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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Esophageal carcinoma cell line with high EGFR polysomy is responsive to gefitinib.
Langenbecks Arch Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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It has previously been shown that gefitinib-treated patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification or high polysomy had a statistically significant improvement in response, time to progression, and survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Only few studies utilizing anti-EGFR treatment in advanced esophageal adenocarcinomas have been performed and the results have been heterogeneous. The aim of this study was to evaluate EGFR-targeted therapy with gefitinib in esophageal adenocarcinoma with a high EGFR polysomy.
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Frequency of TERT promoter mutations in primary tumors of the liver.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Transcriptional regulation of the TERT gene is a major cause of the cancer-specific increase in telomerase activity. Recently, frequent somatic mutations in the TERT promoter have been described in several tumor entities such as melanoma, glioblastoma, bladder cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. By generating a putative consensus binding site for ETS transcription factors within the TERT promoter, these mutations are predicted to increase promoter activity and TERT transcription. In order to improve the understanding of the role of TERT promoter mutation in liver tumorigenesis, the mutational status of the TERT promoter was analyzed in 78 hepatocellular carcinomas, 15 hepatocellular adenomas, and 52 intrahepatic cholangiocarciomas. The promoter region of TERT was screened for the two hotspot mutations using PCR and restriction fragment length analysis, utilizing the introduction of novel restriction sites by the somatic mutations. TERT promoter mutation was found in 37 of 78 hepatocellular carcinomas (47 %) and was restricted to the -124C>T mutation. Frequency of mutations was associated with grade of differentiation ranging from 39 % in well-differentiated tumors to 73 % in high-grade hepatocellular carcinomas. TERT promoter mutations were not found in 15 hepatocellular adenomas and 52 intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. These data show that TERT promoter mutation is the most frequent genetic alteration in hepatocellular carcinoma known at this time. The striking predominance of the -124C>T mutation compared with other tumor entities suggest a biological difference of the two hotspot mutations. Analysis of TERT promoter mutation might become a diagnostic tool distinguishing hepatocellular adenoma from well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Patterns of ALK expression in different human cancer types.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Oncogenic gene fusions involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase have been identified in several haematopoietic and sporadically also in solid tumour types. Preliminary results from clinical trials suggest that patients with ALK fusion positive cancers might optimally benefit from the tyrosine kinase inhibitor crizotinib, but a comprehensive analysis of solid tumour types for ALK fusion and fusion associated expression is lacking.
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Patterns of TPD52 overexpression in multiple human solid tumor types analyzed by quantitative PCR.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is located at chromosome 8q21, a region that is frequently gained or amplified in multiple human cancer types. TPD52 has been suggested as a potential target for new anticancer therapies. In order to analyze TPD52 expression in the most prevalent human cancer types, we employed quantitative PCR to measure TPD52 mRNA levels in formalin-fixed tissue samples from more than 900 cancer tissues obtained from 29 different human cancer types. TPD52 was expressed at varying levels in all tested normal tissues, including skin, lymph node, lung, oral mucosa, breast, endometrium, ovary, vulva, myometrium, liver, pancreas, stomach, kidney, prostate, testis, urinary bladder, thyroid gland, brain, muscle and fat tissue. TPD52 was upregulated in 18/29 (62%) tested cancer types. Strongest expression was found in non-seminoma (56-fold overexpression compared to corresponding normal tissue), seminoma (42-fold), ductal (28-fold) and lobular breast cancer (14-fold). In these tumor types, TPD52 upregulation was found in the vast majority (>80%) of tested samples. Downregulation was found in 11 (38%) tumor types, most strongly in papillary renal cell cancer (-8-fold), leiomyosarcoma (-6-fold), clear cell renal cell cancer (-5-fold), liposarcoma (-5-fold) and lung cancer (-4-fold). These results demonstrate that TPD52 is frequently and strongly upregulated in many human cancer types, which may represent candidate tumor types for potential anti-TPD52 therapies.
