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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Titanium nanoparticles inhalation induces renal fibrosis in mice via an oxidative stress-up-regulated transforming growth factor-? pathway.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Nano-TiO2) are gradually extensively used in the clinical, industry and daily life. Accumulation studies showed that Nano-TiO2 exposure is able to cause injuries in various animal organs, including lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. However, it remains unclear whether exposure of Nano-TiO2 by inhalation causes renal fibrosis. Here, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-related signalling molecules in the chronic renal damage after Nano-TiO2 inhalation in mice. Mice were treated with Nano-TiO2 (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/week) or microparticle-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) by non-surgical intratracheal instillation for 4 weeks. The results showed that Nano-TiO2 inhalation increased renal pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. No renal pathological changes were observed in microparticle-TiO2-instilled mice. Nano-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) possessed the ability to precipitate in the kidneys determined by transmission electron microscopy and increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen. The expressions of markers of ROS/RNS and renal fibrosis markers, including nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-? (TGF?), and collagen I determined by immunohistochemical staining were increased in the kidneys. Furthermore, Nano-TiO2-induced renal injury could be mitigated by iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine treatment in transcription level. The in vitro experiments showed that Nano-TiO2 significantly and dose-dependently increased the ROS production and the expressions of HIF-1??and TGF? in human renal proximal tubular cells, which could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine treatment. Taken together, these results suggest Nano-TiO2 inhalation might induce the renal fibrosis through a ROS/RNS-related HIF-1?-up-regulated TGF-? signalling pathway.
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Phage Display-Mediated Discovery of Novel Tyrosinase-Targeting Tetrapeptide Inhibitors Reveals the Significance of N-Terminal Preference of Cysteine Residues and Their Functional Sulfur Atom.
Mol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Tyrosinase, a key copper-containing enzyme involved in melanin biosynthesis, is closely associated with hyperpigmentation disorders, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, and as such, it is an essential target in medicine and cosmetics. Known tyrosinase inhibitors possess adverse side effects, and there are no safety regulations, so there is the necessity to develop new inhibitors with fewer side effects and less toxicity. Peptides are exquisitely specific to their in vivo targets, with high potencies and relatively few off-target side effects. Thus, we systematically and comprehensively investigated the tyrosinase-inhibitory abilities of N- and C-terminal cysteine/tyrosine-constrained tetrapeptides by constructing a phage-display random tetrapeptide library and conducting computational molecular docking studies on novel tyrosinase tetrapeptide inhibitors. We found that N-terminal cysteine-constrained tetrapeptides exhibited the most potent tyrosinase-inhibitory abilities. The positional preference of cysteine residues at the N-terminus in the tetrapeptides significantly contributed to their tyrosinase-inhibitory function. The sulfur atom in cysteine moieties of N- and C-terminal cysteine-constrained tetrapeptides coordinated with copper ions which then tightly blocked substrate-binding sites. N- and C-terminal tyrosine-constrained tetrapeptides functioned as competitive inhibitors against mushroom tyrosinase by using the phenol ring of tyrosine to stack with the imidazole ring of His263, thus competing for the substrate-binding site. The N-terminal cysteine-constrained tetrapeptide, CRVI, exhibited the strongest tyrosinase-inhibitory potency (with an IC50 of 2.7 ± 0.5 ?M) which was superior to those of the known tyrosinase inhibitors (arbutin and kojic acid) and outperformed kojic acid-tripeptides, mimosine-FFY, and short-sequence oligopeptides at inhibiting mushroom tyrosinase.
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Regulation of Sufu activity by p66? and Mycbp provides new insight into vertebrate Hedgehog signaling.
Genes Dev.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Control of Gli function by Suppressor of Fused (Sufu), a major negative regulator, is a key step in mammalian Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, but how this is achieved in the nucleus is unknown. We found that Hh signaling results in reduced Sufu protein levels and Sufu dissociation from Gli proteins in the nucleus, highlighting critical functions of Sufu in the nucleus. Through a proteomic approach, we identified several Sufu-interacting proteins, including p66? (a member of the NuRD [nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase] repressor complex) and Mycbp (a Myc-binding protein). p66? negatively and Mycbp positively regulate Hh signaling in cell-based assays and zebrafish. They function downstream from the membrane receptors, Patched and Smoothened, and the primary cilium. Sufu, p66?, Mycbp, and Gli are also detected on the promoters of Hh targets in a dynamic manner. Our results support a new model of Hh signaling in the nucleus. Sufu recruits p66? to block Gli-mediated Hh target gene expression. Meanwhile, Mycbp forms a complex with Gli and Sufu without Hh stimulation but remains inactive. Hh pathway activation leads to dissociation of Sufu/p66? from Gli, enabling Mycbp to promote Gli protein activity and Hh target gene expression. These studies provide novel insight into how Sufu controls Hh signaling in the nucleus.
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Next-generation sequencing of nine atrial fibrillation candidate genes identified novel de novo mutations in patients with extreme trait of atrial fibrillation.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants in nine genomic regions associated with AF (KCNN3, PRRX1, PITX2, WNT8A, CAV1, C9orf3, SYNE2, HCN4 and ZFHX3 genes); however, the genetic variability of these risk variants does not explain the entire genetic susceptibility to AF. Rare variants missed by GWAS may also contribute to genetic risk of AF.
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Benzene absorption in a protuberant-grid-type zinc(ii)-organic framework triggered by the migration of guest water molecules.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The 2D protuberant-grid-type Zn(ii)-organic framework consists of unusual racemic interdigitated bilayers and comprises a 3D intersecting channel system. The framework is thermally stable and the channels contain multiple water aggregates. Accompanying the migration of guest water molecules, only the specific channels in the bilayers along the b axis can easily and efficiently absorb guest benzene molecules in a regular manner.
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Experience of Early Childhood Caries May Positively Correlate with Psychomotor Development.
Oral Health Prev Dent
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Purpose: To examine the as yet unknown relationship between dental caries and the child's psychomotor development. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed by screening the kindergartens from urban areas of two cities in southern Taiwan. Besides the personal, demographic and dietary information, the common measures for caries (dmft) and the amended comprehensive scales (CCDI) for psychomotor development were used to assess their relationship(s). A power analysis showed that 334 subjects would be required. One-way ANOVA vs multiple linear regression analysis were used to compare the differences of variables between gender, age and dmft scales, vs the relationship among all variables tested, respectively. Results: A total of 433 children completed the study. The results demonstrated that there was a positive relationship between higher (i.e. dmft ? 4 and 5) but not lower or extremely high caries experience and aspects of psychomotor development (i.e. personal-social and expressive language) in children aged 4 to 6 years. Conclusion: The present results are important for paediatric dentists, as they suggest a positive correlation between caries experience (dmft 3 to 6) and psychomotor development in pre-school children and that such a correlation may occur more significantly as an attribute of the most affected teeth (incisors and molars) during the critical stage of personal-social and expressive language development (speech-communication).
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Film-based Implants for Supporting Neuron-Electrode Integrated Interfaces for The Brain.
Adv Funct Mater
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Neural engineering provides promise for cell therapy by integrating the host brain with brain-machine-interface technologies in order to externally modulate functions. Long-term interfaces with the host brain remain a critical challenge due to insufficient graft cell survivability and loss of brain electrode sensitivity over time. Here, integrated neuron-electrode interfaces were developed on thin flexible and transparent silk films as brain implants. Mechanical properties and surface topography of silk films were optimized to promote cell survival and alignment of primary rat cortical cells. Compartmentalized cultures of living neural circuit and co-patterned electrode arrays were incorporated on the silk films with built-in wire connections. Electrical stimulation via electrodes embedded in the films activated surrounding neurons evoked calcium responses. In mice brains the silk film implants showed conformal contact capable of modulating host brain cells with minimal inflammatory response and stable indwelling for weeks. The approach of combining cell therapy and brain electrodes could provide sustained functional brain-machine interfaces with ex vivo control of neuron-electrode interface with spatial and temporal precision.
