearance of apoptotic tumour cells is an important mechanism of antitumour immune surveillance. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB) and its immunological effects on the macrophage clearance of apoptotic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells. To this end, a co-culture system of human macrophages from donors and PDAC patients, and PDAC cell lines (T3M4, PANC-1 and AsPC-1) was established to study the effect of 4-PB. Apoptosis and phagocytic activity were analysed using flow cytometry, and phagocytosis was confirmed by confocal microscopy. Further, p21 expression was quantified by immunoblot analysis. 4-PB treatment (0-10 mM) resulted in a dose-dependent induction of tumour cell apoptosis in two of the cell lines (T3M4 and PANC-1), but it also induced human macrophage apoptosis. The apoptotic effect of gemcitabine on PDAC cells was further enhanced by 4-PB. Moreover, 4-PB led to a dose-dependent overexpression of the cell cycle regulator p21 in tumour cells. In co-culture, apoptotic PDAC cells were phagocytosed by donor macrophages and phagocytosis was increased through tumour cell exposure to 4-PB and/or gemcitabine, whereas phagocytosis of PANC-1 cells was reduced using macrophages of PDAC patients treated with 4-PB. The 4-PB treatment induced human macrophage expression of the pro-angiogenic IL-8 and simultaneously inhibited inflammatory cytokine release through modulation of IL-10 and TNF? after phagocytosis of apoptotic PDAC cells. In conclusion, the 4-PB treatment activated tumour cell death in PDAC cells, resulting in tumour cell phagocytosis by macrophages. The latter were characterized by an anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokine response demonstrating adverse, tumour-promoting effects of macrophages on tumour cells. Thus, the potential of 4-PB as an anticancer agent against PDAC cannot be reliably assessed without taking into account the complex tumour microenvironment.
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Reduced hydrophobicity of the colonic mucosal surface in ulcerative colitis as a hint at a physicochemical barrier defect.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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There is increasing evidence that a defect of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier is important for the development of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The hydrophobicity of the colonic mucosal surface is a measure of its resistance to luminal antigens, e.g. of bacterial origin. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine this parameter in patients suffering from IBD.
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Elevated L1CAM expression in precursor lesions and primary and metastastic tissues of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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The promigratory molecule L1CAM is overexpressed in various tumors, often representing an unfavorable prognostic marker. Recently, we identified L1CAM expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells accounting for chemoresistance and increased cell migration. Thus, the present study aims at further elucidating the role of L1CAM in a larger cohort of PDAC specimens including precursor lesions and metastasis. L1CAM expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in tissues of 123 patients including tissues of 110 primary PDACs, 15 lymph node metastases and 14 liver metastases. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed L1CAM expression in 92.7% of primary PDACs, 80% of lymph node metastases and 100% of liver metastases. Furthermore, we have investigated PDAC precursors, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions, revealing a significant increase of L1CAM expression with the PanIN grade (6.4 and 6.8% in PanIN 1A and B, 35% in PanIN 2 and 20% in PanIN 3). The elevated expression of L1CAM already found in PanINs points to a role of L1CAM quite early in tumorigenesis of PDAC. Furthermore, its broad expression in primary tumors as well as in metastases of PDAC patients provide a rationale to further explore the value of L1CAM as a therapeutic target in the treatment of this highly malignant tumor.
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EAES recommendations on methodology of innovation management in endoscopic surgery.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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Under the mandate of the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES) a guideline on methodology of innovation management in endoscopic surgery has been developed. The primary focus of this guideline is patient safety, efficacy, and effectiveness.
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Eps8 is recruited to lysosomes and subjected to chaperone-mediated autophagy in cancer cells.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Eps8 controls actin dynamics directly through its barbed end capping and actin-bundling activity, and indirectly by regulating Rac-activation when engaged into a trimeric complex with Eps8-Abi1-Sos1. Recently, Eps8 has been associated with promotion of various solid malignancies, but neither its mechanisms of action nor its regulation in cancer cells have been elucidated. Here, we report a novel association of Eps8 with the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment, which is independent from actin polymerization and specifically occurs in cancer cells. Endogenous Eps8 localized to large vesicular lysosomal structures in metastatic pancreatic cancer cell lines, such as AsPC-1 and Capan-1 that display high Eps8 levels. Additionally, ectopic expression of Eps8 increased the size of lysosomes. Structure-function analysis revealed that the region encompassing the amino acids 184-535 of Eps8 was sufficient to mediate lysosomal recruitment. Notably, this fragment harbors two KFERQ-like motifs required for chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). Furthermore, Eps8 co-immunoprecipitated with Hsc70 and LAMP-2, which are key elements for the CMA degradative pathway. Consistently, in vitro, a significant fraction of Eps8 bound to (11.9+/-5.1%) and was incorporated into (5.3+/-6.5%) lysosomes. Additionally, Eps8 binding to lysosomes was competed by other known CMA-substrates. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that Eps8 recruitment to the lysosomal membrane was highly dynamic. Collectively, these results indicate that Eps8 in certain human cancer cells specifically localizes to lysosomes, and is directed to CMA. These results open a new field for the investigation of how Eps8 is regulated and contributes to tumor promotion in human cancers.
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Feasibility and effectiveness of a new algorithm in preventing hepatic artery thrombosis after liver transplantation.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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The incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) after liver transplantation (LTx) is up to 9% in adult recipients.
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Actinin-4 expression in primary and metastasized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Actinin-4 is an actin-bundling protein that probably has a tumor-promoting potential in several solid tumors. The present study analyzed the expression of actinin-4 in the pancreas, in localized and metastasized pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), and the correlation with clinical outcome.