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The trifunctional antibody catumaxomab amplifies and shapes tumor-specific immunity when applied to gastric cancer patients in the adjuvant setting.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Background Patients with gastric cancer benefit from perioperative chemotherapy, however, treatment is toxic and many patients will relapse. The trifunctional antibody catumaxomab targets EpCAM on tumor cells, CD3 on T cells, and the Fc?-receptor of antigen-presenting cells. While in Europe catumaxomab is approved for treating malignant ascites, it has not been investigated in the perioperative setting and its exact immunological mode of action is unclear. Methods In our study, gastric cancer patients received neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy, one intraoperative application of catumaxomab, and 4 postoperative doses of intraperitoneal catumaxomab. Immunomonitoring was performed in 6 patients before surgery, after completion of catumaxomab treatment, and one month later. Results Intraperitoneal application of catumaxomab caused an increased expression of activation markers on the patients T cells. This was accompanied by a transient decrease in numbers of CXCR3 (+) effector T cells with a T-helper (Th)-1 phenotype in the peripheral blood. All patients evidenced pre-existing EpCAM-specific CD4 (+) and/or CD8 (+) T cells. While these cells transiently disappeared from the blood stream after intraperitoneal application of catumaxomab, we detected increased numbers of peripheral EpCAM-specific cells and a modified EpCAM-specific T cell repertoire 4 weeks after completion of treatment. Finally, catumaxomab also amplified humoral immunity to tumor antigens other than EpCAM. Conclusions Our findings suggest that catumaxomab exerts its clinical effects by (1) activating peripheral T cells, (2) redistributing effector T cells from the blood into peripheral tissues, (3) expanding and shaping of the pre-existing EpCAM-specific T cell repertoire, and (4) spreading of anti-tumor immunity to different tumor antigens.
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Immunohistochemical analysis of p16 expression, HPV infection and its prognostic utility in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Functional inactivation of p16 is an early and frequent event in the carcinogenesis of tumours of the head and neck region. However, the prognostic relevance of p16 protein expression for these tumours has been controversial. This study aims to examine immunohistochemical expression of p16 and HP virus in a large number of oral carcinomas, and possible correlation with clinical features of the tumours and survival of the patients.
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Lymphatic invasion predicts survival in patients with early node-negative non-small cell lung cancer.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the influence of lymphatic and vascular invasion on overall survival in patients with surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without lymph node and distant metastases.
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HNSCC cell lines positive for HPV and p16 possess higher cellular radiosensitivity due to an impaired DSB repair capacity.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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When treated by radiotherapy, patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) positive for HPV and p16(INK4a) possess a clearly favorable prognosis as compared to those with HPV-negative HNSCC. The aim of this work was to study whether the better outcomes might be caused by an enhanced cellular radiosensitivity.
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Sorafenib sensitizes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells to ionizing radiation.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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There is a great need to improve the outcome of locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC). Standard treatment includes a combination of surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. The addition of molecular targeting agents to conventional treatment may improve outcomes. In this study the Raf inhibitor sorafenib was used to increase the radiosensitivity of HNSCC cell lines.
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P53 immunohistochemical expression does not correlate with clinical features in 207 carcinomas of the oral cavity and in the head and neck region.
Clin Oral Investig
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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The present study aims to investigate the relevance of immunohistochemical p53 expression in carcinomas of the oral cavity and of the head and neck region. Long-term clinical and histopathological follow-up findings as well as HPV status are correlated with the results of this examination.
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Miliary never-smoking adenocarcinoma of the lung: strong association with epidermal growth factor receptor exon 19 deletion.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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Miliary pattern of pulmonary metastases is a rarity in patients with lung cancer. We report five cases of patients with a never-smoking adenocarcinoma of the lung with such a pattern of metastases. In the tumor cells of all five patients, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation gene sequencing identified a deletion in exon 19 of the EGFR gene, and all five patients had a dramatic response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. No echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) translocation was detected. We believe that the miliary never-soking adenocarcinoma of the lung is a distinct clinically relevant subgroup of the never-smoking non-small cell lung cancer. Physician should recognize this subgroup of patients with lung cancer when facing a picture of miliary pulmonary metastases in chest x-ray or computed tomography scan in patients with a history of never smoking and consider upfront therapy with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
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Reliability of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 immunohistochemistry in breast core needle biopsies.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
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Core needle biopsies (CNBs) are widely used to determine human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status in breast cancer. Recent publications reported up to 20% false-positive results on CNBs if immunohistochemistry (IHC) is compared with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). To clarify, if confirmation of IHC positivity by FISH is generally required, we analyzed the reliability of IHC positivity on CNBs versus surgical specimens in a multi-institutional study.
