Accuracy of dual-source CT to identify significant coronary artery disease in patients with uncontrolled hypertension presenting with chest pain: comparison with coronary angiography.
It has been previously reported that the sensitivity and specificity of multislice CT for detecting significant CAD (coronary artery disease) is high. Chest pain is a common presentation in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. We investigated the sensitivity and specificity of dual-source CT to detect and rule out significant CAD in patients presenting with uncontrolled hypertension accompanied by chest pain. 260 consecutive patients presenting with acute chest pain in the context of stage 2 hypertension (systolic pressure ?160 and/or diastolic pressure ?100) were enrolled in the study. After admission, control of blood pressure and risk stratification, 82 patients were excluded due to renal insufficiency, prior coronary revascularisation or refused participation in the study. 90 further patients with low pre-test probability of CAD were also excluded. 88 remaining patients were subjected to CT coronary angiography using dual-source CT (Definition, Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) within 24 h before invasive coronary angiography. A contrast-enhanced volume dataset was acquired (120 kV, 400 mAs/rot, collimation 2 × 64 × 0.6 mm, retrospective ECG gating). Data sets were evaluated concerning the presence or absence of significant coronary stenoses and validated against invasive coronary angiography. A significant stenosis was assumed if the diameter reduction was ?50%. 88 patients (mean age 66 ± 11 years, mean heart rate 61 ± 9 bpm) were evaluated regarding the presence or absence of significant CAD (at least one stenosis ?50% diameter reduction). Mean systolic blood pressure on presentation was 203 ± 20 mmHg and mean diastolic blood pressure was 103 ± 13 mmHg. On a per patient basis, the sensitivity and specificity for dual-source CT to detect significant CAD in vessels >1.5 mm diameter was 100% (36/36, 95% CI 90-100) and 90% (47/52, 95% CI 79-97), respectively with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100% (47/47, 95% CI 92-100) and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 88% (36/41, 95% CI 74-96). On a per artery basis, 352 vessels were evaluated (left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex and right coronary artery in 88 patients, 12 vessels could not be assessed due to either motion artefacts or heavy calcification and were considered positive for stenoses) with a sensitivity of 84% (54/64, 95% CI 72-95) and specificity of 94% (272/288, 95% CI 88-100); NPV was 96% (272/282, 95% CI 90-100) and PPV was 77% (54/70, 95% CI 62-91). Our study demonstrates high sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of dual-source CT to detect significant CAD in patients presenting with uncontrolled hypertension accompanied by chest pain. Dual-source CT angiography may be useful to safely rule out coronary artery stenoses and avoid invasive angiograms in these patients.