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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Morphological Alterations of Periodontal Pocket Epithelium Following Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation.
Photomed Laser Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Abstract Objective: The purpose of this in vivo study was to examine morphologic alterations in the periodontal pocket epithelium with presence or absence of clinical inflammation following the use of the Neodymium: Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation. Background data: Subgingival Nd:YAG laser irradiation has been proposed as an alternative technique for treatment of chronic periodontitis. Several published studies have reported the clinical outcomes of such treatment. Methods: Twenty patients, diagnosed with moderate chronic periodontitis, were selected for the study. A total of 32 sites was identified and divided into a control (n=18) and laser-treated test groups (n=14). Probing depth (PD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded for all sites. Test sites were irradiated with an Nd:YAG laser using parameters of 2?W, 200?mJ pulse energy, and 10?pps delivered through a 320??m diameter tip. Total laser treatment time ranged from 1 to 2?min. Following treatment, all specimens were harvested via biopsy and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histologic examination. Results: Control group specimens, depending upon initial PD, exhibited either a relatively smooth and intact epithelium with little desquamation (PD ?3?mm), or increasing degrees of epithelial desquamation and leukocytic infiltration at a PD of ?4?mm. In the laser-treated test group, the specimens with PD ?3?mm that were BOP negative (-) exhibited a thin layer of epithelium that was disrupted. In the specimens with initial PD of ?4?mm, complete removal of the epithelium whose extent and degree were increasing, was observed in the inflamed portion, while epithelium remained in the uninflamed portion. Conclusions: The SEM and histologic findings demonstrated the feasibility of ablating pocket epithelium with an Nd:YAG laser irradiation using parameters of 2?W of power (200?mJ, 10?pps). Furthermore, the presence or absence of clinical inflammation appeared to have an impact on the degree of laser-mediated epithelial ablation.
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The putative transmembrane domain 6 of the human Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) influences transporter substrate binding, protein trafficking and quality control.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a family of important membrane proteins that mediate the cellular influx of various anionic substances including clinically important drugs. Transmembrane domain 6 (TM6) is a distinctive consensus 'signature' common to all OATPs. Two naturally occurring variants were previously identified in TM6 of the important transporter OATP1A2; these variants may be associated with suboptimal drug influx into cells. Because of the potential importance of TM6 in drug efficacy, this study investigated its role in substrate uptake by OATP1A2. Single amino acid replacements were introduced into TM6 of OATP1A2 (residues 245-266) by alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Uptake assays, biotinylation and immunoblotting were used to assess the function and expression of OATP1A2 and its mutants after over-expression in HEK293 cells. Uptake of the model substrates estrone-3-sulfate and methotrexate by OATP1A2 mutants carrying amino acid replacements within the TM6 subregions of 245-248 and 261-266 was impaired, while transport function was largely retained by other mutants. From kinetic, biotinylation and immunoblot analysis the diminished function of the 245-248 and 261-266 mutants was due primarily to decreased plasma membrane and total cell expression and also to a less extent, impacted by altered substrate binding. Further experiments with proteasomal or lysosomal inhibitors were consistent with impaired maturation and impaired plasma membrane insertion of several mutants of OATP1A2 within the subregions of 245-248 and 261-266. In addition, the finding that total cellular expression, but not plasma membrane expression, was less impaired for the W245A and W246A mutants suggests that these two TM6 residues might be involved in membrane targeting of OATP1A2. These findings implicate the TM6 subregions of 245-248 and 261-266 in substrate binding, protein trafficking and quality control of OATP1A2.
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Relationship between betel quid chewing and radiographic alveolar bone loss among Taiwanese aboriginals: a retrospective study.
BMC Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Betel quid chewing is associated with the periodontal status; however, results of epidemiological studies are inconsistent. To the best of our knowledge, no study has reported radiographic alveolar bone loss (RABL) associated with betel quid chewing.
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Integrative Identification of Epstein-Barr Virus-associated Mutations and Epigenetic Alterations in Gastric Cancer.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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& Aims: The mechanisms by which Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes to development of gastric cancer are unclear. We investigated EBV-associated genomic and epigenomic variations in gastric cancer cells and tumors.
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Selective inhibition of human solute carrier transporters by multikinase inhibitors.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Solute carrier (SLC) transporters regulate the cellular influx and disposition of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds, including anticancer agents such as the multikinase inhibitors (MKIs). Recent evidence suggests that MKIs may also inhibit SLC-dependent transport of coadministered drugs, although present information on the relative susceptibilities of multiple SLC transporters is limited. This study evaluated 18 MKI drugs and metabolites as inhibitors of prototypic substrate uptake by 13 SLC transporters that were overexpressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) 1A2, 1B3, and 2B1, organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3), and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) were inhibited by most MKIs, whereas substrate uptake by OATP1B1, OAT1, 2, and 4, OCT2 and 3, and organic zwitterion/cation transporter 1 (OCTN1) was less susceptible to inhibition; OCTN2 was also inhibited by cediranib. In further studies, IC50 values were determined for the most effective MKIs, and erlotinib and cediranib were found to be potent competitive inhibitors of OATP2B1 (Ki = 41 nM) and OATP1A2 (Ki = 33 nM), respectively. From predictive approaches, several MKI-SLC interactions were found to be of potential in vivo significance.
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Understanding and tuning electronic structure in modified ceria nanocrystals by defect engineering.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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This study investigates the effect of Fe(3+) on the electronic structure of nanocrystalline ceria. Systematic synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy was utilized. The oxygen vacancies can be engineered and their number varied with the degree of iron doping. Comparing the local electronic structure around Ce sites with that around Fe sites reveals two stages of defect engineering. The concentration of Ce(3+) and the distribution of defects differ between lower and higher degrees of doping. Charge is transferred between Ce and Fe when the doping level is less than 5%, but this effect is not significant at a doping level of over 5%. This transfer of charge is verified by energy loss spectroscopy. These Fe-modified ceria nanoparticles exhibit core-shell-like structures at low doping levels and this finding is consistent with the results of scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy. More Fe is distributed at the surface for doping levels less than 5%, whereas the homogeneity of Fe in the system increases for doping levels higher than 5%. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that Ce, rather than Fe, is responsible for the ferromagnetism. Interestingly, Ce(3+) is not essential for producing the ferromagnetism. The oxygen vacancies and the defect structure are suggested to be the main causes of the ferromagnetism. The charge transfer and defect structure Fe(3+)-Vo-Ce(3+) and Fe(3+)-Vo-Fe(3+) are critical for the magnetism, and the change in saturated magnetization can be understood as being caused by the competition between interactions that originate from magnetic polarons and from paired ions.
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A novel missense mutation in CCDC88C activates the JNK pathway and causes a dominant form of spinocerebellar ataxia.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a group of clinically and genetically diverse and autosomal-dominant disorders characterised by neurological deficits in the cerebellum. At present, there is no cure for SCAs. Of the different distinct subtypes of autosomal-dominant SCAs identified to date, causative genes for only a fraction of them are currently known. In this study, we investigated the cause of an autosomal-dominant SCA phenotype in a family that exhibits cerebellar ataxia and pontocerebellar atrophy along with a global reduction in brain volume.
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Interactions of the active components of Punica granatum (pomegranate) with the essential renal and hepatic human Solute Carrier transporters.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Abstract Context: Solute carrier transporters (SLCs) are membrane proteins responsible for cellular influx of various substances including many pharmaceutical agents; therefore, they largely impact on drug disposition and elimination in body. Punica granatum Linnaeus (Lythraceae), pomegranate, is a fruit with antidiabetic potential. Oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA), and gallic acid (GA) are the major bioactive components of pomegranate. Co-administration of these compounds with other drugs could result in altered drug pharmacokinetics, possibly due to competing for transporter proteins.
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Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of multiple individuals reveals complementary roles of promoter and gene body methylation in transcriptional regulation.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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DNA methylation is an important type of epigenetic modification involved in gene regulation. Although strong DNA methylation at promoters is widely recognized to be associated with transcriptional repression, many aspects of DNA methylation remain not fully understood, including the quantitative relationships between DNA methylation and expression levels, and the individual roles of promoter and gene body methylation.
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Modeling fecal coliform contamination in a tidal Danshuei River estuarine system.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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A three-dimensional fecal coliform transport model was developed and incorporated into a hydrodynamic model to obtain a better understanding of local microbiological water quality in the tidal Danshuei River estuarine system of northern Taiwan. The model was firstly validated with the salinity and fecal coliform data measured in 2010. The concentration comparison showed quantitatively good agreement between the simulation and measurement results. Further, the model was applied to investigate the effects of upstream freshwater discharge variation and fecal coliform loading reduction on the contamination distributions in the tidal estuarine system. The qualitative and quantitative analyses clearly revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in higher fecal coliform concentration. The fecal coliform loading reduction considerably decreased the contamination along the Danshuei River-Tahan Stream, the Hsintien Stream, and the Keelung River.