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Dendritic cells respond to nasopharygeal carcinoma cells through annexin A2-recognizing DC-SIGN.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Dendritic cells (DCs) play an essential role in immunity and are used in cancer immunotherapy. However, these cells can be tuned by tumors with immunosuppressive responses. DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-Grabbing Nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed on DCs, recognizes certain carbohydrate structures which can be found on cancer cells. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial cell-derived malignant tumor, in which immune response remains unclear. This research is to reveal the molecular link on NPC cells that induces the immunosuppressive responses in DCs. In this article, we report identification of annexin A2 (ANXA2) on NPC cells as a ligand for DC-SIGN on DCs. N-linked mannose-rich glycan on ANXA2 may mediate the interaction. ANXA2 was abundantly expressed in NPC, and knockdown of ANXA2 suppressed NPC xenograft in mice, suggesting a crucial role of ANXA2 in NPC growth. Interaction with NPC cells caused DC-SIGN activation in DCs. Consequently DC maturation and the proinflammatory interleukin (IL)-12 production were inhibited, and the immunosuppressive IL-10 production was promoted. Blockage of either DC-SIGN or ANXA2 eliminated the production of IL-10 from DCs. This report suggests that suppression of ANXA2 at its expression or glycosylation on NPC may improve DC-mediated immunotherapy for the tumor.
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Serendipitous Discovery of Short Peptides from Natural Products as Tyrosinase Inhibitors.
J Chem Inf Model
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Tyrosinase, which is the crucial copper-containing enzyme involved in melanin synthesis, is strongly associated with hyperpigmentation disorders, cancer, and neurodegenerative disease; thus, it has attracted considerable interest in the fields of medicine and cosmetics. The known tyrosinase inhibitors show numerous adverse side effects, and there is a lack of safety regulations governing their use. As a result, there is a need to develop novel inhibitors with no toxicity and long-term stability. In this study, we use molecular docking and pharmacophore modeling to construct a reasonable and reliable pharmacophore model, called Hypo 1, that could be used for identifying potent natural products with crucial complementary functional groups for mushroom tyrosinase inhibition. It was observed that, out of 47?263 natural compounds, A5 structurally resembles a dipeptide (WY) and natural compound B16 is the equivalent of a tripeptide (KFY), revealing that the C-terminus tyrosine residues play a key role in tyrosinase inhibition. Tripeptides RCY and CRY, which show high tyrosinase inhibitory potency, revealed a positional and functional preference for the cysteine residue at the N-terminus of the tripeptides, essentially determining the capacity of tyrosinase inhibition. CRY and RCY used the thiol group of cysteine residues to coordinate with the Cu ions in the active site of tyrosinase and showed reduced tyrosinase activity. We discovered the novel tripeptide CRY that shows the most striking inhibitory potency against mushroom tyrosinase (IC50 = 6.16 ?M); this tripeptide is more potent than the known oligopeptides and comparable with kojic acid-tripeptides. Our study provides an insight into the structural and functional roles of key amino acids of tripeptides derived from the natural compound B16, and the results are expected to be useful for the development of tyrosinase inhibitors.
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Relationship between betel quid chewing and radiographic alveolar bone loss among Taiwanese aboriginals: a retrospective study.
BMC Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Betel quid chewing is associated with the periodontal status; however, results of epidemiological studies are inconsistent. To the best of our knowledge, no study has reported radiographic alveolar bone loss (RABL) associated with betel quid chewing.
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RFX-1-dependent activation of SHP-1 inhibits STAT3 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Regulatory factor X-1 (RFX-1) is a transcription factor that has been linked to negative regulation of tumor progression; however, its biological function and signaling cascades are unknown. Here, we performed several studies to elucidate the roles of RFX-1 in the regulation of SHP-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Overexpression of RFX-1 resulted in the activation of SHP-1 and repressed colony formation of HCC cells. In addition, by a mouse xenograft model, we demonstrated that RFX-1 overexpression also inhibited the tumor growth of HCC cells in vivo, suggesting that RFX-1 is of potential interest for small-molecule-targeted therapy. We also found that SC-2001, a bipyrrole molecule, induced apoptosis in HCC cells through activating RFX-1 expression. SC-2001 induced RFX-1 translocation from the cytosol to nucleus, bound to the SHP-1 promoter, and activated SHP-1 transcription. In a xenograft model, knockdown of RFX-1 reversed the antitumor effect of SC-2001. Notably, SC-2001 is much more potent than sorafenib, a clinically approved drug for HCC, in in vitro and in vivo assays. Our study confirmed that RFX-1 acts as a tumor suppressor in HCC and might be a new target for HCC therapy. The findings of this study also provide a new lead compound for targeted therapy via the activation of the RFX-1/SHP-1 pathway.
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STAT3 Mediates Regorafenib-Induced Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Here, we aim to investigate the molecular mechanism of regorafenib and verify the potential druggable target for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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Seasonal variation of Legionella in Taiwan's reservoir and its relationships with environmental factors.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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In this study, the presence of Legionella in major water reservoirs of Taiwan was examined with respect to seasonal variation, geographical variation, and water quality parameters using TaqMan real-time qPCR. Water samples were collected quarterly at 19 reservoirs in Taiwan between November 2012 and August 2013. The detection rate for Legionella was 35.5 % (27/76), and Legionella was detected in all seasons. The Legionella concentration was relatively high in spring and summer, reaching 3.86?×?10(8) and 7.35?×?10(8) cells/L, respectively. By sampling the area, Legionella was detected at a higher proportion in reservoirs in the northern and southern areas, and the difference was consistent in all seasons. Significant association was found between detection of Legionella and various water quality parameters, including conductivity, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen (Mann-Whitney U test, P?
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Surveillance and evaluation of the infection risk of free-living amoebae and Legionella in different aquatic environments.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Free-living amoebae (FLA) are ubiquitous in various aquatic environments. Several amoebae species are pathogenic and host other pathogens such as Legionella, but the presence of FLA and its parasites as well as the related infection risk are not well known. In this study, the presence of pathogenic FLA and Legionella in various water bodies was investigated. Water samples were collected from a river, intake areas of drinking water treatment plants, and recreational hot spring complexes in central and southern Taiwan. A total of 140 water samples were tested for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., Vermamoeba vermiformis, and Legionella. In addition, phylogenetic characteristics and water quality parameters were also assessed. The pathogenic genotypes of FLA included Acanthamoeba T4 and Naegleria australiensis, and both were abundant in the hot spring water. In contrast, Legionella pneumophila was detected in different aquatic environments. Among the FLA assessed, V. vermiformis was most likely to coexist with Legionella spp. The total bacteria level was associated with the presence of FLA and Legionella especially in hot spring water. Taken together, FLA contamination in recreational hot springs and drinking water source warrants more attention on potential legionellosis and amoebae infections.
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The 18?kDa Translocator Protein, Microglia and Neuroinflammation.
Brain Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The 18?kDa translocator protein (TSPO), previously known as the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor, is expressed in the injured brain. It has become known as an imaging marker of "neuroinflammation" indicating active disease, and is best interpreted as a nondiagnostic biomarker and disease staging tool that refers to histopathology rather than disease etiology. The therapeutic potential of TSPO as a drug target is mostly based on the understanding that it is an outer mitochondrial membrane protein required for the translocation of cholesterol, which thus regulates the rate of steroid synthesis. This pivotal role together with the evolutionary conservation of TSPO has underpinned the belief that any loss or mutation of TSPO should be associated with significant physiological deficits or be outright incompatible with life. However, against prediction, full Tspo knockout mice are viable and across their lifespan do not show the phenotype expected if cholesterol transport and steroid synthesis were significantly impaired. Thus, the "translocation" function of TSPO remains to be better substantiated. Here, we discuss the literature before and after the introduction of the new nomenclature for TSPO and review some of the newer findings. In light of the controversy surrounding the function of TSPO, we emphasize the continued importance of identifying compounds with confirmed selectivity and suggest that TSPO expression is analyzed within specific disease contexts rather than merely equated with the reified concept of "neuroinflammation."