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Estrogen receptor gene amplification occurs rarely in ovarian cancer.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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Amplification of the gene encoding estrogen receptor-alpha occurs in about 20% of breast cancers and is an important mechanism for estrogen receptor overexpression in this tumor type. In ovarian cancer, overexpression of estrogen receptor protein has been described in more than two thirds of cases. To study a potential role of estrogen receptor-alpha gene amplification for estrogen receptor overexpression in ovarian cancer, a tumor tissue microarray containing 428 ovarian cancers was analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization for estrogen receptor-alpha gene amplification and immunohistochemistry for estrogen receptor expression. The estrogen receptor-alpha gene status was successfully determined in 243 of 428 arrayed cancers. Estrogen receptor gene amplification was found in 5 of 243 (2%) of tumors. Amplification levels were usually low, with 4-8 estrogen receptor-alpha gene copies. However, one case had a high-level amplification, with more than 30 estrogen receptor-alpha gene copies. All five amplified tumors were estrogen receptor positive, with 3 of 5 tumors showing highest (Allred score, 7-8) estrogen receptor levels. The data demonstrate that estrogen receptor-alpha amplification occurs only rarely in ovarian cancer.
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Combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis to identify dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Identification of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease represents a major challenge for both clinicians and pathologists. Clear diagnosis of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease is sometimes not possible with biopsies remaining "indefinite for dysplasia." Recent studies have identified molecular alterations in colitis-associated cancers, including increased protein levels of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, p53, p16 and bcl-2. In order to analyze the potential diagnostic use of these parameters in biopsies from inflammatory bowel disease, a tissue microarray was manufactured from colons of 54 patients with inflammatory bowel disease composed of 622 samples with normal mucosa, 78 samples with inflammatory activity, 6 samples with low-grade dysplasia, 12 samples with high-grade dysplasia, and 66 samples with carcinoma. In addition, 69 colonoscopic biopsies from 36 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (28 low-grade dysplasia, 8 high-grade dysplasia, and 33 indefinite for dysplasia) were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, p53, p16 and bcl-2 was performed on both tissue microarray and biopsies. p53 and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase showed the most discriminating results, being positive in most cancers (77.3% and 80.3%) and dysplasias (94.4% and 94.4%) but only rarely in nonneoplastic epithelium (1.6% and 9.4%; P < .001). Through combining the best discriminators, p53 and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, a stronger distinction between neoplastic tissues was possible. Of all neoplastic lesions, 75.8% showed a coexpression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase and p53, whereas this was found in only 4 of 700 nonneoplastic samples (0.6%). alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 coexpression was also found in 10 of 33 indefinite for dysplasia biopsies (30.3 %), suggesting a possible neoplastic transformation in these cases. Progression to dysplasia or carcinoma was observed in 3 of 10 p53/alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase-positive, indefinite-for-dysplasia cases, including 1 of 7 cases without and 2 of 3 cases with p53 mutation. It is concluded that combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis may represent a helpful tool to confirm dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease.
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Frequent intratumoral heterogeneity of EGFR gene copy gain in non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer
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Next to EGFR mutation, EGFR gene copy number evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) emerged as a potential predictive marker for sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, although controversial data exist. As the diagnostic accuracy of predictive biomarkers can be substantially limited by regional differences within tumors, heterogeneity of EGFR gene copy gain in NSCLC was assessed in this study. For this purpose, a novel tissue microarray (TMA) based analysis platform was developed. TMAs were constructed containing 8 different tissue cylinders from 144 primary NSCLCs. From 62 of these patients additional nodal metastases were sampled. EGFR gene copy number and EGFR expression was analyzed by FISH and immunohistochemistry according to the suggested guidelines. 13 (9.0%) of the 144 evaluated tumors showed EGFR amplification and 37 (25.7%) tumors high polysomy in at least one tumor area. In 7 (53.8%) of 13 amplified cases the analysis of different tumor areas revealed subclones without EGFR gene copy gain next to subclones with amplification. All of the 36 evaluable tumors with high polysomy showed heterogeneity of EGFR gene copy number with areas negative for gene copy gain within the individual tumors. Heterogeneity of EGFR gene copy gain in lung cancer challenges the concept of using small biopsies for the analysis of EGFR FISH status. EGFR gene copy number is highly heterogeneous within individual NSCLCs and this finding might well be a reason for the controversial clinical data existing regarding responsiveness to anti-EGFR therapy.
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Intratumoral heterogeneity of KRAS mutation is rare in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
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Several lines of evidence indicate that mutational activation of KRAS is an early event in the carcinogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nonetheless, previous studies report high frequencies of divergent KRAS mutational status between primary NSCLC and corresponding metastases. This suggests heterogeneity of the primary tumor in respect to its KRAS status. We therefore aimed to examine the frequency and the extent of such intratumoral heterogeneity.