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A graphene dispersed CdS-MoS2 nanocrystal ensemble for cooperative photocatalytic hydrogen production from water.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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We report a simple but highly cooperative ensemble with CdS and MoS2 nanocrystals dispersed on graphene sheets: it is demonstrated that CdS nanocrystals can capture light energy and facilitate excited electron transfer to MoS2 for catalytic hydrogen production via the 2-D graphene which plays a key role as an efficient electron mediator.
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Luminescent cyclometalated platinum(II) complex forms emissive intercalating adducts with double-stranded DNA and RNA: differential emissions and anticancer activities.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Luminescent metallo-intercalators are potent biosensors of nucleic acid structure and anticancer agents targeting DNAs. There are few examples of luminescent metallo-intercalators which can simultaneously act as emission probes of nucleic acid structure and display promising anticancer activities. Herein, we describe a luminescent platinum(II) complex, [Pt(C^N^N)(C?NtBu)]ClO4 (1?a, HC^N^N= 6-phenyl-2,2'-bipyridyl), that intercalates between the nucleobases of nucleic acids, accompanied by an increase in emission intensity and/or a significant change in the maximum emission wavelength. The changes in emission properties measured with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) are different from those with dsDNA used in the binding reactions. Complex 1?a exhibited potent anticancer activity towards cancer cells in?vitro and inhibited tumor growth in a mouse model. The stabilization of the topoisomerase?I-DNA complex with resulting DNA damage by 1?a is suggested to contribute to its anticancer activity.
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Role of N-linked glycans in the interactions of recombinant HCV envelope glycoproteins with cellular receptors.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It infects human liver cells through several cellular protein receptors including CD81, SR-BI, claudin-1, and occludin. Previous reports also show that lectin receptors can mediate HCV recognition and entry. The envelope proteins of HCV (E1 and E2) are heavily glycosylated, further indicating the possible roles of lectin receptor-virus interaction in HCV infection. However, there is limited study investigating the relationship of HCV envelope glycoproteins and lectin as well as non-lectin receptors. Here we used surface plasmon resonance to examine the binding affinity of different glycoforms of recombinant HCV envelope protein to receptors and inspected the infectivity and assembly of HCV pseudoparticles composed of different glycoforms of envelope proteins. Our results indicated that DC-SIGN, L-SIGN, and Langerin had higher affinity to recombinant HCV envelope proteins in the presence of calcium ions than non-lectin receptors, and envelope proteins with Man8/9 N-glycans showed approximate 10-fold better binding to lectin receptors than envelope proteins with Man5 and complex type N-glycans. Interestingly, comparing among glycoforms, recombinant envelope proteins with Man5 N-glycans showed the highest binding affinity when interacting with non-lectin receptors. In summary, the glycans on HCV envelope protein play a modulatory role in HCV assembly and infection and direct HCV-receptor interaction, which mediates viral entry in different cells. Receptors with high affinity to HCV envelope proteins may be considered as targets for development of a therapeutic strategy against HCV.
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Combination of ?-carotene and quercetin against benzo[a]pyrene-induced pro-inflammatory reaction accompanied by the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activity and NF-?B translocation in Mongolian gerbils.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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We have previously shown that quercetin modulates the proinflammatory effect of ?-carotene (BC) induced by oral benzo[a]pyren (Bap) partly through the regulation of the JNK pathway. In the present study, we determined whether the combination of BC and quercetin regulates the antioxidant enzymes and the activation of NF-?B in Mongolian gerbils exposed to Bap. We also compared the combined effects of BC+ quercetin with that of BC+ ascorbic acid (C)+ ?-tocopherol (E).
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New Ce3+-activated thiosilicate phosphor for LED lighting-synthesis, luminescence studies, and applications.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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A new Ce(3+)-activated thiosilicate phosphor, BaLa2Si2S8:Ce(3+), was synthesized by using solid-state methods in a fused silica ampule and found to crystallize in the structure type of La2PbSi2S8. The crystal structure has been characterized by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and refined with Rietveld methods. This novel cyan-emitting phosphor can be excited over a broad range from UV to blue light (380-450 nm) and generates a broadband emission peaking at 471 nm with a quantum efficiency of 36%. Nonradiative transitions between Ce(3+) ions in BaLa2Si2S8:Ce(3+) have also been demonstrated to be attributable to dipole-dipole interactions, and the critical distance was calculated to be 17.41 Å. When BaLa2Si2S8:Ce(3+) phosphor was utilized to incorporate with yellow-emitting (Sr,Ca)2SiO4:Eu(2+) phosphor and red-emitting CaAlSiN3:Eu(2+) phosphor on a 430 nm blue LED chip, a warm white light LED device with color rendering index of ?96 was obtained. The results indicate that cyan-emitting BaLa2Si2S8:Ce(3+) can serve as a potential phosphor for incorporation in fabrication of solid-state lighting. The preparation, spectroscopic characterization, quantum efficiency, decay lifetime, thermal-quenching behavior, and related LED device data are also presented.
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Identification of putative ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone pathway genes in the shrimp Neocaridina denticulata.
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Although the sesquiterpenoid juvenile hormone (JH) and the steroidal ecdysteroids are of vital importance to the development and reproduction of insects, our understanding of the evolution of these crucial hormonal regulators in other arthropods is limited. To better understand arthropod hormone evolution and regulation, here we describe the hormonal pathway genes (e.g. those involved in hormone biosynthesis, degradation, regulation and signal transduction) of a new decapod model, the shrimp Neocaridina denticulata. The majority of known insect sesquiterpenoid and ecdysteroid pathway genes and their regulators are contained in the N. denticulata genome. In the sesquiterpenoid pathway, these include biosynthetic pathway components: juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (JHAMT); hormone binding protein: juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP); and degradation pathway components: juvenile hormone esterase (JHE), juvenile hormone esterase binding protein (JHEBP) and juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH), with the JHBP, JHEBP and JHEH genes being discovered in a crustacean for the first time here. Ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway genes identified include spook, phantom, disembodied, shadow and CYP18. Potential hormonal regulators and signal transducers such as allatostatins (ASTs), Methoprene-tolerant (Met), Retinoid X receptor (RXR), Ecdysone receptor (EcR), calponin-like protein Chd64, FK509-binding protein (FKBP39), Broad-complex (Br-c), and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/molt-inhibiting hormone/gonad-inhibiting hormone (CHH/MIH/GIH) genes are all present in the shrimp N. denticulata. To our knowledge, this is the first report of these hormonal pathways and their regulatory genes together in a single decapod, providing a vital resource for further research into development, reproduction, endocrinology and evolution of crustaceans, and arthropods in general.
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Orangish-yellow-emitting Ca?Si?O?:Eu²? phosphor for application in blue-light based warm-white LEDs.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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A Eu(2+)-activated Ca3Si2O7:Eu(2+) orangish-yellow-emitting phosphor with strong luminescence was synthesized and its crystal structure was determined on the basis of XRD profiles using synchrotron radiation. The crystal structure was refined by the Rietveld refinement method. The excitation and emission spectra of the Ca3Si2O7:Eu(2+) phosphor show broad excitation bands in the range of 240-550 nm and a broad yellow emission band centered at 603 nm, depending on the concentration of Eu(2+). The optimized concentration of Eu(2+) in the Ca3Si2O7:Eu(2+) phosphor was determined to be 0.015 mol. The critical distance and average decay time were found to be short and fast, respectively, ranging from 19.74 Å to 13.69 Å and from 2.56 ?s to 2.34 ?s on increasing the Eu(2+) doping content. Warm-white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated using an InGaN-based blue LED chip combined with the Ca3Si2O7:0.015Eu(2+) phosphor gave color rendering indices between 76.0 and 38.9, correlated color temperatures between 1924 K and 4992 K, and tuned CIE chromaticity coordinates in the range from orangish-yellow (0.543, 0.389) to reddish purple (0.333, 0.219). The color coordinates and emission intensity of a Ca3Si2O7:0.015Eu(2+)-based white LED display were slightly yellow-shifted and the intensity increased on increasing the forward-bias current. These results indicate that orangish-yellow-emitting Ca3Si2O7:0.015Eu(2+) can serve as a promising candidate for applications in warm-white LEDs.
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Oral and intraperitoneal administration of quercetin decreased lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma lipid peroxidation induced by TSA in vivo.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Our previous study showed that quercetin enhances the anticancer effect of trichostatin A (TSA) in xenograft mice given quercetin intraperitoneally (10?mg/kg, 3 times/week). Herein, we investigate whether quercetin administered orally exerts such an effect and prevents the cytotoxic side effects of TSA. We found that quercetin given orally (20 and 100?mg/kg, 3 times/week) failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA although it increased the total quercetin concentration more than quercetin administered intraperitoneally in the plasma. The compound quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) increased the most. However, quercetin administered intraperitoneally increased the total quercetin level in tumor tissues more than oral quercetin. Oral and intraperitoneal administration of quercetin similarly decreased lymphocyte DNA damage and plasma lipid peroxidation level induced by TSA. Furthermore, we found that the enhancing effect of Q3G on the antitumor effect of TSA and the incorporation of Q3G was less than that of quercetin in A549 cells. However, we found that A549 cells possessed the ability to convert Q3G to quercetin. In conclusion, different from quercetin administered intraperitoneally, quercetin administered orally failed to enhance the antitumor effect of TSA because of its metabolic conversion. However, it prevented TSA-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation.
