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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Physiological Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders and their Treatment.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are associated with great personal and socioeconomic burden, with patients often facing a delay in detection, misdiagnosis when detected, and a trial-and-error approach to finding the most appropriate treatment. Therefore, improvement in the assessment and management of patients with BSDs is critical. Should valid physiological measures for BSDs be identified and implemented, significant clinical improvements are likely to be realized. This chapter reviews the physiological correlates of BSDs and treatment, and in doing so, examines the neuroimaging, electroencephalogram, and event-related potential, and peripheral physiological correlates that both characterize and differentiate BSDs and their response to treatment. Key correlates of BSDs involve underlying disturbances in prefrontal and limbic network neural activity, early neural processing, and within the autonomic nervous system. These changes appear to be mood-related and can be normalized with treatment. We adopt an "embodied" perspective and propose a novel, working framework that takes into account embodied psychophysiological mechanisms in which the physiological correlates of BSD are integrated. This approach may in time provide the objective physiological measures needed to improve assessment and decision making when treating patients with BSDs. Future research with integrative, multimodal measures is likely to yield potential applications for physiological measures of BSD that correlate closely with diagnosis and treatment.
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The impact of 5-HTTLPR on acute serotonin transporter blockade by escitalopram on emotion processing: Preliminary findings from a randomised, crossover fMRI study.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Benefit from antidepressant treatment such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may depend on individual differences in acute effects on neural emotion processing. The short ('S') allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT)-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is associated with both negative emotion processing biases and poorer treatment outcomes. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to explore the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the impact of the SSRI escitalopram during processing of positive and negative emotional images, as well as neutral stimuli.
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Impact of acute administration of escitalopram on the processing of emotional and neutral images: a randomized crossover fMRI study of healthy women.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Acute neural effects of antidepressant medication on emotion processing biases may provide the foundation on which clinical outcomes are based. Along with effects on positive and negative stimuli, acute effects on neutral stimuli may also relate to antidepressant efficacy, yet these effects are still to be investigated. The present study therefore examined the impact of a single dose of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram (20 mg) on positive, negative and neutral stimuli using pharmaco-fMRI.
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Impact of escitalopram on vagally mediated cardiovascular function in healthy participants: implications for understanding differential age-related, treatment emergent effects.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Black box warnings for young adults under the age of 25 years indicate that antidepressants may increase risk of suicide. While underlying mechanisms for age-related treatment effects remain unclear, vagally mediated cardiovascular function may play a key role. Decreased heart rate (HR) and an increase in its variability (HRV) improve ones capacity to adapt to environmental stress and attenuate risk for suicide.
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Acute neural effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors versus noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors on emotion processing: Implications for differential treatment efficacy.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Clinical research has demonstrated differential efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs), which may relate to differential acute effects these medications have on emotional brain processes. Here we present findings from a Multi-Level Kernel Density Analysis meta-analysis that integrates and contrasts activations from disparate fMRI studies in order to examine whether single dose SSRIs and NRIs have different effects on emotion processing tasks in healthy participants. Seven SSRI and four NRI studies were eligible for inclusion. SSRIs decreased amygdala responses, suggesting reduced emotional reactivity to emotional stimuli, whereas NRIs increased frontal and medial activation, suggesting increased emotion regulation. As hypothesised, an interaction of antidepressant and task type was found, such that SSRIs modulated amygdaloid-hippocampal, medial and frontal activity during both the presentation of faces and pictures, whereas NRIs only modulated the activation in medial and frontal regions during the presentation of pictures. Findings are interpreted within a novel model of the differential effects of SSRIs and NRIs on emotion processing.
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Pregnant mothers with resolved anxiety disorders and their offspring have reduced heart rate variability: implications for the health of children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Active anxiety disorders have lasting detrimental effects on pregnant mothers and their offspring but it is unknown if historical, non-active, maternal anxiety disorders have similar effects. Anxiety-related conditions, such as reduced autonomic cardiac control, indicated by reduced heart rate variability (HRV) could persist despite disorder resolution, with long-term health implications for mothers and children. The objective in this study is to test the hypotheses that pregnant mothers with a history of, but not current anxiety and their children have low HRV, predicting anxiety-like offspring temperaments.