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Transplantation of a severely lacerated liver--a case report with review of the literature.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2009
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Using lacerated livers for liver transplantation (LTx) can add an option to the extended donor criteria. We present an LTx case using a severely lacerated liver and review of the literature for reported cases. We used a high-grade lacerated liver from a 19-yr-old brain-dead patient caused by traffic accident. The liver had grade IV and II lacerations in the right and left lobe, respectively. Lacerations were managed by sealants, stitching and perihepatic packing. The liver was transplanted to a 49-yr-old man suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma on hepatitis C-induced liver cirrhosis. The two-yr follow-up was uneventful. All published LTx cases using traumatized livers (n = 18) were analyzed. The liver injury ranged from subcapsular hematoma to deep ruptures. Most reported lacerations were in the right lobe, which were managed by digital compression, suturing, electrocautery, and perihepatic packing. The reported complications were primary non- (18%), or poor function, liver abscess, bilioma, and subhepatic hematoma each in one case (5.5%). Six-month graft and patient survival were 71% and 88%, respectively. With meticulous management lacerated livers can be transplanted successfully. Because of complexity of the management, procurement and transplantation should be done by experienced liver surgeons. These organs are marginal grafts and should be offered to selected patients.
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Alterations of phospholipid concentration and species composition of the intestinal mucus barrier in ulcerative colitis: a clue to pathogenesis.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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Phospholipids are essential for the normal function of the intestinal mucus barrier. The objective of this study was to systematically investigate phospholipids in the intestinal mucus of humans suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases, where a barrier defect is strongly supposed to be pathogenetic.
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Comparative analysis of tumorbiology and CD133 positivity in primary and recurrent pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2009
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In over 70% of the cases, patients with curative surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) develop recurrent tumors. The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that CSCs are chemoresistant and enriched in recurrent tumors. This study analyzes tumorbiology, expression of the metastasis-promoting CXCR4 and actinin-4, and of the CSC marker CD133 in primary and recurrent PDAC. Twenty-six patients underwent resection for primary and recurrent PDAC and most developed tumor recurrence within 2 years. In 81% the histologic tumor grade was unchanged. Immunohistochemistry could be performed with 15 pairs of primary and recurrent PDAC. The mean Ki-67 proliferation index increased (P = 0.06). About 30% of tumor cells were positive for CXCR4 and almost all tumor cells expressed actinin-4, but there were neither significant changes in the expression levels in recurrent PDAC, nor specifically enhanced levels in metastases. The prominent CD133 pattern was an apical membrane staining of inflammatorily altered, non-neoplastic ductal structures equally observed in primary and recurrent PDAC. The membrane CD133 positivity was consistently absent in neoplastic PDAC cells. Cytoplasmic CD133 positivity was extremely rare (0.85 and 0.34 cells/cm(2) in primary and recurrent PDAC, respectively; P = 0.07). Tumor grade is mainly unchanged and the expression of CXCR4, actinin-4 and CD133 are not enhanced in recurrent PDAC. The apical membrane CD133 positivity of normal and inflammatorily altered ductal structures and its lack in tumor cells bring the role of CD133 as a specific CSC marker in PDAC into question.
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Vascular resection in pancreatic cancer surgery: survival determinants.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is the standard operation for cancer of the pancreatic head. To achieve complete tumor resection and, thus, improve long-term survival, venous resection of the portal or superior mesenteric vein with reconstruction has become routine for advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, its clinical benefit still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate morbidity, mortality, and survival of patients with advanced PDAC following PD with venous resection and to identify significant survival determinants.
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Long-term success rate after surgical treatment of anorectal and rectovaginal fistulas in Crohns disease.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Due to the considerable variety in the clinical presentation of anorectal and rectovaginal fistulas in Crohns disease, data on treatment results for each type of fistula are limited. The aim of this study was to summarize the results after surgical treatment of such fistulas in a large consecutive series of patients.
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Palladin is a dynamic actin-associated protein in podocytes.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Palladin, a cytoskeletal protein with essential functions for stress fiber formation, is found in developing and mature tissues, including the kidney. To define its role in the kidney, we measured its expression in mouse kidney and found it co-localized with F-actin in smooth muscle cells of renal arterial vessels, mesangial cells, and podocytes but not in tubular epithelium. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we confirmed that palladin was present in podocytes. In cultured mouse podocytes, palladin co-localized with F-actin in dense regions of stress fibers, focal adhesions, cell-cell contacts and motile cell margins. Transfection with the N-terminal half of palladin targeted it to F-actin-containing structures in podocytes while the C-terminal half accumulated in the nucleus, a result also found for endogenous palladin in cultured cells after leptomycin B was used to block nuclear export. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged palladin was found in dynamic ring-like F-actin structures and ruffles in cultured podocytes after stimulation with epidermal growth factor. Inhibition of palladin expression by transfection of an antisense construct reduced the formation of ring-like structures. Photo-bleaching analysis showed that GFP-palladin turned over with a half-time of 10 s in focal adhesions and dense regions of stress fibers, suggesting that palladin is a dynamic scaffolding protein. Our study shows that palladin is expressed in podocytes and plays an important role in actin dynamics.
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Results of extralevator abdominoperineal resection for low rectal cancer including quality of life and long-term wound complications.
Int J Colorectal Dis
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Extralevator abdominoperineal resection (APR) for low rectal cancer has been adopted by centers to improve oncological outcome. The present study aimed to investigate oncological results, wound complications, and quality of life (QoL).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.