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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Factors Affecting Circuit Life During Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Children With Liver Failure.
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Despite abnormal clotting, circuits clot during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in children with acute liver failure (ALF). We report our experience. All children with ALF needing CRRT were studied over 2 years. Patient and circuit factors associated with circuit use were evaluated. Thirty-one children in liver failure (median age 7.4 years) underwent CRRT, of which 17 (54.8%) died. A total of 98 filtration episodes were used. The smallest access catheter was 6.5?Fr, while the largest was 13.5?Fr. The most common filter used was HFO7 (63%). Mean duration (SD) of circuit use was 33.13(30.83) hours. Of the 98 filtration episodes, circuits blocked in 25, whereas the access catheter blocked in 25. Fifty-two circuits were changed electively for a variety of reasons. Prostacyclin was the anticoagulant in 62 filtration episodes. The remaining filtration episodes had either no anticoagulation or heparin. The mean (SD) "downtime" was 5.13 (9.15) hours. We found a significant association between fresh frozen plasma (FFP) use with circuit blockade. Neither the duration of CRRT nor the "downtime" influenced mortality. The CRRT circuits blocked in children despite deranged clotting in liver disease. Circuits are changed for a variety of reasons other than clotting. The use of FFP reduces circuit life.
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Renal complications and therapy in the PICU: hypertension, CKD, AKI, and RRT.
Crit Care Clin
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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This article provides the bedside clinician an overview of the unique renal complications that are seen commonly in the pediatric intensive care unit. These sections are purposely succinct to give a quick guide to the clinician for the care of these children. We have identified four major areas that should result in discussion and cooperative care between intensive care physicians and nephrologists for the care of these children: (1) hypertension, (2) chronic kidney failure, (3) acute kidney injury, and (4) renal replacement therapy.
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Benefits of transperitoneal approach to bilateral pretransplant laparoscopic nephrectomies in pediatric patients.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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Pediatric renal transplant patients may require native nephrectomy to avoid complications at the time of kidney transplantation. We have performed unilateral and bilateral transperitoneal pretransplant laparoscopic nephrectomies (PLNs), followed by living-related renal transplantation. The benefits of transperitoneal versus retroperitoneal dissection remain controversial.
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Management of toxic ingestions with the use of renal replacement therapy.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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Although rare, renal replacement therapy (RRT) for the treatment of the metabolic, respiratory and hemodynamic complications of intoxications may be required. Understanding the natural clearance of the medications along with their volume of distribution, protein binding and molecular weight will help in understanding the benefit of commencing RRT. This information will aid in choosing the optimal forms of RRT in an urgent setting. Overdose of common pediatric medications are discussed with suggestions on the type of RRT within this educational review.
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Megestrol acetate improves weight gain in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease.
J Ren Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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Megestrol acetate (MA) has been used to treat weight loss in pediatric patients with malignancies, cystic fibrosis and HIV/AIDS. We herein report our experience with MA in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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Sonographic assessment of renal size and growth in premature infants.
Pediatr Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Low birth-weight infants are at risk for renal disease when renal insults occur in the neonatal period. Renal growth as measured by sonography over time is utilized by many nephrologists as predictors of future renal disease.
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Severe paediatric systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis--a single-centre experience.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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Paediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) often have severe presentations including lupus nephritis (LN). Few paediatric studies have evaluated the anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) and renal histology. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic features, including aCL, short-term clinical and renal histologic outcomes of paediatric patients with new-onset SLE nephritis.
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Rasburicase improves hyperuricemia in infants with acute kidney injury.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2009
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Recent data suggest that elevated levels of uric acid (UA) might contribute to the progression of renal disease. Rasburicase, recombinant urate oxidase, is a highly safe and efficacious hypo-uricosuric agent for treatment of elevated UA levels from tumor lysis. We adopted the use of rasburicase for management of hyperuricemia in infants with acute kidney injury (AKI) and, herein, report our experience. We conducted a retrospective chart review of infants with hyperuricemia (UA > 8 mg/dl) secondary to AKI (serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dl) treated with rasburicase. Seven infants (mean age 34 +/- 55 days, six male), with a mean weight of 3.2 +/- 1.2 kg, were identified. Rasburicase was administered intravenously as a single, onetime, bolus of 0.17 +/- 0.04 mg/kg body weight. Within 24 h, serum UA had decreased from 13.6 +/- 4.5 mg/dl to 0.9 +/- 0.6 mg/dl (P < 0.05), creatinine had decreased from 3.2 +/- 2.0 mg/dl to 2.0 +/- 1.2 mg/dl (P < 0.05), and urinary output had increased from 2.4 +/- 1.2 ml/kg per hour to 5.9 +/- 1.8 ml/kg per hour (P < 0.05). Continued improvements in UA, creatinine, and urinary output were observed in the week following administration of rasburicase, without rebound of the UA. We observed no treatment-related side effects. All patients demonstrated a normalization of uric acid level without need of renal replacement therapy. In conclusion, a single intravenously administered bolus of rasburicase appears to be a novel treatment for hyperuricemia in infants with AKI.