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Bioengineered functional brain-like cortical tissue.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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The brain remains one of the most important but least understood tissues in our body, in part because of its complexity as well as the limitations associated with in vivo studies. Although simpler tissues have yielded to the emerging tools for in vitro 3D tissue cultures, functional brain-like tissues have not. We report the construction of complex functional 3D brain-like cortical tissue, maintained for months in vitro, formed from primary cortical neurons in modular 3D compartmentalized architectures with electrophysiological function. We show that, on injury, this brain-like tissue responds in vitro with biochemical and electrophysiological outcomes that mimic observations in vivo. This modular 3D brain-like tissue is capable of real-time nondestructive assessments, offering previously unidentified directions for studies of brain homeostasis and injury.
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Disease-Targeted Sequencing of Ion Channel Genes identifies de novo mutations in Patients with Non-Familial Brugada Syndrome.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Brugada syndrome (BrS) is one of the ion channelopathies associated with sudden cardiac death (SCD). The most common BrS-associated gene (SCN5A) only accounts for approximately 20-25% of BrS patients. This study aims to identify novel mutations across human ion channels in non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants through disease-targeted sequencing. We performed disease-targeted multi-gene sequencing across 133 human ion channel genes and 12 reported BrS-associated genes in 15 unrelated, non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants. Candidate variants were validated by mass spectrometry and Sanger sequencing. Five de novo mutations were identified in four genes (SCNN1A, KCNJ16, KCNB2, and KCNT1) in three BrS patients (20%). Two of the three patients presented SCD and one had syncope. Interestingly, the two patients presented with SCD had compound mutations (SCNN1A:Arg350Gln and KCNB2:Glu522Lys; SCNN1A:Arg597* and KCNJ16:Ser261Gly). Importantly, two SCNN1A mutations were identified from different families. The KCNT1:Arg1106Gln mutation was identified in a patient with syncope. Bioinformatics algorithms predicted severe functional interruptions in these four mutation loci, suggesting their pivotal roles in BrS. This study identified four novel BrS-associated genes and indicated the effectiveness of this disease-targeted sequencing across ion channel genes for non-familial BrS patients without SCN5A variants.
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Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease patients.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Abstract Background: Tubulointerstitial damage is a final common pathway of most renal diseases. Whether urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), a biomarker for renal tubular damage, is of prognostic value for clinical outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has not been well investigated. Methods: The uNGAL and proteinuria levels were measured among a cohort of 473 advanced CKD patients of various etiologies recruited during 2002-2009. Results: The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 32.3±22.0 mL/min/1.73 m2 with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR) 680 (255-1248) mg/g and 132 (27.9%) participants had diabetes. The baseline uNGAL level was significantly associated with male gender, eGFR, UPCR, and hemoglobin. The hazard ratio (HR) of the highest uNGAL tertile for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 3.44 (95% CI 1.47-8.06, p=0.004). With the adjustment of urine creatinine and urine protein, HR of the highest urine NGAL-to-creatinine ratio (UNCR) tertile and the highest urine NGAL-to-protein ratio (UNPR) tertile was 3.06 (95% CI 1.19-7.90, p=0.02) and 2.10 (95% CI 1.13-3.89, p=0.02), respectively. UNPR increased the prediction of survival model for ESRD. HR of the highest UNCR tertile and UNPR tertile for cardiovascular (CV) events was 2.21 (95% CI 0.81-5.98, p=0.08) and 2.79 (95% CI 1.25-6.26, p=0.01), respectively. None of these were associated with all-cause mortality. Conclusions: Elevated uNGAL in CKD patients is associated with risks for ESRD and probably CV events. UNPR could improve the prediction for ESRD.
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SHP-1 is a target of regorafenib in colorectal cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Regorafenib is an inhibitor of multiple protein kinases which exerts antitumor and antimetastatic activities in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is reported to have tumor suppressive potential because it acts as a negative regulator of p-STAT3(Tyr705) signaling. However, little is known about the mechanism regarding regorafenib affects SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase activity and leads to apoptosis and tumor suppression in CRC. Here, we found that regorafenib triggered apoptotic cell death and significantly enhanced SHP-1 activity, which dramatically decreased the phosphorylated form of STAT3 at Tyr705 (p-STAT3(Tyr705)). Importantly, regorafenib augmented SHP-1 activity by direct disruption of the association between N-SH2 and catalytic PTP domain of SHP-1. Deletion of the N-SH2 domain (dN1) or point mutation (D61A) of SHP-1 blocked the effect of regorafenib-induced SHP-1 activity, growth inhibition and a decrease of p-STAT3(Tyr705) expression, suggesting that regorafenib triggers a conformational change in SHP-1 by relieving its autoinhibition. In vivo assay showed that regorafenib significantly inhibited xenograft growth and decreased p-STAT3(Tyr705) expression but induced higher SHP-1 activity. Collectively, regorafenib is a novel SHP-1 agonist exerts superior anti-tumor effects by enhancing SHP-1 activity that directly targets p-STAT3(Tyr705). Small molecule-enhancement of SHP-1 activity may be a promising therapeutic approach for CRC treatment.
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Inbreeding depression and purging in a haplodiploid: gender-related effects.
Heredity (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Compared with diploid species, haplodiploids suffer less inbreeding depression because male haploidy imposes purifying selection on recessive deleterious alleles. However, alleles of genes only expressed in the diploid females are protected in heterozygous individuals. This leads to the prediction that haplodiploids suffer more from inbreeding effects on life-history traits controlled by genes with female-limited expression. To test this, we used a wild population of the haplodiploid mite Tetranychus urticae. First, negative effects of inbreeding were investigated by comparing maturation rate, juvenile survival, oviposition rate and longevity between lines created by three generations of either outbreeding or mother-son inbreeding. Second, purging through inbreeding was investigated by comparing the intensity of inbreeding depression between outbred families with known inbreeding/outbreeding mating histories. Negative effects of inbreeding and evidence for purging were found for the female trait oviposition rate, but not for juvenile survival and longevity. Both male and female maturation rate were negatively affected by inbreeding, most likely due to maternal effects because inbred offspring of outbred mothers was not affected. These results support the hypothesis that, in haplodiploids inbreeding effects and genetic variation due to deleterious recessive alleles may depend on gender.Heredity advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/hdy.2014.106.
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RFX1-dependent activation of SHP-1 induces autophagy by a novel obatoclax derivative in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Obatoclax is a small molecule which targets the Bcl-2 family, and is to treat leukemia, lymphoma and lung carcinoma. Previously, an obatoclax analogue, SC-2001, was found to disrupt the protein-protein interactions of the Bcl-2 family and also repress Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 expression via STAT3 inactivation. Here, we report a novel mechanism of autophagy induction by SC-2001 in liver cancer cells. The findings indicate that SC-2001 induced the autophagy marker LC3-II in four hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Autophagosomes induced by SC-2001-treated cells were confirmed by electron microscopy. SC-2001 activated SHP-1, dephosphorylated STAT3 and Mcl-1, and subsequently released free beclin 1. Overexpression of STAT3 and Mcl-1 in PLC5 cells attenuated the induction of SC-2001 on autophagy. Abolishment of SHP-1 by a specific inhibitor aboragated the autophagic effects induced by SC-2001. In addition, it was further revealed that RFX-1, a transcription factor of SHP-1, is a critical regulator in SC-2001-mediated autophagy. Downregulation of RFX-1 by si-RNA protected cells from SC-2001-induced autophagy. Importantly, Huh7 tumor-bearing nude mice treated with SC-2001 showed downregulation of Mcl-1 and p-STAT3 protein expression and upregulation of SHP-1, LC3II, and RFX-1 protein expression. In summary, our data suggest that SC-2001 induces autophagic cell death in a RFX1/SHP-1/STAT3/Mcl-1 signaling cascade.
