More than one million prostate biopsies are performed in the United States every year. A failure to find cancer is not definitive in a significant percentage of patients due to the presence of equivocal structures or continuing clinical suspicion. We have identified gene expression changes in stroma that can detect tumor nearby. We compared gene expression profiles of 13 biopsies containing stroma near tumor and 15 biopsies from volunteers without prostate cancer. About 3,800 significant expression changes were found and thereafter filtered using independent expression profiles to eliminate possible age-related genes and genes expressed at detectable levels in tumor cells. A stroma-specific classifier for nearby tumor was constructed on the basis of 114 candidate genes and tested on 364 independent samples including 243 tumor-bearing samples and 121 nontumor samples (normal biopsies, normal autopsies, remote stroma, as well as stroma within a few millimeters of tumor). The classifier predicted the tumor status of patients using tumor-free samples with an average accuracy of 97% (sensitivity = 98% and specificity = 88%) whereas classifiers trained with sets of 100 randomly generated genes had no diagnostic value. These results indicate that the prostate cancer microenvironment exhibits reproducible changes useful for categorizing the presence of tumor in patients when a prostate sample is derived from near the tumor but does not contain any recognizable tumor.
Mutations in the Drosophila variable nurse cells (vnc) gene result in female sterility and oogenesis defects, including egg chambers with too many or too few nurse cells. We show that vnc corresponds to Arrest Defective1 (Ard1) and encodes the catalytic subunit of NatA, the major N-terminal acetyl-transferase complex. While N-terminal acetylation is one of the most prevalent covalent protein modifications in eukaryotes, analysis of its role in development has been challenging since mutants that compromise NatA activity have not been described in any multicellular animal. Our data show that reduced ARD1 levels result in pleiotropic oogenesis defects including abnormal cyst encapsulation, desynchronized cystocyte division, disrupted nurse cell chromosome dispersion, and abnormal chorion patterning, consistent with the wide range of predicted NatA substrates. Furthermore, we find that loss of Ard1 affects cell survival/proliferation and is lethal for the animal, providing the first demonstration that this modification is essential in higher eukaryotes.
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