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Assessing the influence of nutrient reduction on water quality using a three-dimensional model: case study in a tidal estuarine system.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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A coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has been developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system and adjacent coastal sea. The water quality model considers various species of nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and phytoplankton as well as dissolved oxygen and is driven by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The hydrodynamic and water quality models were validated with observations of water surface elevation, velocity, salinity distribution, and water quality parameters. Statistical error analysis shows that predictions of hydrodynamics, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict water quality conditions as a result of a reduction in nutrient loadings based on different engineering strategies. The simulated results revealed that the dissolved oxygen concentration would increase significantly and would be higher than 2 mg/L in the main stream and in three tributaries to meet the minimum statutory requirement for dissolved oxygen. Active estuarine management focused on the reduction of anthropogenic nutrient loads is needed for improvement in water quality.
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Identification of a novel salt tolerance gene in wild soybean by whole-genome sequencing.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Using a whole-genome-sequencing approach to explore germplasm resources can serve as an important strategy for crop improvement, especially in investigating wild accessions that may contain useful genetic resources that have been lost during the domestication process. Here we sequence and assemble a draft genome of wild soybean and construct a recombinant inbred population for genotyping-by-sequencing and phenotypic analyses to identify multiple QTLs relevant to traits of interest in agriculture. We use a combination of de novo sequencing data from this work and our previous germplasm re-sequencing data to identify a novel ion transporter gene, GmCHX1, and relate its sequence alterations to salt tolerance. Rapid gain-of-function tests show the protective effects of GmCHX1 towards salt stress. This combination of whole-genome de novo sequencing, high-density-marker QTL mapping by re-sequencing and functional analyses can serve as an effective strategy to unveil novel genomic information in wild soybean to facilitate crop improvement.
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Mutations enabling displacement of tryptophan by 4-fluorotryptophan as a canonical amino acid of the genetic code.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The 20 canonical amino acids of the genetic code have been invariant over 3 billion years of biological evolution. Although various aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases can charge their cognate tRNAs with amino acid analogs, there has been no known displacement of any canonical amino acid from the code. Experimental departure from this universal protein alphabet comprising the canonical amino acids was first achieved in the mutants of the Bacillus subtilis QB928 strain, which after serial selection and mutagenesis led to the HR23 strain that could use 4-fluorotryptophan (4FTrp) but not canonical tryptophan (Trp) for propagation. To gain insight into this displacement of Trp from the genetic code by 4FTrp, genome sequencing was performed on LC33 (a precursor strain of HR23), HR23, and TR7 (a revertant of HR23 that regained the capacity to propagate on Trp). Compared with QB928, the negative regulator mtrB of Trp transport was found to be knocked out in LC33, HR23, and TR7, and sigma factor sigB was mutated in HR23 and TR7. Moreover, rpoBC encoding RNA polymerase subunits were mutated in three independent isolates of TR7 relative to HR23. Increased expression of sigB was also observed in HR23 and in TR7 growing under 4FTrp. These findings indicated that stabilization of the genetic code can be provided by just a small number of analog-sensitive proteins, forming an oligogenic barrier that safeguards the canonical amino acids throughout biological evolution.
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Safety and pharmacological characterization of the molecular tweezer CLR01 - a broad-spectrum inhibitor of amyloid proteins' toxicity.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The "molecular tweezer" CLR01 is a broad-spectrum inhibitor of abnormal protein self-assembly, which acts by binding selectively to Lys residues. CLR01 has been tested in several in vitro and in vivo models of amyloidoses all without signs of toxicity. With the goal of developing CLR01 as a therapeutic drug for Alzheimer's disease and other amyloidoses, here we studied its safety and pharmacokinetics.
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Worsened arterial stiffness in high-risk cardiovascular patients with high habitual carbohydrate intake: a cross-sectional vascular function study.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Previous studies suggested that high dietary carbohydrate intake is associated with increased cardiovascular risk through raised triglyceride and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. However, the relation between carbohydrate intake and arterial stiffness has not been established. The purpose of this study was to examine this relation among high-risk cardiovascular patients.
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N,N'-(Ethane-1,2-di-yl)bis-(methane-sulfon-amide).
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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The mol-ecular structure of the title compound, C4H12N2O4S2, has crystallographic inversion symmetry. The central N-C-C-N moiety was refined as disordered over two sets of sites with an approximate occupancy ratio of 3:1 [0.742?(15):0.258?(15). In the crystal, N-H?O hydrogen bonds link adjacent mol-ecules into a thick sheet structure parallel to the b-axis direction.
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Viral-human chimeric transcript predisposes risk to liver cancer development and progression.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The mutagenic effect of hepatitis B (HBV) integration in predisposing risk to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains elusive. In this study, we performed transcriptome sequencing of HBV-positive HCC cell lines and showed transcription of viral-human gene fusions from the site of genome integrations. We discovered tumor-promoting properties of a chimeric HBx-LINE1 that, intriguingly, functions as a hybrid RNA. HBx-LINE1 can be detected in 23.3% of HBV-associated HCC tumors and correlates with poorer patient survival. HBx-LINE1 transgenic mice showed heightened susceptibility to diethylnitrosamine-induced tumor formation. We further show that HBx-LINE1 expression affects ?-catenin transactivity, which underlines a role in activating Wnt signaling. Thus, this study identifies a viral-human chimeric fusion transcript that functions like a long noncoding RNA to promote HCC.
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Local geometric and electronic structures of gasochromic VO(x) films.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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VOx films were deposited by radio-frequency reactive magnetron sputtering from a vanadium target at room temperature. Local atomic and electronic structures of the films were then modified by thermal annealing. The oxidation state and structural and gasochromic properties of the films were elucidated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Analytical results indicate that the as-deposited VOx films were amorphous with mixed V(4+) and V(5+) valences. The amorphous VOx had a disordered and expanded lamellar structure resembling that of polymer-intercalated V2O5 gels. VOx films were crystallized into orthorhombic V2O5 at 300 °C, and the lamellar structure was eliminated at 400 °C. Additionally, the gasochromic reaction reduced the vanadium valence via intervalence transitions between V(5+) and V(3+). Moreover, removing the lamellar structure reduced the gasochromic rate, and the gasochromic reaction transformed the V2O5 crystalline phase irreversibly into an H1.43V2O5 phase. Based on the results of this study, amorphous VOx with a lamellar structure is recommended for use in H2 gas sensors.
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De novo transcriptome sequencing of the snail Echinolittorina malaccana: identification of genes responsive to thermal stress and development of genetic markers for population studies.
Mar. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Echinolittorina snails inhabit the upper intertidal rocky shore and face strong selection pressures from thermal extremes and fluctuations. Revealing the molecular processes of adaptive significance is greatly obstructed by the scarcity of genomic resource for these taxa. Here, we reported the first comprehensive transcriptome dataset for the genus Echinolittorina. Using Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, about 52 M and 54 M paired-end clean reads were, respectively, generated for the control and heat-stressed libraries. Totally, 115,211 unique transcript fragments (unigenes) were assembled, with an average length of 453 bp and a N50 size of 492 bp. Approximately one third of the unigenes could be annotated according to their homology matches against the Nr, Swiss-Prot, COG, or KEGG databases, and they were found to represent 23,098 non-redundant genes. Gene expression comparison revealed that 1,267 and 6,663 annotated genes were, respectively, up- and downregulated with at least twofold changes upon heat stress. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that there were overrepresented amount of genes enriched in a broad spectrum of biological processes and pathways, including those associated with cytoskeleton organization, developmental regulation, signaling transduction, infection, and cardiac function. In addition, a transcriptome-wide search for polymorphic loci yielded a total of 11,228 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from 9,938 unigenes and 138,631 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion/deletion (INDEL) sites among 22,770 unigenes. The large number of transcript sequences acquired, the biological pathways identified, and the candidate microsatellite and SNP/INDEL loci discovered in the study will serve as valuable resources for further investigations of genetic differentiation and thermal adaptation among populations.