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Afatinib and its encapsulated polymeric micelles inhibits HER2-overexpressed colorectal tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is known as a common malignant neoplasm worldwide. The role of EGFR/HER2 in CRC is unclear. Afatinib is an irreversible EGFR/HER2 inhibitor. There were few studies of afatinib on CRC. Here, we investigated the protein levels/expressions of HER2 in sera and tumors from CRC patients and the therapeutic effect of afatinib on HER2-overexpressed CRC in vitro and in vivo. The increased HER2 levels were detected in the collected sera and tumors of patients with CRC. The serological HER2 levels were correlated with the tumor HER2 expressions in patients. Afatinib also inhibited the HER2-positive tumor cell growth and caused apoptosis in HER2-overexpressed human colorectal cancer HCT-15 cells but not in low HER2 expressed human gastric cancer MKN45 cells. In vivo study showed that afatinib reduced tumor growth in HER2-overexpressed xenografts. Moreover, afatinib-encapsulated micelles displayed higher cytotoxic activity in HCT-15 cells and were more effective for tumor growth suppression in HCT-15-induced tumor xenografts than afatinib performance alone. Taken together, these findings suggest that higher serum HER2 levels reflect the higher HER2 contents in tumors of CRC patients, and the improved afatinib-encapsulated micelles possess high therapeutic efficacy in HER2-overexpressed CRC in vitro and in vivo.
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The influence of monoamine oxidase variants on the risk of betel quid-associated oral and pharyngeal cancer.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut (AN) (major BQ ingredient) are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.
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Evaluation of immunomagnetic separation for the detection of Salmonella in surface waters by polymerase chain reaction.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS) theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection.
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Obatoclax analog SC-2001 inhibits STAT3 phosphorylation through enhancing SHP-1 expression and induces apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Interfering oncogenic STAT3 signaling is a promising anti-cancer strategy. We examined the efficacy and drug mechanism of an obatoclax analog SC-2001, a novel STAT3 inhibitor, in human breast cancer cells. Human breast cancer cell lines were used for in vitro studies. Apoptosis was examined by both flow cytometry and western blot. Signaling pathways were assessed by western blot. In vivo efficacy of SC-2001 was tested in xenograft nude mice. SC-2001 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in association with downregulation of p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) in breast cancer cells. STAT3-regulated proteins, including Mcl-1, survivin, and cyclin D1, were repressed by SC-2001. Over-expression of STAT3 in MDA-MB-468 cells protected cells from SC-2001-induced apoptosis. Moreover, SC-2001 enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1, a negative regulator of STAT3. Furthermore, the enhanced SHP-1 expression, in conjunction with increased SHP-1 phosphatase activity, was mediated by upregulated transcription by RFX-1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that SC-2001 increased the binding capacity of RFX-1 to the SHP-1 promoter. Knockdown of either RFX-1 or SHP-1 reduced SC-2001-induced apoptosis, whereas ectopic expression of RFX-1 increased SHP-1 expression and enhanced the apoptotic effect of SC-2001. Importantly, SC-2001 suppressed tumor growth in association with enhanced RFX-1 and SHP-1 expression and p-STAT3 downregulation in MDA-MB-468 xenograft tumors. SC-2001 induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells, an effect that was mediated by RFX-1 upregulated SHP-1 expression and SHP-1-dependent STAT3 inactivation. Our study indicates targeting STAT3 signaling pathway may be a useful approach for the development of targeted agents for anti-breast cancer.
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Positron emission tomography and functional characterization of a complete PBR/TSPO knockout.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The evolutionarily conserved peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), or 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO), is thought to be essential for cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis, and thus life. TSPO has been proposed as a biomarker of neuroinflammation and a new drug target in neurological diseases ranging from Alzheimer's disease to anxiety. Here we show that global C57BL/6-Tspo(tm1GuWu(GuwiyangWurra))-knockout mice are viable with normal growth, lifespan, cholesterol transport, blood pregnenolone concentration, protoporphyrin IX metabolism, fertility and behaviour. However, while the activation of microglia after neuronal injury appears to be unimpaired, microglia from (GuwiyangWurra)TSPO knockouts produce significantly less ATP, suggesting reduced metabolic activity. Using the isoquinoline PK11195, the ligand originally used for the pharmacological and structural characterization of the PBR/TSPO, and the imidazopyridines CLINDE and PBR111, we demonstrate the utility of (GuwiyangWurra)TSPO knockouts to provide robust data on drug specificity and selectivity, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as the mechanism of action of putative TSPO-targeting drugs.
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Electroresponsive aqueous silk protein as "smart" mechanical damping fluid.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of an electroresponsive aqueous silk protein polymer as a smart mechanical damping fluid. The aqueous polymer solution is liquid under ambient conditions, but is reversibly converted into a gel once subjected to an electric current, thereby increasing or decreasing in viscosity. This nontoxic, biodegradable, reversible, edible fluid also bonds to device surfaces and is demonstrated to reduce friction and provide striking wear protection. The friction and mechanical damping coefficients are shown to modulate with electric field exposure time and/or intensity. Damping coefficient can be modulated electrically, and then preserved without continued power for longer time scales than conventional "smart" fluid dampers.
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Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 as molecular therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Targeting signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a transcription factor that modulates survival-directed transcription, is often persistently activated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) wild-type non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this study was to determine whether sorafenib and its derivative can inhibit EGFR wild-type NSCLC via STAT3 inactivation.
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Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms predict the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: a 10-year prospective follow-up study.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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Little evidence is available regarding the impact of genetic polymorphisms on the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Angiotensin II plays a pathophysiologic role in prothrombotic atrial endocardial remodeling.
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Changes in the small bowel of symptomatic kidney transplant recipients converted from mycophenolate mofetil to enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in renal transplant recipients may be caused due to mycophenolic acid (MPA) toxicity. Using small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) we examined the impact of conversion from Mycophenolate Mofetil (MMF) to enteric-coated formulation of Mycophenolate Sodium (EC-MPS) given to treat GI mucosal lesions.
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A sorafenib derivative and novel SHP-1 agonist, SC-59, acts synergistically with radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through inhibition of STAT3.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Radiotherapy shows limited benefit as treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we aimed to overcome the radioresistance of HCC by using a novel sorafenib derivative, SC-59 that targets SHP-1-related signaling. HCC cell lines (SK-Hep1, Hep3B, and Huh7) were treated with sorafenib, SC-59, radiation, sorafenib plus radiation, or SC-59 plus radiation, and then apoptosis, colony formation, signal transduction and the phosphatase activity were analyzed. The synergistic effect of radiotherapy and SC-59 was analyzed using a combination index (CI) approach. In vivo efficacy was determined in a Huh7-bearing subcutaneous model. Mice were treated with radiation (5 Gy, one fraction per day) for 4 days, SC-59 (10mg/kg/day) for 24 days, or a combination. Tumor samples were further analyzed for p-STAT3 and SHP-1 activity. SC-59 displayed a better synergistic effect when used in combination with radiotherapy than sorafenib in HCC cell lines. SC-59 downregulated p-STAT3 and its downstream targets and increased SHP-1 phosphatase activity. Both ectopic STAT3 and inhibition of SHP-1 abolished SC-59-induced radiosensitization. Moreover, SC-59 significantly synergized radiotherapy in a Huh7 xenograft model by targeting SHP-1/STAT3 signaling. The novel sorafenib derivative, SC-59, acting as a SHP-1 agonist, displays a better synergistic effect when used in combination with radiotherapy than sorafenib for the treatment of HCC. Further clinical investigation is warranted.
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Downregulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 by sorafenib: A novel mechanism for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and a leading cause of cancer-related death. Owing to unsatisfactory clinical outcomes under the current standard of care, there is a need to search for and identify novel and potent therapeutic targets to improve patient outcomes. Sorafenib is the first and only approved targeted therapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Besides functioning as a multiple tyrosine kinase, sorafenib also acts via a kinase-independent mechanism to target signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. STAT3 is a key regulator of inflammation, cell survival, and tumorigenesis of liver cells, and the high percentage of hepatocellular carcinoma cells with constitutively active STAT3 justifies targeting it for the development of novel therapeutics. Sorafenib inactivates STAT3 and STAT3-related signaling by inducing a conformational change in and releasing the autoinhibition of Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1. This phosphatase negatively regulates STAT3 activity, which leads to the subsequent apoptosis of cancer cells. The novel anti-cancer property of sorafenib will be discussed in this review, not only adding information regarding its mechanism of action but also providing an innovative approach for the development of cancer therapeutics in the future.