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The impact of escitalopram on vagally mediated cardiovascular function to stress and the moderating effects of vigorous physical activity: a randomized controlled treatment study in healthy participants.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent concerns over the impact of antidepressant medications, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), on cardiovascular function highlight the importance of research on the moderating effects of specific lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Studies in affective neuroscience have demonstrated robust acute effects of SSRIs, yet the impact of SSRIs on cardiovascular stress responses and the moderating effects of physical activity remain to be determined. This was the goal of the present study, which involved a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of a single-dose of escitalopram (20 mg) in 44 healthy females; outcomes were heart rate (HR) and its variability. Participants engaging in at least 30 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 times per week (regular exercisers) showed a more resilient cardiovascular stress response than irregular vigorous exercisers, a finding associated with a moderate effect size (Cohens d = 0.48). Escitalopram attenuated the cardiovascular stress response in irregular exercisers only (HR decreased: Cohens d = 0.80; HR variability increased: Cohens d = 0.33). HR during stress under escitalopram in the irregular exercisers was similar to that during stress under placebo in regular exercisers. These findings highlight that the effects of regular vigorous exercise during stress are comparable to the effects of an acute dose of escitalopram, highlighting the beneficial effects of this particular antidepressant in irregular exercisers. Given that antidepressant drugs alone do not seem to protect patients from cardiovascular disease (CVD), longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the impact of exercise on cardiovascular stress responses in patients receiving long-term antidepressant treatment.
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The functional epistasis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met on emotion processing: a preliminary study.
Brain Behav
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An epistatic interaction of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms has been implicated in the structure of rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and amygdala (AMY): key regions associated with emotion processing. However, a functional epistasis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met on overt emotion processing has yet to be determined. Twenty-eight healthy, Caucasian female participants provided saliva samples for genotyping and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during which an emotion processing protocol were presented. Confirming the validity of this protocol, we observed blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity consistent with fMRI meta-analyses on emotion processing. Region-of-interest analysis of the rACC and AMY revealed main effects of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met, and an interaction of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met. The effect of the BDNF Met66 allele was dependent on 5-HTTLPR alleles, such that participants with S and Met alleles had the greatest rACC and AMY activation during the presentation of emotional images relative to other genetic groupings. Increased activity in these regions was interpreted as increased reactivity to emotional stimuli, suggesting that those with S and Met alleles are more reactive to emotional stimuli relative to other groups. Although limited by a small sample, this study contributes novel and preliminary findings relating to a functional epistasis of the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met genes in emotion processing and provides guidance on appropriate methods to determine genetic epistasis in fMRI.
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Matter over mind: a randomised-controlled trial of single-session biofeedback training on performance anxiety and heart rate variability in musicians.
PLoS ONE
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Musical performance is a skilled activity performed under intense pressure, thus is often a profound source of anxiety. In other contexts, anxiety and its concomitant symptoms of sympathetic nervous system arousal have been successfully ameliorated with HRV biofeedback (HRV BF), a technique involving slow breathing which augments autonomic and emotional regulatory capacity. Objective: This randomised-controlled study explored the impact of a single 30-minute session of HRV BF on anxiety in response to a highly stressful music performance.
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Heart rate variability is associated with emotion recognition: direct evidence for a relationship between the autonomic nervous system and social cognition.
Int J Psychophysiol
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It is well established that heart rate variability (HRV) plays an important role in social communication. Polyvagal theory suggests that HRV may provide a sensitive marker of ones ability to respond and recognize social cues. The aim of the present study was to directly test this hypothesis. Resting-state HRV was collected and performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test was assessed in 65 volunteers. HRV was positively associated with performance on this emotion recognition task confirming our hypothesis and these findings were retained after controlling for a variety of confounding variables known to influence HRV - sex, BMI, smoking habits, physical activity levels, depression, anxiety, and stress. Our data suggests that increased HRV may provide a novel marker of ones ability to recognize emotions in humans. Implications for understanding the biological basis of emotion recognition, and social impairment in humans are discussed.
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The contribution of BDNF and 5-HTT polymorphisms and early life stress to the heterogeneity of major depressive disorder: a preliminary study.
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
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Two reported genetic polymorphisms related to the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and reuptake by the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) appear to contribute to depression in combination with stressful life events. The aim of the current study was to investigate the contribution of early life stress (ELS), BDNF (Val versus Met alleles) and 5-HTT polymorphisms (L versus S alleles) to melancholic (n = 65) and non-melancholic depression (n = 59).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.