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Genomic sequence and experimental tractability of a new decapod shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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The speciose Crustacea is the largest subphylum of arthropods on the planet after the Insecta. To date, however, the only publically available sequenced crustacean genome is that of the water flea, Daphnia pulex, a member of the Branchiopoda. While Daphnia is a well-established ecotoxicological model, previous study showed that one-third of genes contained in its genome are lineage-specific and could not be identified in any other metazoan genomes. To better understand the genomic evolution of crustaceans and arthropods, we have sequenced the genome of a novel shrimp model, Neocaridina denticulata, and tested its experimental malleability. A library of 170-bp nominal fragment size was constructed from DNA of a starved single adult and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Core eukaryotic genes, the mitochondrial genome, developmental patterning genes (such as Hox) and microRNA processing pathway genes are all present in this animal, suggesting it has not undergone massive genomic loss. Comparison with the published genome of Daphnia pulex has allowed us to reveal 3750 genes that are indeed specific to the lineage containing malacostracans and branchiopods, rather than Daphnia-specific (E-value: 10??). We also show the experimental tractability of N. denticulata, which, together with the genomic resources presented here, make it an ideal model for a wide range of further aquacultural, developmental, ecotoxicological, food safety, genetic, hormonal, physiological and reproductive research, allowing better understanding of the evolution of crustaceans and other arthropods.
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Immigrant-native differences in caries-related knowledge, attitude, and oral health behaviors: a cross-sectional study in Taiwan.
BMC Oral Health
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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With the growing number of transnational marriages in Taiwan, oral health disparities have become a public health issue. This study assessed immigrant-native differences in oral health behaviors of urban mothers and their children.
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PDZK1 and NHERF1 regulate the function of human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) by modulating its subcellular trafficking and stability.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) is an important membrane protein that mediates the cellular influx of various substances including drugs. Previous studies have shown that PDZ-domain containing proteins, especially PDZK1 and NHERF1, regulate the function of related membrane transporters in other mammalian species. This study investigated the role of PDZK1 and NHERF1 in the regulation of OATP1A2 in an in vitro cell model. Transporter function and protein expression were assessed in OATP1A2-transfected HEK-293 cells that co-expressed PDZK1 or NHERF1. Substrate (estrone-3-sulfate) uptake by OATP1A2 was significantly increased to ?1.6- (PDZK1) and ?1.8- (NHERF1) fold of control; this was dependent on the putative PDZ-binding domain within the C-terminus of OATP1A2. The functional increase of OATP1A2 following PDZK1 or NHERF1 over-expression was associated with increased transporter expression at the plasma membrane and in the whole cell, and was reflected by an increase in the apparent maximal velocity of estrone-3-sulfate uptake (V(max): 138.9±4.1 (PDZK1) and 181.4±16.7 (NHERF1) versus 55.5±3.2 pmol*(µg*4 min)?¹ in control; P<0.01). Co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that the regulatory actions of PDZK1 and NHERF1 were mediated by direct interaction with OATP1A2 protein. In further experiments PDZK1 and NHERF1 modulated OATP1A2 expression by decreasing its internalization in a clathrin-dependent (but caveolin-independent) manner. Additionally, PDZK1 and NHERF1 enhanced the stability of OATP1A2 protein in HEK-293 cells. The present findings indicated that PDZK1 and NHERF1 regulate the transport function of OATP1A2 by modulating protein internalization via a clathrin-dependent pathway and by enhancing protein stability.
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Familial young-onset diabetes, pre-diabetes and cardiovascular disease are associated with genetic variants of DACH1 in Chinese.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In Asia, young-onset type 2 diabetes (YOD) is characterized by obesity and increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 99 Chinese obese subjects with familial YOD diagnosed before 40-year-old and 101 controls, the T allele of rs1408888 in intron 1 of DACH1(Dachshund homolog 1) was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.49(95% confidence intervals:1.57-3.96, P = 8.4 × 10(-5)). Amongst these subjects, we found reduced expression of DACH1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 63 cases compared to 65 controls (P = 0.02). In a random cohort of 1468 cases and 1485 controls, amongst top 19 SNPs from GWAS, rs1408888 was associated with type 2 diabetes with a global P value of 0.0176 and confirmation in a multiethnic Asian case-control cohort (7370/7802) with an OR of 1.07(1.02-1.12, P(meta) ?=?0.012). In 599 Chinese non-diabetic subjects, rs1408888 was linearly associated with systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance. In a case-control cohort (n?=?953/953), rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 1.54(1.07-2.22, P = 0.019) for CVD in type 2 diabetes. In an autopsy series of 173 non-diabetic cases, TT genotype of rs1408888 was associated with an OR of 3.31(1.19-9.19, P = 0.0214) and 3.27(1.25-11.07, P = 0.0184) for coronary heart disease (CHD) and coronary arteriosclerosis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that rs1408888 lies within regulatory elements of DACH1 implicated in islet development and insulin secretion. The T allele of rs1408888 of DACH1 was associated with YOD, prediabetes and CVD in Chinese.
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Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation of the Tooth Root Surface Inhibits Demineralization and Root Surface Softening Caused by Minocycline Application.
Photomed Laser Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of laser irradiation on root surface demineralization caused by local drug delivery systems (DDS), and to evaluate the effect of sealing on drug retention. Background data: The duration of supportive periodontal treatment (SPT) has increased with increasing life expectancy. Repeated root planing and DDS application during SPT should be reconsidered with regard to their effects on the root surface. Methods: Extracted human teeth were collected, cut into 3×3×2?mm root dentin specimens, and divided randomly into eight groups with various combinations of Nd:YAG laser power (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 W), with and without DDS (minocycline HCl). Specimen microhardness and calcium (Ca) solubility were measured after treatment. The specimens (control and laser and DDS groups) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Forty SPT patients were recruited, to assess the effect of periodontal pocket sealing on drug retention. Results: Laser irradiation increased the microhardness of root specimens in an energy-dependent manner. Calcium solubilities decreased from the 0 W+DDS group to the 2.0 W+DDS group. The mean Ca solubilities in the 1.0 W+DDS and 2.0 W+DDS groups were significantly lower than in the 0 W+DDS group (p<0.01, p<0.001, respectively). Laser irradiation counteracted the softening effect of DDS. Morphologic change was observed in the 2W+DDS group; however, no morphologic changes were observed in the control and the 1W+DDS groups. The mean concentration of minocycline in the periodontal pocket 24?h after application was 252.79±67.50??g/mL.Conclusions: Laser irradiation of the root surface inhibited the softening and decalcification caused by minocycline HCl. Sealing the periodontal pockets effectively improved drug retention. These results suggest that the combination of laser irradiation and DDS could benefit patients receiving repeated SPT.
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Monitoring bacterial growth using tunable resistive pulse sensing with a pore-based technique.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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A novel bacterial growth monitoring method using a tunable resistive pulse sensor (TRPS) system is introduced in this study for accurate and sensitive measurement of cell size and cell concentration simultaneously. Two model bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis str.168 (BSU168) and Escherichia coli str.DH5? (DH5?), were chosen for benchmarking the growth-monitoring performance of the system. Results showed that the technique of TRPS is sensitive and accurate relative to widely used methods, with a lower detection limit of cell concentration measurement of 5?×?10(5) cells/ml; at the same time, the mean coefficient of variation from TRPS was within 2 %. The growth of BSU168 and DH5? in liquid cultures was studied by TRPS, optical density (OD), and colony plating. Compared to OD measurement, TRPS-measured concentration correlates better with colony plating (R?=?0.85 vs. R?=?0.72), which is often regarded as the gold standard of cell concentration determination. General agreement was also observed by comparing TRPS-derived cell volume measurements and those determined from microscopy. We have demonstrated that TRPS is a reliable method for bacterial growth monitoring, where the study of both cell volume and cell concentration are needed to provide further details about the physical aspects of cell dynamics in real time.
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Interaction of the Bioactive Flavonol, Icariin, with the Essential Human Solute Carrier Transporters.
J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Solute carrier transporters (SLCs), in particular the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic anion/cation transporters (OATs/OCTs), are responsible for the cellular entry of many clinically important drugs in body. They largely influence drug safety and efficacy. Icariin is a flavonol widely present in many herbal preparations, which is used to improve sexual function and prevent osteogenesis. However, precautions are necessary in therapies containing icariin due to its involvement in drug-drug/herb interactions, possibly mediated through competing drug uptake via membrane-transporter proteins. This study is the first to comprehensively evaluate the interactions between icariin and a range of essential SLCs. Our data demonstrated that icariin can significantly inhibit OATP1B3- and OATP2B1-mediated cellular uptake of specific substrates (IC50 of 3.0 ± 1.3 and 6.4 ± 1.9 ?M, respectively). Our study revealed that icariin can potentially compete with coadministrated drugs for particular SLCs, which may impact the therapeutic outcome of regimens.