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Additive effect of in-hospital TIMI bleeding and chronic kidney disease on 1-year cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome : Data from Taiwan Acute Coronary Syndrome Full Spectrum Registry.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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In-hospital bleeding (IHB) is associated with the risk of subsequent cardiovascular events (CVE) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated whether increased risk of CVE by IHB is influenced by chronic kidney disease (CKD) or both have detrimental effects on CVE. In a Taiwan national-wide registry, 2819 ACS patients were enrolled. CKD is defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). The primary end point is the composite of death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke at 12 months. 53 (1.88 %) and 949 (33.7 %) patients suffered from IHB and CKD, respectively. Both IHB and CKD are independently associated with increased risk of the primary end point (HR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.05-3.99, p = 0.037 and HR 2.17, 95 % CI 1.63-2.87, p < 0.01, respectively). The Kaplan-Meier curves show significantly higher event rates among those with IHB and CKD in the whole, ST-elevation and non-ST elevation populations (all p < 0.01). Patients with IHB(+)/CKD(-), IHB(-)/CKD(+) and IHB(+)/CKD(+) have 1.88-, 2.13- and 2.98-fold risk to suffer from the primary end point compared with those without IHB and CKD (p = 0.23, <0.01 and <0.01, respectively). IHB or CKD is independently associated with poor cardiovascular outcome and patients with both IHB and CKD have the worst outcome in ACS.
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A switch from low to high Shh activity regulates establishment of limb progenitors and signaling centers.
Dev. Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The patterning and growth of the embryonic vertebrate limb is dependent on Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a morphogen that regulates the activity of Gli transcription factors. However, Shh expression is not observed during the first 12 hr of limb development. During this phase, the limb bud is prepatterned into anterior and posterior regions through the antagonistic actions of transcription factors Gli3 and Hand2. We demonstrate that precocious activation of Shh signaling during this early phase interferes with the Gli3-dependent specification of anterior progenitors, disturbing establishment of signaling centers and normal outgrowth of the limb. Our findings illustrate that limb development requires a sweet spot in the level and timing of pathway activation that allows for the Shh-dependent expansion of posterior progenitors without interfering with early prepatterning functions of Gli3/Gli3R or specification of anterior progenitors.
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Nintedanib (BIBF-1120) inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth independent of angiokinase activity.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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Nintedanib, a triple angiokinase inhibitor, is currently being evaluated against advanced HCC in phase I/II clinical trials. Here, we report the underlying molecular mechanism by which nintedanib (BIBF-1120) induces an anti-HCC effect.
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SC-2001 overcomes STAT3-mediated sorafenib resistance through RFX-1/SHP-1 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide. Sorafenib, a small multikinase inhibitor, is the only approved therapy for advanced HCC. The clinical benefit of sorafenib is offset by the acquisition of sorafenib resistance. Understanding of the molecular mechanism of STAT3 overexpression in sorafenib resistance is critical if the clinical benefits of this drug are to be improved. In this study, we explored our hypothesis that loss of RFX-1/SHP-1 and further increase of p-STAT3 as a result of sorafenib treatment induces sorafenib resistance as a cytoprotective response effect, thereby, limiting sorafenib sensitivity and efficiency. We found that knockdown of RFX-1 protected HCC cells against sorafenib-induced cell apoptosis and SHP-1 activity was required for the process. SC-2001, a molecule with similar structure to obatoclax, synergistically suppressed tumor growth when used in combination with sorafenib in vitro and overcame sorafenib resistance through up-regulating RFX-1 and SHP-1 resulting in tumor suppression and mediation of dephosphorylation of STAT3. In addition, sustained sorafenib treatment in HCC led to increased p-STAT3 which was a key mediator of sorafenib sensitivity. The combination of SC-2001 and sorafenib strongly inhibited tumor growth in both wild-type and sorafenib-resistant HCC cell bearing xenograft models. These results demonstrate that inactivation of RFX/SHP-1 induced by sustained sorafenib treatment confers sorafenib resistance to HCC through p-STAT3 up-regulation. These effects can be overcome by SC-2001 through RFX-1/SHP-1 dependent p-STAT3 suppression. In conclusion, the use of SC-2001 in combination with sorafenib may constitute a new strategy for HCC therapy.
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Effects of arsenic on osteoblast differentiation in vitro and on bone mineral density and microstructure in rats.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Arsenic is a ubiquitous toxic element and is known to contaminate drinking water in many countries. Several epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure augments the risk of bone disorders. However, the detailed effect and mechanism of inorganic arsenic on osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells and bone loss still remain unclear.
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Differential regulation of Gli proteins by Sufu in the lung affects PDGF signaling and myofibroblast development.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Mammalian Hedgehog (Hh) signaling relies on three Gli transcription factors to mediate Hh responses. This process is controlled in part by a major negative regulator, Sufu, through its effects on Gli protein level, distribution and activity. In this report, we showed that Sufu regulates Gli1 protein levels by antagonizing Numb/Itch. Otherwise, Numb/Itch would induce Gli1 protein degradation. This is in contrast to inhibition of Spop-mediated degradation of Gli2/3 by Sufu. Thus, controlling protein levels of all three Gli genes by Sufu is a conserved mechanism to modulate Hh responses albeit via distinct pathways. These findings in cell-based assays were further validated in vivo. In analyzing how Sufu controls Gli proteins in different tissues, we discovered that loss of Sufu in the lung exerts different effects on Hh target genes. Hh targets Ptch1/Hhip are upregulated in Sufu-deficient lungs, consistent with Hh pathway activation. Surprisingly, protein levels of Hh target Gli1 are reduced. We also found that myofibroblasts are absent from many prospective alveoli of Sufu-deficient lungs. Myofibroblast development is dependent on PDGF signaling. Interestingly, analysis of the Pdgfra promoter revealed a canonical Gli-binding site where Gli1 resides. These studies support a model in which loss of Sufu contributes to compromised Pdgfra activation and disrupts myofibroblast development in the lung. Our work illustrates the unappreciated complexity of Hh responses where distinct Hh targets could respond differently depending on the availability of Gli proteins that control their expression.
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Mammalian Fused is essential for sperm head shaping and periaxonemal structure formation during spermatogenesis.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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During mammalian spermatogenesis, the diploid spermatogonia mature into haploid spermatozoa through a highly controlled process of mitosis, meiosis and post-meiotic morphological remodeling (spermiogenesis). Despite important progress made in this area, the molecular mechanisms underpinning this transformation are poorly understood. Our analysis of the expression and function of the putative serine-threonine kinase Fused (Fu) provides critical insight into key steps in spermatogenesis. In this report, we demonstrate that conditional inactivation of Fu in male germ cells results in infertility due to diminished sperm count, abnormal head shaping, decapitation and motility defects of the sperm. Interestingly, mutant flagellar axonemes are intact but exhibit altered periaxonemal structures that affect motility. These data suggest that Fu plays a central role in shaping the sperm head and controlling the organization of the periaxonemal structures in the flagellum. We show that Fu localizes to multiple tubulin-containing or microtubule-organizing structures, including the manchette and the acrosome-acroplaxome complex that are involved in spermatid head shaping. In addition, Fu interacts with the outer dense fiber protein Odf1, a major component of the periaxonemal structures in the sperm flagellum, and Kif27, which is detected in the manchette. We propose that disrupted Fu function in these structures underlies the head and flagellar defects in Fu-deficient sperm. Since a majority of human male infertility syndromes stem from reduced sperm motility and structural defects, uncovering Fu?s role in spermiogenesis provides new insight into the causes of sterility and the biology of reproduction.
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Connective tissue growth factor and cardiac diastolic dysfunction: human data from the Taiwan diastolic heart failure registry and molecular basis by cellular and animal models.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an emerging marker for tissue fibrosis. We investigated the association between CTGF and cardiac diastolic function using cellular and animal models and clinical human data.
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Prognostic factors of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: a 12-year prospective cohort follow-up study.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Although heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a clinically important issue, the factors that affect its prognosis are still unclear. The aim of this study was to establish prognostic factors and develop a severity scale for the disease based on a long-term follow-up cohort of HFpEF patients.