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Heterogeneity of ERBB2 amplification in adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and large cell undifferentiated carcinoma of the lung.
Mod. Pathol.
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The HER2 protein, encoded by the ERBB2 gene, is a molecular target for the treatment of breast and gastric cancer by monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors. While intratumoral heterogeneity of ERBB2 amplification is rare in breast cancer it is reported to be frequent in bladder and colorectal cancer. To address the potential heterogeneity of the HER2 status in adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and large cell undifferentiated carcinomas of the lung, 590 tumors were analyzed for HER2 overexpression and ERBB2 amplification using FDA-approved reagents for immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH). Moderate and strong immunostaining (2+, 3+) was seen in 10% of the tumors. ERBB2 amplification was found in 17 (3%) lung cancer patients including 10 cases (2%) with high-level amplification forming gene clusters. ERBB2 amplification was significantly related to histologic subtype and tumor grade, resulting in 12% ERBB2 amplified tumors in the subgroup of high-grade adenocarcinomas. Heterogeneity was analyzed in all highly amplified tumors. For this purpose, all available tumor tissue blocks from these patients were evaluated. Heterogeneity of ERBB2 amplification was found in 4 of 10 tumors as assessed by FISH. These included two tumors with a mixture of low-level and high-level amplification and two tumors with non-amplified tumor areas next to regions with high-level ERBB2 amplification. High-level ERBB2 amplification occurs in a small fraction of lung cancers with a strong propensity to high-grade adenocarcinomas. Heterogeneity of amplification may limit the utility of anti-HER2 therapy in some of these tumors. Further attempts to assess the utility of HER2-targeting therapy in homogeneously amplified lung cancers appear to be justified.
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HPV status in patients with head and neck of carcinoma of unknown primary site: HPV, tobacco smoking, and outcome.
Oral Oncol.
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Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is linked to oropharyngeal cancer. This analysis investigated possible associations between HPV status, smoking history and survival outcome in patients with neck metastasis and carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP).
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in salivary gland carcinomas: potentials as therapeutic target.
Oral Oncol.
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Epidermal growth factor (EGFR) is involved in angiogenesis, cell differentiation, proliferation and progression of many cancers and is an important therapy target in lung and colorectal cancer. To determine the potential applicability of EGFR targeted therapies, EGFR status of over 800 salivary gland tumors of different entities were analyzed on DNA and protein level by FISH and IHC.
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Rare oncogenic mutations of predictive markers for targeted therapy in triple-negative breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
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Women with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) do not benefit from endocrine therapy or trastuzumab. Chemotherapy is the only systemic therapy currently available. To reduce the elevated risk of disease progression in these patients, better treatment options are needed, which are less toxic and more targeted to this patient population. We performed a comprehensive analysis of potential targetable genetic aberrations affecting the receptor tyrosine kinase/RAS/MAPK pathway, which are observed at higher frequencies in adenocarcinomas of other organs. Sixty-five individual TNBCs were studied by sequence analysis for HER2 (exon 18-23), EGFR (exon 18-21), KRAS (exon 2), and BRAF (exon 15) mutations. In addition, a tissue microarray was constructed to screen for EGFR gene copy gain and EML4-ALK fusion by FISH. Triple-negative status was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and FISH on tissue microarray sections. EGFR and CK5/6 immunohistochemical analyses were performed for identification of the basal-like phenotype. In addition, mutation analysis of TP53 (exon 5-8) was included. Sequence analysis revealed HER2 gene mutation in only one patient (heterozygous missense mutation in exon 19: p.L755S). No mutations were found in EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF. High polysomy of EGFR was detected in 5 of the 62 informative cases by FISH. True EGFR gene amplification accompanied by strong membranous EGFR protein expression was observed in only one case. No rearrangement of the ALK gene was detected. Basal-like phenotype was identified in 38 of the 65 TNBCs (58.5 %). TP53 gene mutation was found in 36/63 (57.1 %) tumors. We conclude that targetable genetic aberrations in the receptor tyrosine kinase/RAS/MAPK pathway occur rarely in TNBC.
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Odontogenic myxomas are not associated with GNAS1 mutations.
Anticancer Res.
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Myxomas are rare tumors of unknown aetiology arising in the jaws. Myxomas are also diagnosed in soft tissues. Recent reports on Gs alpha subunit gene (GNAS1) mutations occasionally being identified in soft tissue myxomas in non-syndromatic patients and the effects of myxoma on bone in variants of fibrous dysplasia led us to re-examine the putative role of GNAS1 mutations in odontogenic myxoma.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.