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Towards understanding the electronic structure of Fe-doped CeO2 nanoparticles with X-ray spectroscopy.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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This study reports on the electronic structure of Fe-doped CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs), determined by coupled X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray emission spectroscopy. A comparison of the local electronic structure around the Ce site with that around the Fe site indicates that the Fe substitutes for the Ce. The oxygen K-edge spectra that originated from the hybridization between cerium 4f and oxygen 2p states are sensitive to the oxidation state and depend strongly on the concentration of Fe doping. The Ce M(4,5)-edges and the Fe L(2,3)-edges reveal the variations of the charge states of Ce and Fe upon doping, respectively. The band gap is further obtained from the combined absorption-emission spectrum and decreased upon Fe doping, implying Fe doping introduces vacancies. The oxygen vacancies are induced by Fe doping and the spectrum reveals the charge transfer between Fe and Ce. Fe(3+) doping has two major effects on the formation of ferromagnetism in CeO2 nanoparticles. The first, at an Fe content of below 5%, is that the formation of Fe(3+)-Vo-Ce(3+) introduces oxygen deficiencies favoring ferromagnetism. The other, at an Fe content of over 5%, is the formation of Fe(3+)-Vo-Fe(3+), which favors antiferromagnetism, reducing the Ms. The defect structures Fe(3+)-Vo-Ce(3+) and Fe(3+)-Vo-Fe(3+) are crucial to the magnetism in these NPs and the change in Ms can be described as the effect of competitive interactions of magnetic polarons and paired ions.
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Transcriptome sequencing of Chinese and Caucasian population identifies ethnic-associated differential transcript abundance of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK).
Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Gene expression variations (GEV) among different ethnic groups have been a subject matter for extensive study. Relatively less known is the extent of alternative splicing variations (ASV) in the context of ethnicity. We conducted a transcriptome sequencing study of 20 lymphoblastoid cell lines obtained from Caucasian and Han Chinese, and identified known genes that exhibit differential isoforms abundance between the two ethnic groups. Among them hnRNPK, a co-factor of p53, could be further replicated in a 39-sample cohort with TaqMan assay. Although within-population novel splice variants are common, inter-population novel splice variants are rare. We further analyzed 5.63 billion sequencing reads retrieved from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive and identified potential ethnic-specific transcribed regions.
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The NGS WikiBook: a dynamic collaborative online training effort with long-term sustainability.
Brief. Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly being adopted as the backbone of biomedical research. With the commercialization of various affordable desktop sequencers, NGS will be reached by increasing numbers of cellular and molecular biologists, necessitating community consensus on bioinformatics protocols to tackle the exponential increase in quantity of sequence data. The current resources for NGS informatics are extremely fragmented. Finding a centralized synthesis is difficult. A multitude of tools exist for NGS data analysis; however, none of these satisfies all possible uses and needs. This gap in functionality could be filled by integrating different methods in customized pipelines, an approach helped by the open-source nature of many NGS programmes. Drawing from community spirit and with the use of the Wikipedia framework, we have initiated a collaborative NGS resource: The NGS WikiBook. We have collected a sufficient amount of text to incentivize a broader community to contribute to it. Users can search, browse, edit and create new content, so as to facilitate self-learning and feedback to the community. The overall structure and style for this dynamic material is designed for the bench biologists and non-bioinformaticians. The flexibility of online material allows the readers to ignore details in a first read, yet have immediate access to the information they need. Each chapter comes with practical exercises so readers may familiarize themselves with each step. The NGS WikiBook aims to create a collective laboratory book and protocol that explains the key concepts and describes best practices in this fast-evolving field.
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The inhibitory effects of the bioactive components isolated from scutellaria baicalensis on the cellular uptake mediated by the essential solute carrier transporters.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Solute carrier transporters (SLCs), in particular the organic anion transporters (OATs), OAT polypeptides (OATPs), and organic cation transporters (OCTs/OCTNs), are the important membrane proteins responsible for the cellular influx of various drugs. Baicalein (BA), baicalin (BG), and wogonin (WG) are the three major bioactive components of Scutellaria baicalensis. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of BA, BG, and WG on the cellular uptake of specific substrates mediated by the essential SLCs in human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Our data demonstrated that BA and WG significantly inhibit the OAT1-, OAT3-, and OATP1B3-mediated uptake; BG effectively reduces the influx of substrates of OAT3, OAT4, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1; WG is a potent inhibitor of OCT3. Our further kinetic analysis derived the IC50 values of these compounds with pronounced inhibitory effects on SLCs, particularly the inhibitions of WG on OAT1 and OCT3 and that of BA and WG on OAT3. Our study comprehensively evaluated the inhibitory effects of three bioactive components of Scutellaria baicalensis on the uptake of specific substrates mediated by the essential SLC transporters, which suggested that precautions will be needed when coadministrating drugs with Scutellaria baicalensis so as to prevent the unfavorable drug-drug/herb interactions in human.
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Fructo-oligosaccharide attenuates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the activation of JNK/Jun pathway in the lungs of D-galactose-treated Balb/cJ mice.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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PURPOSE: This study determined the effects of long-term D-galactose (DG) injection on the lung pro-inflammatory and fibrotic status and whether fructo-oligosaccharide (FO) could attenuate such effects. METHODS: Forty Balb/cJ mice (12 weeks of age) were divided into four groups: control (s.c. saline) (basal diet), DG (s.c. 1.2 g DG/kg body weight) (basal diet), DG + FO (FO diet, 2.5 % w/w FO), and DG + E (vitamin E diet, ?-tocopherol 0.2 % w/w) serving as an antioxidant control group. These animals were killed after 49 day of treatments. Another group of naturally aging (NA) mice without any injection was killed at 64 weeks of age to be an aging control group. RESULTS: D-galactose treatment, generally similar to NA, increased the lung pro-inflammatory status, as shown in the IL-6 and IL-1? levels and the expression of phospho-Jun and phospho-JNK, and the fibrotic status as shown in the hydroxyproline level compared to the vehicle. FO diminished the DG-induced increases in the lung IL-1? level and expressions of total Jun, phospho-JNK, and attenuated DG effects on lung IL-6 and hydroxyproline, while ?-tocopherol exerted anti-inflammatory effects on all parameters determined. FO, as well as ?-tocopherol, modulated the large bowel ecology by increasing the fecal bifidobacteria and cecal butyrate levels compared with DG. CONCLUSIONS: D-galactose treatment mimicked the lung pro-inflammatory status as shown in the NA mice. FO attenuated the DG-induced lung pro-inflammatory status and down-regulated JNK/Jun pathway in the lung, which could be mediated by the prebiotic effects and metabolic products of FO in the large intestine.
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Low-power laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells via cyclic adenosine monophosphate.
Int J Oral Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Retaining or improving periodontal ligament (PDL) function is crucial for restoring periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human PDL (hPDL) cells. Cultured hPDL cells were irradiated (660 nm) daily with doses of 0, 1, 2 or 4 J?cm(-2). Cell proliferation was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the effect of LPLI on osteogenic differentiation was assessed by Alizarin Red S staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Additionally, osteogenic marker gene expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that LPLI at a dose of 2 J?cm(-2) significantly promoted hPDL cell proliferation at days 3 and 5. In addition, LPLI at energy doses of 2 and 4 J?cm(-2) showed potential osteogenic capacity, as it stimulated ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression. We also showed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical regulator of the LPLI-mediated effects on hPDL cells. This study shows that LPLI can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDL cells. These results suggest the potential use of LPLI in clinical applications for periodontal tissue regeneration.
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Effect of spatial inlet velocity profiles on the vortex formation pattern in a dilated left ventricle.
Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Despite the advancement of cardiac imaging technologies, these have traditionally been limited to global geometrical measurements. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has emerged as a reliable tool that provides flow ?eld information and other variables essential for the assessment of the cardiac function. Extensive studies have shown that vortex formation and propagation during the filling phase acts as a promising indicator for the diagnosis of the cardiac health condition. Proper setting of the boundary conditions is crucial in a CFD study as they are important determinants, that affect the simulation results. In this article, the effect of different transmitral velocity profiles (parabolic and uniform profile) on the vortex formation patterns during diastole was studied in a ventricle with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The resulting vortex evolution pattern using the uniform inlet velocity profile agreed with that reported in the literature, which revealed an increase in thrombus risk in a ventricle with DCM. However the application of a parabolic velocity profile at the inlet yields a deviated vortical flow pattern and overestimates the propagation velocity of the vortex ring towards the apex of the ventricle. This study highlighted that uniform inlet velocity profile should be applied in the study of the filling dynamics in a left ventricle because it produces results closer to that observed experimentally.
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Plasmonic ZnO/Ag embedded structures as collecting layers for photogenerating electrons in solar hydrogen generation photoelectrodes.
Small
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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A new fabrication strategy in which Ag plasmonics are embedded in the interface between ZnO nanorods and a conducting substrate is experimentally demonstrated using a femtosecond-laser (fs-laser)-induced plasmonic ZnO/Ag photoelectrodes. This fs-laser fabrication technique can be applied to generate patternable plasmonic nanostructures for improving their effectiveness in hydrogen generation. Plasmonic ZnO/Ag nanostructure photoelectrodes show an increase in the photocurrent of a ZnO nanorod photoelectrodes by higher than 85% at 0.5 V. Both localized surface plasmon resonance in metal nanoparticles and plasmon polaritons propagating at the metal/semiconductor interface are available for improving the capture of sunlight and collecting charge carriers. Furthermore, in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy is performed to monitor the plasmonic-generating electromagnetic field upon the interface between ZnO/Ag nanostructures. This can reveal induced vacancies on the conduction band of ZnO, which allow effective separation of charge carriers and improves the efficiency of hydrogen generation. Plasmon-induced effects enhance the photoresponse simultaneously, by improving optical absorbance and facilitating the separation of charge carriers.