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Efficacy and safety of LCZ696, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, in Asian patients with hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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LCZ696 (Japanese adopted name: sucabitril valsartan sodium hydrate), a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, concomitantly inhibits neprilysin and blocks angiotensin type 1 receptor. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the first in Asia for this drug, evaluated the dose-related efficacy and safety of LCZ696 in patients with hypertension using 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Asian patients aged ?18 years (n=389) with hypertension were randomized to receive LCZ696 100 mg (n=100), 200 mg (n=101), 400 mg (n=96), or placebo (n=92) for 8 weeks. The primary end point was mean difference across the 3 single-dose pairwise comparisons of LCZ696 versus placebo in clinic diastolic BP after 8-week treatment. Key secondary efficacy variables included changes in clinic systolic BP and pulse pressure and changes in 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ambulatory BPs and pulse pressure. Safety assessments included recording all adverse events and serious adverse events. A total of 362 patients completed the study. Reductions in clinic systolic BP, diastolic BP (P<0.0001), and pulse pressure (P<0.001) were significantly greater with all doses of LCZ696 than with placebo. There were also significant reductions in 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ambulatory systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure for all doses of LCZ696 compared with placebo (P<0.0001). LCZ696 was well tolerated, and no cases of angioedema were reported. In conclusion, LCZ696 is effective for the treatment of hypertension in Asian population and, in general, is safe and well tolerated. Clinical Trial Information- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01193101.
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Anti-anxiety drugs use and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction: a national wide assessment.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Anti-anxiety medication in patients with anxiety may lessen the stress and thereby lower their risk for myocardial infarction (MI). The aim of current study is to examine an association between the use of anti-anxiety medication and long-term mortality risk in patients following MI.
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Development of a sutureless dural substitute from Bombyx mori silk fibroin.
J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Silk solvent casting, electrospinning, and electrogelation techniques were used to create a biodegradable, biocompatible silk fibroin dural substitute. The all-silk system was designed and produced to improve on currently available materials, grafts and tissue sealants used for dural closure in neurosurgery. The silk biomaterial was successfully fabricated as a dual layer adhesive system designed to seal durotomies while also functioning as a dural regeneration scaffold. The mechanical characteristics, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and hydrodynamic sealing capability of the material were evaluated. Results showed that the biomaterial was biocompatible with neural cells and fibroblasts, had mechanical properties mimicking the natural dura, was biodegradable with controllable degradation, and was able to seal against a hydrodynamic pressure of 205 mmHg, which greatly exceeds the maximum cerebrospinal fluid pressure seen in both cranial and spinal dural closures of 50 mmHg. Based on its design and experimental results, the adhesive silk dual layer composite biomaterial shows potential as a sutureless dural repair system that would improve on current dural closure techniques. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014.
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Impact of impaired glomerular filtration rate and revascularization strategy on one-year cardiovascular events in acute coronary syndrome: data from Taiwan acute coronary syndrome full spectrum registry.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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The optimal revascularization strategy for patients with impaired glomerular filtration rate (IGFR) has not been established in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We investigated the prognosis and impact of IGFR and invasive strategy on the cardiovascular outcomes in the ACS population.
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Utilizing multiple in silico analyses to identify putative causal SCN5A variants in Brugada syndrome.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inheritable sudden cardiac death disease mainly caused by SCN5A mutations. Traditional approaches can be costly and time-consuming if all candidate variants need to be validated through in vitro studies. Therefore, we developed a new approach by combining multiple in silico analyses to predict functional and structural changes of candidate SCN5A variants in BrS before conducting in vitro studies. Five SCN5A non-synonymous variants (1651G>A, 1776C>G, 1673A>G, 3269C>T and 3578G>A) were identified in 14 BrS patients using direct DNA sequencing. Several bioinformatics algorithms were applied and predicted that 1651G>A (A551T) and 1776C>G (N592K) were high-risk SCN5A variants (odds ratio 59.59 and 23.93). The results were validated by Mass spectrometry and in vitro electrophysiological assays. We concluded that integrating sequence-based information and secondary protein structures elements may help select highly potential variants in BrS before conducting time-consuming electrophysiological studies and two novel SCN5A mutations were validated.
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Differentiation of retinal ganglion cells and photoreceptor precursors from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells carrying an atoh7/math5 lineage reporter.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The neural retina is a critical component of the visual system, which provides the majority of sensory input in humans. Various retinal degenerative diseases can result in the permanent loss of retinal neurons, especially the light-sensing photoreceptors and the centrally projecting retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The replenishment of lost RGCs and the repair of optic nerve damage are particularly challenging, as both RGC specification and their subsequent axonal growth and projection involve complex and precise regulation. To explore the developmental potential of pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitors, we have established mouse iPS cells that allow cell lineage tracing of progenitors that have expressed Atoh7/Math5, a bHLH transcription factor required for RGC production. These Atoh7 lineage reporter iPS cells encode Cre to replace one copy of the endogenous Atoh7 gene and a Cre-dependent YFP reporter in the ROSA locus. In addition, they express pluripotent markers and are capable of generating teratomas in vivo. Under anterior neural induction and neurogenic conditions in vitro, the Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells differentiate into neurons that co-express various RGC markers and YFP, indicating that these neurons are derived from Atoh7-expressing progenitors. Consistent with previous in vivo cell lineage studies, the Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells also give rise to a subset of Crx-positive photoreceptor precursors. Furthermore, inhibition of Notch signaling in the iPSC cultures results in a significant increase of YFP-positive RGCs and photoreceptor precursors. Together, these results show that Atoh7-Cre/ROSA-YFP iPS cells can be used to monitor the development and survival of RGCs and photoreceptors from pluripotent stem cells.
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Fluid overload, pulse wave velocity, and ratio of brachial pre-ejection period to ejection time in diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fluid overload is one of the characteristics in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Changes in extracellular fluid volume are associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Not only diabetes but also fluid overload is associated with cardiovascular risk factors The aim of the study was to assess the interaction between fluid overload, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors, including arterial stiffness and left ventricular function in 480 patients with stages 4-5 CKD. Fluid status was determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy method, Body Composition Monitor. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), as a good parameter of arterial stiffness, and brachial pre-ejection period (bPEP)/brachial ejection time (bET), correlated with impaired left ventricular function were measured by ankle-brachial index (ABI)-form device. Of all patients, 207 (43.9%) were diabetic and 240 (50%) had fluid overload. For non-diabetic CKD, fluid overload was associated with being female (??=?-2.87, P?=?0.003), heart disease (??=?2.69, P?=?0.04), high baPWV (??=?0.27, P?=?0.04), low hemoglobin (??=?-1.10, P<0.001), and low serum albumin (??=?-5.21, P<0.001) in multivariate analysis. For diabetic CKD, fluid overload was associated with diuretics use (??=?3.69, P?=?0.003), high mean arterial pressure (??=?0.14, P?=?0.01), low bPEP/ET (??=?-0.19, P?=?0.03), low hemoglobin (??=?-1.55, P?=?0.001), and low serum albumin (??=?-9.46, P<0.001). In conclusion, baPWV is associated with fluid overload in non-diabetic CKD and bPEP/bET is associated with fluid overload in diabetic CKD. Early and accurate assessment of these associated cardiovascular risk factors may improve the effects of entire care in late CKD.
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Association of angiopoietin-2 with renal outcome in chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The pathophysiological mechanisms of renal function progression in chronic kidney disease (CKD) have still not been completely explored. In addition to well-known traditional risk factors, non-traditional risk factors, such as endothelial dysfunction, have gradually attracted physicians' attention. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) impairs endothelial function through preventing angiopoietin-1 from binding to Tie2 receptor. Whether Ang-2 is associated with renal function progression in CKD is unknown.