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Rapid discontinuation of corticosteroids in pediatric renal transplantation.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Corticosteroid immunosuppression has permitted the development of successful allotransplantation; however, corticosteroids are associated significant post-transplant complications. To circumvent these problems, we implemented a protocol of rapid discontinuation of corticosteroids in 19 consecutive pediatric primary kidney transplant recipients. Mean age at time of transplant was 13.4 (+/-4.5) yr, 52.6% were male, 63.2% underwent living donor transplantation. All patients were administered Thymoglobulin [anti-thymocyte globulin (rabbit)] as induction immunosuppression with a rapid tapering dose of corticosteroids (total of five daily doses), and maintained on mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. Two patients had immediate recurrence of primary disease (FSGS), requiring further corticosteroid therapy. Otherwise, remaining 17 patients were maintained off corticosteroids, with excellent graft function; mean baseline eGFR of 112 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (+/-19) at 28 months (+/-14) post-transplantation. There was 100% patient and rejection-free graft survival at 27 months (range 5-58 months) post-transplantation; 47% underwent renal transplant biopsy secondary to acute rise in serum creatinine with or without worsening hypertension. All biopsies had no evidence of acute rejection; 62.5% had findings consistent with tacrolimus toxicity. Renal transplantation utilizing a rapid discontinuation of corticosteroid protocol in pediatric patients appears to be safe and effective, without increasing the risk of acute rejection or graft loss.
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Fluid overload and mortality in children receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: the prospective pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy registry.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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Critically ill children with hemodynamic instability and acute kidney injury often develop fluid overload. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has emerged as a favored modality in the management of such children. This study investigated the association between fluid overload and mortality in children receiving CRRT.
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Renovascular hypertension and intrarenal artery aneurysms in a preschool child.
Pediatr Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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Renovascular hypertension from renal artery aneurysmal formation is a rare complication of fibromuscular dysplasia. Few data exist to direct the management of intrarenal artery aneurysms in pediatric patients. We report the presentation, diagnosis and management of renovascular hypertension and intrarenal aneurysmal disease in a preschool child.
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Nutritional management of hyperkalemic infants with chronic kidney disease, using adult renal formulas.
J Ren Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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This study sought to evaluate the use of adult renal formulas in hyperkalemic infants with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
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Continuous renal replacement therapy for children ?10 kg: a report from the prospective pediatric continuous renal replacement therapy registry.
J. Pediatr.
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To report circuit characteristics and survival analysis in children weighing ?10 kg enrolled in the Prospective Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (ppCRRT) Registry.
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Extracorporeal treatment for thallium poisoning: recommendations from the EXTRIP Workgroup.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
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The EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) workgroup was formed to provide recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatment (ECTR) in poisoning. To test and validate its methods, the workgroup reviewed data for thallium (Tl).
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Nonrenal indications for continuous renal replacement therapy: A report from the Prospective Pediatric Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Registry Group.
Pediatr Crit Care Med
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Continuous renal replacement therapy is the most often implemented dialysis modality in the pediatric intensive care unit setting for patients with acute kidney injury. However, it also has a role in the management of patients with nonrenal indications such as clearance of drugs and intermediates of disordered cellular metabolism.
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The EXTRIP (EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning) workgroup: guideline methodology.
Clin Toxicol (Phila)
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Extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs), such as hemodialysis and hemoperfusion, are used in poisoning despite a lack of controlled human trials demonstrating efficacy. To provide uniform recommendations, the EXTRIP group was formed as an international collaboration among recognized experts from nephrology, clinical toxicology, critical care, or pharmacology and supported by over 30 professional societies. For every poison, the clinical benefit of ECTR is weighed against associated complications, alternative therapies, and costs. Rigorous methodology, using the AGREE instrument, was developed and ratified. Methods rely on evidence appraisal and, in the absence of robust studies, on a thorough and transparent process of consensus statements. Twenty-four poisons were chosen according to their frequency, available evidence, and relevance. A systematic literature search was performed in order to retrieve all original publications regardless of language. Data were extracted on a standardized instrument. Quality of the evidence was assessed by GRADE as: High = A, Moderate = B, Low = C, Very Low = D. For every poison, dialyzability was assessed and clinical effect of ECTR summarized. All pertinent documents were submitted to the workgroup with a list of statements for vote (general statement, indications, timing, ECTR choice). A modified Delphi method with two voting rounds was used, between which deliberation was required. Each statement was voted on a Likert scale (1-9) to establish the strength of recommendation. This approach will permit the production of the first important practice guidelines on this topic.
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