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Review on CFD simulation in heart with dilated cardiomyopathy and myocardial infarction.
Comput. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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The heart is a sophisticated functional organ that plays a crucial role in the blood circulatory system. Hemodynamics within the heart chamber can be indicative of exert cardiac health. Due to the limitations of current cardiac imaging modalities, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been widely used for the purposes of cardiac function assessment and heart disease diagnosis, as they provide detailed insights into the cardiac flow field. An understanding of ventricular hemodynamics and pathological severities can be gained through studies that employ the CFD method. In this research the hemodynamics of two common myocardial diseases, dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and myocardial infarction (MI) were investigated, during both the filling phase and the whole cardiac cycle, through a prescribed geometry and fluid structure interaction (FSI) approach. The results of the research indicated that early stage disease identification and the improvement of cardiac assisting devices and therapeutic procedures can be facilitated through the use of the CFD method.
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Deep sequencing of small RNA transcriptome reveals novel non-coding RNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) are increasingly recognized to play important roles in tumorigenesis. With the advent of deep sequencing, efforts have been put forth to profile the miRNome in a number of human malignancies. However, information on ncRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially the non-microRNA transcripts, is still lacking.
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Quercetin enhances the antitumor activity of trichostatin A through upregulation of p53 protein expression in vitro and in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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This study investigated the effects of quercetin on the anti-tumor effect of trichostatin A (TSA), a novel anticancer drug, in vitro and in vivo and the possible mechanisms of these effects in human lung cancer cells. We first showed that quercetin (5 µM) significantly increased the growth arrest and apoptosis in A549 cells (expressing wild-type p53) induced by 25 ng/mL of (82.5 nM) TSA at 48 h by about 25% and 101%, respectively. However, such enhancing effects of quercetin (5 µM) were not significant in TSA-exposed H1299 cells (a p53 null mutant) or were much lower than in A549 cells. In addition, quercetin significantly increased TSA-induced p53 expression in A549 cells. Transfection of p53 siRNA into A549 cells significantly but not completely diminished the enhancing effects of quercetin on TSA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that quercetin enhanced TSA-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Transfection of p53 siRNA abolished such enhancing effects of quercetin. However, quercetin increased the acetylation of histones H3 and H4 induced by TSA in A549 cells, even with p53 siRNA transfection as well as in H1299 cells. In a xenograft mouse model of lung cancer, quercetin enhanced the antitumor effect of TSA. Tumors from mice treated with TSA in combination with quercetin had higher p53 and apoptosis levels than did those from control and TSA-treated mice. These data indicate that regulation of the expression of p53 by quercetin plays an important role in enhancing TSA-induced apoptosis in A549 cells. However, p53-independent mechanisms may also contribute to the enhancing effect of quercetin.
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ViralFusionSeq: accurately discover viral integration events and reconstruct fusion transcripts at single-base resolution.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Insertional mutagenesis from virus infection is an important pathogenic risk for the development of cancer. Despite the advent of high-throughput sequencing, discovery of viral integration sites and expressed viral fusion events are still limited. Here, we present ViralFusionSeq (VFS), which combines soft-clipping information, read-pair analysis and targeted de novo assembly to discover and annotate viral-human fusions. VFS was used in an RNA-Seq experiment, simulated DNA-Seq experiment and re-analysis of published DNA-Seq datasets. Our experiments demonstrated that VFS is both sensitive and highly accurate.
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A shortened barnes maze protocol reveals memory deficits at 4-months of age in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimers disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Alzheimers disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that manifests as memory loss, cognitive dysfunction, and dementia. Animal models of Alzheimers disease have been instrumental in understanding the underlying pathological mechanism and in evaluation of potential therapies. The triple transgenic (3×Tg) mouse model of AD is unique because it recapitulates both pathologic hallmarks of Alzheimers disease - amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The earliest cognitive deficits in this model have been shown at 6-m of age by most groups, necessitating aging of the mice to this age before initiating evaluation of the cognitive effects of therapies. To assess cognitive deficits in the 3×Tg mice, originally we employed a typical Barnes maze protocol of 15 training trials, but found no significant deficits in aged mice. Therefore, we shortened the protocol to include only 5 training trials to increase difficulty. We found cognitive deficits using this protocol using mainly measures from the probe day, rather than the training trials. This also decreased the effort involved with data analysis. We compared 3×Tg and wild-type mice at 4-m- and 15-m of age using both the original, long training, and the short training paradigms. We found that differences in learning between 3×Tg and wild-type mice disappeared after the 4(th) training trial. Measures of learning and memory on the probe day showed significant differences between 3×Tg and wild-type mice following the short, 5-training trial protocol but not the long, 15-training trial protocol. Importantly, we detected cognitive dysfunction already at 4-m of age in 3×Tg mice using the short Barnes-maze protocol. The ability to test learning and memory in 4-m old 3×Tg mice using a shortened Barnes maze protocol offers considerable time and cost savings and provides support for the utilization of this model at pre-pathology stages for therapeutic studies.
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Organism-specific rRNA capture system for application in next-generation sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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RNA-sequencing is a powerful tool in studying RNomics. However, the highly abundance of ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) have predominated in the sequencing reads, thereby hindering the study of lowly expressed genes. Therefore, rRNA depletion prior to sequencing is often performed in order to preserve the subtle alteration in gene expression especially those at relatively low expression levels. One of the commercially available methods is to use DNA or RNA probes to hybridize to the target RNAs. However, there is always a concern with the non-specific binding and unintended removal of messenger RNA (mRNA) when the same set of probes is applied to different organisms. The degree of such unintended mRNA removal varies among organisms due to organism-specific genomic variation. We developed a computer-based method to design probes to deplete rRNA in an organism-specific manner. Based on the computation results, biotinylated-RNA-probes were produced by in vitro transcription and were used to perform rRNA depletion with subtractive hybridization. We demonstrated that the designed probes of 16S rRNAs and 23S rRNAs can efficiently remove rRNAs from Mycobacterium smegmatis. In comparison with a commercial subtractive hybridization-based rRNA removal kit, using organism-specific probes is better in preserving the RNA integrity and abundance. We believe the computer-based design approach can be used as a generic method in preparing RNA of any organisms for next-generation sequencing, particularly for the transcriptome analysis of microbes.
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Cytochrome p450 metabolism of betel quid-derived compounds: implications for the development of prevention strategies for oral and pharyngeal cancers.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Betel quid (BQ) products, with or without tobacco, have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as group I human carcinogens that are associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. There are estimated 600 million BQ users worldwide. In Taiwan alone there are 2 million habitual users (approximately 10% of the population). Oral and pharyngeal cancers result from interactions between genes and environmental factors (BQ exposure). Cytochrome p450 (CYP) families are implicated in the metabolic activation of BQ- and areca nut-specific nitrosamines. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge base regarding CYP genetic variants and related oral disorders. In clinical applications, we focus on cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and OPMDs associated with CYP gene polymorphisms, including CYP1A1, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, and CYP26B1. Our discussion of CYP polymorphisms provides insight into the importance of screening tests in OPMDs patients for the prevention of oral and pharyngeal cancers. Future studies will establish a strong foundation for the development of chemoprevention strategies, polymorphism-based clinical diagnostic tools (e.g., specific single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) "barcodes"), and effective treatments for BQ-related oral disorders.
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Sensitivity analysis of left ventricle with dilated cardiomyopathy in fluid structure simulation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the most common myocardial disease. It not only leads to systolic dysfunction but also diastolic deficiency. We sought to investigate the effect of idiopathic and ischemic DCM on the intraventricular fluid dynamics and myocardial wall mechanics using a 2D axisymmetrical fluid structure interaction model. In addition, we also studied the individual effect of parameters related to DCM, i.e. peak E-wave velocity, end systolic volume, wall compliance and sphericity index on several important fluid dynamics and myocardial wall mechanics variables during ventricular filling. Intraventricular fluid dynamics and myocardial wall deformation are significantly impaired under DCM conditions, being demonstrated by low vortex intensity, low flow propagation velocity, low intraventricular pressure difference (IVPD) and strain rates, and high-end diastolic pressure and wall stress. Our sensitivity analysis results showed that flow propagation velocity substantially decreases with an increase in wall stiffness, and is relatively independent of preload at low-peak E-wave velocity. Early IVPD is mainly affected by the rate of change of the early filling velocity and end systolic volume which changes the ventriculo:annular ratio. Regional strain rate, on the other hand, is significantly correlated with regional stiffness, and therefore forms a useful indicator for myocardial regional ischemia. The sensitivity analysis results enhance our understanding of the mechanisms leading to clinically observable changes in patients with DCM.