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Characterization of niphatenones that inhibit androgen receptor N-terminal domain.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Androgen ablation therapy causes a temporary reduction in tumor burden in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Unfortunately the malignancy will return to form lethal castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC). The androgen receptor (AR) remains transcriptionally active in CRPC in spite of castrate levels of androgens in the blood. AR transcriptional activity resides in its N-terminal domain (NTD). Possible mechanisms of continued AR transcriptional activity may include, at least in part, expression of constitutively active splice variants of AR that lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD). Current therapies that target the AR LBD, would not be effective against these AR variants. Currently no drugs are clinically available that target the AR NTD which should be effective against these AR variants as well as full-length AR. Niphatenones were originally isolated and identified in active extracts from Niphates digitalis marine sponge. Here we begin to characterize the mechanism of niphatenones in blocking AR transcriptional activity. Both enantiomers had similar IC50 values of 6 µM for inhibiting the full-length AR in a functional transcriptional assay. However, (S)-niphatenone had significantly better activity against the AR NTD compared to (R)-niphatenone. Consistent with niphatenones binding to and inhibiting transactivation of AR NTD, niphatenones inhibited AR splice variant. Niphatenone did not affect the transcriptional activity of the related progesterone receptor, but slightly decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity and covalently bound to GR activation function-1 (AF-1) region. Niphatenone blocked N/C interactions of AR without altering either AR protein levels or its intracellular localization in response to androgen. Alkylation with glutathione suggests that niphatenones are not a feasible scaffold for further drug development.
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miRNA-491-5p and GIT1 serve as modulators and biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) invasion and metastasis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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microRNAs offer tools to identify and treat invasive cancers. Using highly invasive isogenic oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells established using in vitro and in vivo selection protocols from poorly invasive parental cell populations, we used microarray expression analysis to identify a relative and specific decrease in miR-491-5p in invasive cells. Lower expression of miR-491-5p correlated with poor overall survival of OSCC patients. miR-491-5p overexpression in invasive OSCC cells suppressed their migratory behavior in vitro and lung metastatic behavior in vivo. We defined the G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 1 (GIT1) as a direct target gene for miR-491-5p control. GIT1 overexpression was sufficient to rescue miR-491-5p-mediated inhibition of migration/invasion and lung metastasis. Conversely, GIT1 silencing phenocopied the ability of miR-491-5p to inhibit migration/invasion and metastasis of OSCC cells. Mechanistic investigations indicated that miR-491-5p overexpression or GIT1 attenuation reduced focal adhesions, with a concurrent decrease in steady-state levels of paxillin, phospho-paxillin, phospho-FAK, EGF/EGFR-mediated ERK1/2 activation and MMP2/9 levels and activities. In clinical specimens of OSCC, GIT1 levels were elevated relative to paired normal tissues and were correlated with lymph node metastasis, with expression levels of miR-491-5p and GIT1 correlated inversely in OSCC where they informed tumor grade. Together, our findings identify a functional axis for OSCC invasion that suggests miR-491-5p and GIT1 as biomarkers for prognosis in this cancer.
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SC-60, a Dimer-Based Sorafenib Derivative, Shows a Better Anti-Hepatocellular Carcinoma Effect than Sorafenib in a Preclinical Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Sorafenib is the first approved targeted therapeutic reagent for hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we report that SC-60, a dimer-based sorafenib derivative, overcomes the resistance of sorafenib and shows a better anti-hepatocellular carcinoma effect in vitro and in vivo. SC-60 substantially increased SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) phosphatase activity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells and purified SHP-1 proteins, suggesting that SC-60 affects SHP-1 directly. Molecular docking and truncated mutants of SHP-1 further confirmed that SC-60 interferes with the inhibitory N-SH2 domain to relieve the closed catalytic protein tyrosine phosphatase domain of SHP-1. Deletion of N-SH2 domain (dN1) or point mutation (D61A) of SHP-1 abolished the effect of SC-60 on SHP-1, p-STAT3, and apoptosis. Importantly, SC-60 exhibited significant survival benefits compared with sorafenib in a hepatocellular carcinoma orthotopic model via targeting the SHP-1/STAT3-related signaling pathway. In summary, dimer derivative of sorafenib, SC-60, is a SHP-1 agonist and may be a potent reagent for hepatocellular carcinoma-targeted therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 13(1); 1-10. ©2013 AACR.
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Synthesis and biological characterisation of 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353, novel and high selectivity ?2 radiotracers, for tumour imaging properties.
EJNMMI Res
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Sigma2 (?2) receptors are highly expressed in cancer cell lines and in tumours. Two novel selective 18F-phthalimido ?2 ligands, 18F-SIG343 and 18F-SIG353, were prepared and characterised for their potential tumour imaging properties.
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Inactivation of Myosin binding protein C homolog in zebrafish as a model for human cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Sudden cardiac death due to malignant ventricular arrhythmia is a devastating manifestation of cardiac hypertrophy. Sarcomere protein myosin binding protein C is functionally related to cardiac diastolic function and hypertrophy. Zebrafish is a better model to study human electrophysiology and arrhythmia than rodents because of the electrophysiological characteristics similar to those of humans.
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Additive effect of the metabolic syndrome score to the conventional CHADS2 score for the thromboembolic risk stratification of patients with atrial fibrillation.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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The CHA2DS2-VASC scoring scheme may not be better than the CHADS2 scoring scheme in predicting thromboembolic risk for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in Asians. Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis.
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Dyslipoproteinemia and impairment of renal function in diabetic kidney disease: an analysis of animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials.
Rev Diabet Stud
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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Dyslipoproteinemia is highly prevalent in diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Both diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, lower high-density lipoprotein, and higher small, dense low-density lipoprotein. A number of observational studies have reported that dyslipidemia may be associated with albuminuria, renal function impairment, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population, and especially in CKD and DKD patients. Diabetic glomerulopathy and the related albuminuria are the main manifestations of DKD. Numerous animal studies support the finding that glomerular atherosclerosis is the main mechanism of glomerulosclerosis in CKD and DKD. Some randomized, controlled trials suggest the use of statins for the prevention of albuminuria and renal function impairment in CKD and DKD patients. However, a large clinical study, the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), does not support that statins could reduce ESRD in CKD. In this article, we analyze the complex association of dyslipoproteinemia with DKD and deduce its relevance from animal studies, observational studies, and clinical trials. We show that special subgroups could benefit from the statin treatment.
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Predictors of 1-year outcomes in the Taiwan Acute Coronary Syndrome Full Spectrum Registry.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Evidence-based guidelines have been formulated for optimal management of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The Taiwan ACS Full Spectrum Registry aimed to evaluate the ACS management and identify the predictors of clinical outcomes of death/myocardial infarction/stroke 1 year post hospital discharge.
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Novel sorafenib analogues induce apoptosis through SHP-1 dependent STAT3 inactivation in human breast cancer cells.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling is constitutively activated in various cancers including breast cancer and has emerged as a novel potential anti-cancer target. STAT3 has been demonstrated to be a target of sorafenib, and a protein tyrosine phosphatase Src homology 2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) has been demonstrated to downregulate p-STAT3 via its phosphatase activity. Here, we tested the efficacy of two sorafenib analogues, SC-1 and SC-43, in breast cancer cells and examined the drug mechanism.
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Plasma tau as a window to the brain-negative associations with brain volume and memory function in mild cognitive impairment and early alzheimers disease.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Neurofibrillary tangles are associated with cognitive dysfunction, and hippocampal atrophy with increased CSF tau markers. However, the plasma tau levels of Alzheimers disease (AD) have not been well studied. We investigated plasma tau by using an immunomagnetic reduction assay in 20 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, 10 early AD dementia, and 30 healthy elders (HE). All received a 3D-brain MRI scan and a set of cognitive function test. We explored their relationships with both brain structure and cognitive functions. Images were analyzed to determine the brain volumes and gray matter densities. Patients with MCI or early AD had significantly increased plasma tau levels compared with HE. Plasma tau levels were negatively associated with the performance of logical memory, visual reproduction, and verbal fluency; also negatively associated with volume of total gray matter, hippocampus, amygdala; and gray matter densities of various regions. Regression analyses indicated that logical memory explained 0.394 and hippocampus volume predicted .608 of the variance of plasma tau levels, both P < 0.001. Education years were negatively associated with the gray matter densities of the supramarginal (r = -0.407), middle temporal gyrus (r = -0.40) and precuneus (r = -0.377; all P < 0.05) in HE; and negatively associated with plasma tau levels in patients (r = -0.626). We propose that plasma tau may serve as a window to both structure and function of the brain. Higher education is a protective factor against AD and is associated with lower plasma tau levels in patients. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Sorafenib and its derivative SC-49 sensitize hepatocellular carcinoma cells to CS-1008, a humanized anti-TNFRSF10B (DR5) antibody.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Previously, we have shown that sorafenib sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to apoptosis induced by TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TNFSF10; TRAIL). Here, we report that sorafenib and SC-49 sensitize HCC cells to CS-1008, a novel anti-human death receptor 5 (TNFRSF10B) antibody.