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Genomic organization and promoter cloning of the human X11? gene APBA1.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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X11? is a brain specific multi-modular protein that interacts with the Alzheimers disease amyloid precursor protein (APP). Aggregation of amyloid-? peptide (A?), an APP cleavage product, is believed to be central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. Recently, overexpression of X11? has been shown to reduce A? generation and to ameliorate memory deficit in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimers disease. Therefore, manipulating the expression level of X11? may provide a novel route for the treatment of Alzheimers disease. Human X11? is encoded by the gene APBA1. As evidence suggests that X11? expression can be regulated at transcription level, we have determined the gene structure and cloned the promoter of APBA1. APBA1 spans over 244 kb on chromosome 9 and is composed of 13 exons and has multiple transcription start sites. A putative APBA1 promoter has been identified upstream of exon 1 and functional analysis revealed that this is highly active in neurons. By deletion analysis, the minimal promoter was found to be located between -224 and +14, a GC-rich region that contains a functional Sp3 binding site. In neurons, overexpression of Sp3 stimulates the APBA1 promoter while an Sp3 inhibitor suppresses the promoter activity. Moreover, inhibition of Sp3 reduces endogenous X11? expression and promotes the generation of A?. Our findings reveal that Sp3 play an essential role in APBA1 transcription.
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Transcriptional profiling of angiogenesis activities of calycosin in zebrafish.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2011
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Angiogenesis plays an important role in a wide range of physiological processes and many diseases are associated with the dysregulation of angiogenesis. The commonly used Chinese herbal medicine Radix Astragali (known as Huang qi in Chinese) is a potential candidate for treating this type of disease. Calycosin, a major isoflavonoid in Radix Astragali, was identified in our earlier study and shown to induce angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro and in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Using zebrafish as a testing model, we investigated the angiogenic effect of calycosin on the subintestinal vessels (SIVs) in zebrafish embryos. Our findings using transcriptional profiling by deep sequencing, and confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), demonstrate that calycosin modulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and ErbB signaling pathways. The inhibitory effects of calycosin-induced phenotypic responses by several pathway-specific inhibitors (VRI, SU5402, MEK1/2 Inhibitor, Wortmannin and LY294002) further identified the potential involvement of VEGF(R) and FGF(R) signaling pathways in the angiogenic activities of calycosin. We present a comprehensive framework of study using fluorescence microscopy, transcriptomics and qPCR to demonstrate the proangiogenic effects of calycosin in vivo. The data have elucidated the connection between morphological observations and genomic evidence, indicating the potential roles of several key signaling pathways in angiogenesis.
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Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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The health benefits of leisure-time physical activity are well known, but whether less exercise than the recommended 150 min a week can have life expectancy benefits is unclear. We assessed the health benefits of a range of volumes of physical activity in a Taiwanese population.
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Detection of splicing events and multiread locations from RNA-seq data based on a geometric-tail (GT) distribution of intron length.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) measures gene expression levels and permits splicing analysis. Many existing aligners are capable of mapping millions of sequencing reads onto a reference genome. For reads that can be mapped to multiple positions along the reference genome (multireads), these aligners may either randomly assign them to a location, or discard them altogether. Either way could bias downstream analyses. Meanwhile, challenges remain in the alignment of reads spanning across splice junctions. Existing splicing-aware aligners that rely on the read-count method in identifying junction sites are inevitably affected by sequencing depths.
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Genetic regulation of the yefM-yoeB toxin-antitoxin locus of Streptococcus pneumoniae.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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Type II (proteic) toxin-antitoxin systems (TAS) are ubiquitous among bacteria. In the chromosome of the pathogenic bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, there are at least eight putative TAS, one of them being the yefM-yoeB(Spn) operon studied here. Through footprinting analyses, we showed that purified YefM(Spn) antitoxin and the YefM-YoeB(Spn) TA protein complex bind to a palindrome sequence encompassing the -35 region of the main promoter (P(yefM2)) of the operon. Thus, the locus appeared to be negatively autoregulated with respect to P(yefM2), since YefM(Spn) behaved as a weak repressor with YoeB(Spn) as a corepressor. Interestingly, a BOX element, composed of a single copy (each) of the boxA and boxC subelements, was found upstream of promoter P(yefM2). BOX sequences are pneumococcal, perhaps mobile, genetic elements that have been associated with bacterial processes such as phase variation, virulence regulation, and genetic competence. In the yefM-yoeB(Spn) locus, the boxAC element provided an additional weak promoter, P(yefM1), upstream of P(yefM2) which was not regulated by the TA proteins. In addition, transcriptional fusions with a lacZ reporter gene showed that P(yefM1) was constitutive albeit weaker than P(yefM2). Intriguingly, the coupling of the boxAC element to P(yefM1) and yefM(Spn) in cis (but not in trans) led to transcriptional activation, indicating that the regulation of the yefM-yoeB(Spn) locus differs somewhat from that of other TA loci and may involve as yet unidentified elements. Conservation of the boxAC sequences in all available sequenced genomes of S. pneumoniae which contained the yefM-yoeB(Spn) locus suggested that its presence may provide a selective advantage to the bacterium.
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Effect of exercise training on vascular endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a randomized controlled trial.
Eur J Prev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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We aim to investigate the effect of exercise training on endothelial function and exercise capacity in patients with coronary artery disease.
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Monitoring the gestation period of rescued Formosan pangolin (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) with progesterone radioimmunoassay.
Zoo Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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Eight species of pangolin have been identified in the world. However, understanding of pangolin reproductive biology has been limited to fragmentary records. In this study, the concentration of serum progesterone in three pregnant and two nonpregnant rescued female Formosan pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) was monitored using a commercial progesterone radioimmunoassay kit. During gestation, the serum progesterone of pregnant pangolins A, B, and C remained at 28.5-55?ng/ml (n = 31 samples), 10.9-50.1?ng/ml (n = 34), and 12.4 and 33.5?ng/ml with a peak at 47.6?ng/ml (n = 19), respectively, whereas the serum progesterone of nonpregnant pangolins D and E remained at 1.99 ± 1.62?ng/ml (n = 80) and 2.27 ± 1.64?ng/ml (n = 27), respectively. From this study, it was found that female pangolin weighing as low as 2.14?kg was already capable of reproduction. For pregnant pangolins to give birth to viable offspring, their body weight must increase significantly, 63.89 and 134.0% in the study, from the time of inception or early pregnancy until parturition. In addition, study has found that both viable offspring were born fully developed and exceeded 80?g in weight. The period of gestation was found to be as short as 318 or longer than 372 days. Therefore, the Formosan pangolin should only be able to reproduce once a year. This study is the first insight into hormone assay for determining the gestation period of pangolin. Further investigations on the same subject are necessary to establish criteria for the recognition of reproductive status in pangolins.
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Is insomnia associated with suicidality in stroke?
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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To evaluate the relationship between insomnia and suicidality (SI) in Chinese patients with first or recurrent stroke.
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Effect of herbal consumption on time in therapeutic range of warfarin therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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It has been established that herbal intake affects the anticoagulation effects of warfarin, but the long-term impact on anticoagulation control is unclear. We sought to investigate the effect of concomitant herbal intake on anticoagulation control in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) treated with warfarin. The effects of common herbs were determined by monitoring the international normalized ratio in 250 patients with AF (69 ± 10 years, 50% male). All the patients had been prescribed warfarin therapy for at least 6 months before enrollment, and their dietary intake, including the type and the frequency of common herbs, was recorded using a standardized questionnaire. Up to 50% of the patients reported consumption of foods with herbal ingredients, including garlic (80.4%), ginger (74.8%), green tea (50.4%), and papaya (55.2%) but rarely herbal drugs such as danshen (1.2%), dong guai (0.8%), fenugreek (1.2%), psyllium seed (0.4%), and ginseng (4%). Infrequent users (1 kind of herb for <4 times per week and nonusers) were more likely to have an international normalized ratio within the optimal therapeutic range (2.0-3.0) than frequent users (>1 kind of herb for ?4 times per week) (58.1% vs 51.1%, P = 0.046). In conclusion, the patients with AF treated with warfarin had little knowledge about the potential interaction of herbal substances in foods with warfarin. The patients who consumed common herbs at least 4 times per week had suboptimal anticoagulation control with warfarin.
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Comparative analysis of human mitochondrial DNA from World War I bone samples by DNA sequencing and ESI-TOF mass spectrometry.
Forensic Sci Int Genet
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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Mitochondrial DNA is commonly used in identity testing for the analysis of old or degraded samples or to give evidence of familial links. The Abbott T5000 mass spectrometry platform provides an alternative to the more commonly used Sanger sequencing for the analysis of human mitochondrial DNA. The robustness of the T5000 system has previously been demonstrated using DNA extracted from volunteer buccal swabs but the system has not been tested using more challenging sample types. For mass spectrometry to be considered as a valid alternative to Sanger sequencing it must also be demonstrated to be suitable for use with more limiting sample types such as old teeth, bone fragments, and hair shafts. In 2009 the Commonwealth War Graves Commission launched a project to identify the remains of 250 World War I soldiers discovered in a mass grave in Fromelles, France. This study characterises the performance of both Sanger sequencing and the T5000 platform for the analysis of the mitochondrial DNA extracted from 225 of these remains, both in terms of the ability to amplify and characterise DNA regions of interest and the relative information content and ease-of-use associated with each method.
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Growth mechanism and magnon excitation in NiO nanowalls.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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The nanosized effects of short-range multimagnon excitation behavior and short-circuit diffusion in NiO nanowalls synthesized using the Ni grid thermal treatment method were observed. The energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping technique was used to characterize the growth mechanism, and confocal Raman scattering was used to probe the antiferromagnetic exchange energy J2 between next-nearest-neighboring Ni ions in NiO nanowalls at various growth temperatures below the Neel temperature. This study shows that short spin correlation leads to an exponential dependence of the growth temperatures and the existence of nickel vacancies during the magnon excitation. Four-magnon configurations were determined from the scattering factor, revealing a lowest state and monotonic change with the growth temperature.PACS: 75.47.Lx; 61.82.Rx; 75.50.Tt; 74.25.nd; 72.10.Di.
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Quercetin supplementation suppresses the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs of Mongolian gerbils and in A549 cells exposed to benzo[a]pyrene alone or in combination with ?-carotene: in vivo and ex vivo studies.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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In vitro studies have shown that quercetin modulates the effects of ?-carotene induced by stimulants. Whether these reactions happen in vivo, however, is unclear. Thus, we investigated whether quercetin supplementation suppresses the harmful effects of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) alone or combined with ?-carotene in the lungs of Mongolian gerbils. The gerbils were given quercetin (100 mg/kg body wt, 3 times/week), ?-carotene (10 mg/kg body wt, 3 times/week), and BaP (8 mmol, 2 times/week) alone or in combination by gavage for 6 months. ?-Carotene supplementation enhanced the pro-inflammatory effects of BaP in the lungs of gerbils. In contrast, quercetin supplementation significantly decreased the infiltration of inflammatory cells as well as the levels of TNF-? and IL-1? in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma of gerbils exposed to BaP or BaP+?-carotene (P<.05). Such effects of quercetin supplementation were accompanied by a down-regulation of the expression of phospho-c-Jun and phospho-JNK induced by BaP or BaP+?-carotene in the lungs of gerbils. Furthermore, in the ex vivo study, we found that quercetin-metabolite-enriched plasma (QP) obtained from gerbils acted like a JNK inhibitor to significantly suppress the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by BaP or BaP+?-carotene in A549 cells (P<.05). QP also suppressed the activation of the JNK pathway in the A549 cells. These results suggest that supplemental quercetin suppress the pro-inflammatory effect of ?-carotene induced by BaP in vivo and ex vivo. The regulation of the JNK pathway by the metabolites of quercetin contributes, at least in part, to such effects of quercetin in vivo.
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Attributable mortality burden of metabolic syndrome: comparison with its individual components.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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To estimate the national prevalence, mortality risk and population mortality burden of metabolic syndrome, and compare the values with those of its individual components.
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Dietary intake of phytoestrogen is associated with increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Endogenous estrogen is known to positively influence the level and functionality of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). However, the effect of phytoestrogen on EPC is unknown. Isoflavone is a major component of phytoestrogen. This study aims to investigate if the intake of isoflavone has any impact on the circulating level of EPC. We studied 102 consecutive patients (mean age: 66.5?±?9.5 years, 78% male, all female post-menopausal) with cardiovascular disease (atherothrombotic stroke 62%, coronary artery disease 38%). Circulating levels of CD133(+) EPC were determined by flow cytometry. Non-invasive pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured. Long-term intake of isoflavone was determined by a validated food frequency questionnaire. Isoflavone intake was positively associated with circulating CD133(+) EPC (r?=?0.31, p?=?0.001). Patients with circulating CD133(+) EPC <10th percentile had significantly lower isoflavone intake than patients with CD133(+)EPC??10th percentile (4.6?±?3.7?mg/day versus 19.3?±?30.2?mg/day, p??0.05). Furthermore, circulating CD133(+) EPC <10th percentile was independently predictive of increased PWV by 261.7?cm/s (95% CI: 37.1 to 486.2, p?=?0.024). The study demonstrated that circulating EPC increased by more than one fold in patients with cardiovascular disease who had higher intake of isoflavone, suggesting that isoflavone may confer vascular protection through enhanced endothelial repair.
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Transforming growth factor-? and oxidative stress mediate tachycardia-induced cellular remodelling in cultured atrial-derived myocytes.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Atrial fibrillation (AF), a common tachyarrhythmia in clinical practice, is associated with increased oxidative stress. Structural remodelling in atrial myocytes, including myofibril degradation, is an important characteristic of AF. However, the mechanism underlying AF-induced cellular structural remodelling remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress and related factors in tachycardia-induced atrial structural remodelling.
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Plasma rich in quercetin metabolites induces G2/M arrest by upregulating PPAR-? expression in human A549 lung cancer cells.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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In this study, we incubated human A549 lung cancer cells with quercetin-metabolite-enriched plasma (QMP) obtained from Mongolian gerbils 2 h after quercetin feeding (100 mg/kg body wt/week). We investigated the effects of QMP on the growth of A549 cells and the possible mechanisms for these effects. We found that QMP but not control plasma (CP) reduced the cell growth in A549 cells. QMP led to cell cycle arrest at the G (2)/M phase by downregulating the expression of cdk1 and cyclin B. QMP but not CP or quercetin itself significantly increased PPAR- ? expression (p < 0.05), which was accompanied by an increase of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on the chromosome ten level and a decrease of phosphorylation of Akt. Furthermore, quercetin-3-glucuronide and quercetin-3-sulfate also significantly increased PPAR- ? expression in A549 cells. GW9662, a PPAR- ? antagonist, significantly suppressed the effects of 10 % QMP on cell proliferation and on the expression of cyclin B and cdk1. Taken together, these data suggest that the activation of PPAR- ? plays an important role, at least in part, in the antiproliferative effects of quercetin metabolites.
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Evaluation of the immunogenicity of a transgenic tobacco plant expressing the recombinant fusion protein of GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin in pigs.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) can be used as an adjuvant for co-administered antigens. Our previous study showed that the expression of neutralizing epitope GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in transgenic tobacco plant (GP5-T) could induce PRRSV-specific immune responses in pigs. A transgenic tobacco plant co-expressing LTB and PRRSV GP5 as a fusion protein (LTB-GP5-T) was further constructed and its immunogenicity was evaluated. Pigs were given orally three consecutive doses of equal concentration of recombinant GP5 protein expressed in leaves of LTB-GP5-T or GP5-T at a 2-week interval and challenged with PRRSV at 7 weeks post-initial immunization. Pigs receiving LTB-GP5-T or GP5-T developed PRRSV-specific antibody- and cell-mediated immunity and showed significantly lower viremia and tissue viral load and milder lung lesions than wild type tobacco plant (W-T). The LTB-GP5-T-treated group had relatively higher immune responses than the GP5-T-treated group, although the differences were not statistically significant.
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ABMapper: a suffix array-based tool for multi-location searching and splice-junction mapping.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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Sequencing reads generated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) must first be mapped back to the genome through alignment before they can be further analyzed. Current fast and memory-saving short-read mappers could give us a quick view of the transcriptome. However, they are neither designed for reads that span across splice junctions nor for repetitive reads, which can be mapped to multiple locations in the genome (multi-reads). Here, we describe a new software package: ABMapper, which is specifically designed for exploring all putative locations of reads that are mapped to splice junctions or repetitive in nature.
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Body part representations in verbal semantics.
Mem Cognit
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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Embodied theories of language propose that word meaning is inextricably tied to-grounded in-mental representations of perceptual, motor, and affective experiences of the world. The four experiments described in this article demonstrate that accessing the meanings of action verbs like smile, punch, and kick requires language understanders to activate modality-specific cognitive representations responsible for performing and perceiving those same actions. The main task used is a word-image matching task, where participants see an action verb and an image depicting an action. Their task is to decide as quickly as possible whether the verb and the image depict the same action. Of critical interest is participants behavior when the verb and image do not match, in which case the two actions can use the same effector or different effectors. In Experiment 1, we found that participants took significantly longer to reject a verb-image pair when the actions depicted by the image and denoted by the verb used the same effector than when they used different effectors. Experiment 2 yielded the same result when the order of presentation was reversed, replicating the effect in Cantonese. Experiment 3 replicated the effect in English with a verb-verb near-synonym task, and in Experiment 4, we once again replicated the effect with learners of English as a second language. This robust interference effect, whereby a shared effector slows discrimination, shows that language understanders activate effector-specific neurocognitive representations during both picture perception and action word understanding.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.