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Autophagy induction promotes aristolochic acid-I-induced renal injury in vivo and in vitro.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Studies have found that ingestion of aristolochic acid (AA) causes nephropathy first by inducing renal tubular cell apoptosis acutely. It is currently unknown whether crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis orchestrates the fate of tubular cells in acute AA nephropathy. We tested this hypothesis by acute administration of AA in vivo and in vitro. Autophagy was first induced in vivo through enhancing Atg5 and LC3-II expressions in kidneys of AA-I-treated rats. Punctuate LC3-GFP dots and autophagosomes were detected in this acute AA-I nephropathy rat model. We subsequently utilized normal rat renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (NRK52E) to study the autophagy mechanisms involved in acute AA-I nephropathy, with 100?M AA-I (median lethal dose 50) given in vitro. Cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), nuclear condensation, and fragmentation were demonstrated in the AA-I-treated NRK52E cells. Furthermore, AA-I induced Atg5 and LC3-II expressions and punctuated LC3-GFP dots. Autophagy flux by using lysosome inhibitor E64 induced the accumulation of LC3-II, which further promoted apoptosis through enhancing PARP cleavage. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyl adenine also led to the attenuation of AA-I-induced apoptosis, manifesting as decreased PARP cleavage, nuclei condensation, and decreased the number of cells negative for acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. In addition, knockdown of Atg5 by short hairpin RNA attenuated LC3-II expression and PARP cleavage in NRK52E cells. Taken together, these findings suggested that the acute phase of AA-I-induced nephropathy is associated with induction of Atg5-dependent autophagy, which promotes renal tubular cell apoptosis.
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Nilotinib induces autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma through AMPK activation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver cancer and the third-leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Nilotinib is an orally available receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia. This study investigated the effect of nilotinib on HCC. Nilotinib did not induce cellular apoptosis. Instead, staining with acridine orange and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 revealed that nilotinib induced autophagy in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HCC cell lines, including PLC5, Huh-7, and Hep3B. Moreover, nilotinib up-regulated the phosphryaltion of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and protein phosphatase PP2A inactivation were detected after nilotinib treatment. Up-regulating PP2A activity suppressed nilotinib-induced AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy, suggesting that PP2A mediates the effect of nilotinib on AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy. Our data indicate that nilotinib-induced AMPK activation is mediated by PP2A, and AMPK activation and subsequent autophagy might be a major mechanism of action of nilotinib. Growth of PLC5 tumor xenografts in BALB/c nude mice was inhibited by daily oral treatment with nilotinib. Western blot analysis showed both increased phospho-AMPK expression and decreased PP2A activity in vivo. Together, our results reveal that nilotinib induces autophagy, but not apoptosis in HCC, and that the autophagy-inducing activity is associated with PP2A-regulated AMPK phosphorylation.
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An androgen receptor N-terminal domain antagonist for treating prostate cancer.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Hormone therapies for advanced prostate cancer target the androgen receptor (AR) ligand-binding domain (LBD), but these ultimately fail and the disease progresses to lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The mechanisms that drive CRPC are incompletely understood, but may involve constitutively active AR splice variants that lack the LBD. The AR N-terminal domain (NTD) is essential for AR activity, but targeting this domain with small-molecule inhibitors is complicated by its intrinsic disorder. Here we investigated EPI-001, a small-molecule antagonist of AR NTD that inhibits protein-protein interactions necessary for AR transcriptional activity. We found that EPI analogs covalently bound the NTD to block transcriptional activity of AR and its splice variants and reduced the growth of CRPC xenografts. These findings suggest that the development of small-molecule inhibitors that bind covalently to intrinsically disordered proteins is a promising strategy for development of specific and effective anticancer agents.
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Discovery of novel src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 agonists from sorafenib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Sorafenib is the first approved targeted therapeutic reagent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we report that Src homology region 2 (SH2) domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is a major target of sorafenib and generates a series of sorafenib derivatives to search for potent SHP-1 agonists that may act as better anti-HCC agents than sorafenib. Sorafenib increases SHP-1 activity by direct interaction and impairs the association between the N-SH2 domain and the catalytic protein tyrosine phosphatase domain of SHP-1. Deletion of the N-SH2 domain (dN1) or point mutation (D61A) of SHP-1 abolished the effect of sorafenib on SHP-1, phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3), and apoptosis, suggesting that sorafenib may affect SHP-1 by triggering a conformational switch relieving its autoinhibition. Molecular docking of SHP-1/sorafenib complex confirmed our findings in HCC cells. Furthermore, novel sorafenib derivatives SC-43 and SC-40 displayed more potent anti-HCC activity than sorafenib, as measured by enhanced SHP-1 activity, inhibition of p-STAT3, and induction of apoptosis. SC-43 induced substantial apoptosis in sorafenib-resistant cells and showed better survival benefits than sorafenib in orthotopic HCC tumors. Conclusion: In this study, we identified SHP-1 as a major target of sorafenib. SC-43 and SC-40, potent SHP-1 agonists, showed better anti-HCC effects than sorafenib in vitro and in vivo. Further clinical investigation is warranted. (Hepatology 2014;58:190-201).
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Spongian diterpenoids inhibit androgen receptor activity.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Androgen receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor and a validated drug target for all stages of prostate cancer. Antiandrogens compete with physiologic ligands for androgen receptor ligand-binding domain (LBD). High-throughput screening of a marine natural product library for small molecules that inhibit androgen receptor transcriptional activity yielded the furanoditerpenoid spongia-13(16),-14-dien-19-oic acid, designated terpene 1 (T1). Characterization of T1 and the structurally related semisynthetic analogues (T2 and T3) revealed that these diterpenoids have antiandrogen properties that include inhibition of both androgen-dependent proliferation and androgen receptor transcriptional activity by a mechanism that involved competing with androgen for androgen receptor LBD and blocking essential N/C interactions required for androgen-induced androgen receptor transcriptional activity. Structure-activity relationship analyses revealed some chemical features of T1 that are associated with activity and yielded T3 as the most potent analogue. In vivo, T3 significantly reduced the weight of seminal vesicles, which are an androgen-dependent tissue, thereby confirming the on-target activity of T3. The ability to create analogues of diterpenoids that have varying antiandrogen activity represents a novel class of chemical compounds for the analysis of androgen receptor ligand-binding properties and therapeutic development.
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Fused (Stk36) is a ciliary protein required for central pair assembly and motile cilia orientation in the mammalian oviduct.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Motile cilia on the inner lining of the oviductal epithelium play a central role in ovum transport toward the uterus and subsequent fertilization by sperm. While the basic ultrastructure of 9+2 motile cilia (nine peripheral microtubule doublets surrounding a central pair) has been characterized, many important steps of ciliogenesis remain poorly understood.
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Genetic variation-optimized treatment benefit of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a 12-year follow-up study.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between renin-angiotensin system genotypes and the pharmacogenetics of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in Chinese patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Hedgehog signaling from the primary cilium to the nucleus: an emerging picture of ciliary localization, trafficking and transduction.
Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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The unexpected connection between cilia and signaling is one of the most exciting developments in cell biology in the past decade. In particular, the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway relies on the primary cilium to regulate tissue patterning and homeostasis in vertebrates. A central question is how ciliary localization and trafficking of Hh pathway components lead to pathway activation and regulation. In this review, we discuss recent studies that reveal the roles of ciliary regulators, components and structures in controlling the movement and signaling of Hh players. These findings significantly increase our mechanistic understanding of how the primary cilium facilitates Hh signal transduction and form the basis for further investigations to define the function of cilia in other signaling processes.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.