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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lithium in the treatment of major depressive disorder.
Drugs
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Recent high-quality studies have confirmed the central role of lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder and have established lithium as the drug of first choice for long-term prophylaxis in this condition. However, several indications for its use in unipolar major depression are also based on sound evidence. This includes lithium augmentation as a main strategy for depressed patients not responding to an antidepressant, lithium prophylaxis for recurrent unipolar depression as an alternative to prophylaxis with an antidepressant, and lithium's unique anti-suicidal properties. Lithium monotherapy, on the other hand, is not established for acute treatment of depression. Lithium therapy should be a core competency of every psychiatrist, enabling the safe use of lithium, to the benefit of our patients.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentrations in acute depressive patients increase during lithium augmentation of antidepressants.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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In recent years, lithium has proved an effective augmentation strategy of antidepressants in both acute and treatment-resistant depression. Neuroprotective and procognitive effects of lithium have been evidenced. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play a key role in the pathophysiology of several neurological and psychiatric disorders. The BDNF hypothesis of depression postulates that a loss of BDNF is directly involved in the pathophysiology of depression, and its restoration may underlie the therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant treatments. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum concentrations were measured in a total of 83 acutely depressed patients before and after 4 weeks of lithium augmentation. A significant BDNF increase has been found during treatment (F2,81 = 5.04, P < 0.05). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations at baseline correlated negatively with relative Hamilton Depression Scale change after treatment with lithium (n = 83; r = -0.23; P < 0.05). This is the first study showing that lithium augmentation of an antidepressant strategy can increase BDNF serum concentrations. Our study replicates previous findings showing that serum BDNF levels in patients with depressive episodes increase during effective antidepressant treatment. Further studies are needed to separate specific effects of different antidepressants on BDNF concentration and address potential BDNF downstream mechanisms.
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[Diphenhydramine addiction and detoxification. A systematic review and case report].
Psychiatr Prax
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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In many countries diphenhydramine (DPH) is commonly available over the counter, frequently used, and generally regarded as a harmless drug. It is used as a sedative, antiallergic or antiemetic substance.
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The diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder: recommendations from the current s3 guideline.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness, characterized by frequent recurrences and major comorbidities. Its consequences can include suicide.
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Lithium in the public water supply and suicide mortality in Texas.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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There is increasing evidence from ecological studies that lithium levels in drinking water are inversely associated with suicide mortality. Previous studies of this association were criticized for using inadequate statistical methods and neglecting socioeconomic confounders. This study evaluated the association between lithium levels in the public water supply and county-based suicide rates in Texas. A state-wide sample of 3123 lithium measurements in the public water supply was examined relative to suicide rates in 226 Texas counties. Linear and Poisson regression models were adjusted for socioeconomic factors in estimating the association. Lithium levels in the public water supply were negatively associated with suicide rates in most statistical analyses. The findings provide confirmatory evidence that higher lithium levels in the public drinking water are associated with lower suicide rates. This association needs clarification through examination of possible neurobiological effects of low natural lithium doses.
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Acute antidepressive efficacy of lithium monotherapy, not citalopram, depends on recurrent course of depression.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Studies of the 1970s and 1980s showed lithium monotherapy to be an effective treatment of acute unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) and hence as a potential alternative to monoaminergic antidepressants.The objective was to conduct the first comparison of a lithium monotherapy with a modern antidepressant in the acute treatment of MDD. Results were compared with citaloprams efficacy as shown in a different but methodologically identical study (including same researchers, same time, and same place).Thirty patients with an acute MDD (Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM IV] I) were treated with lithium monotherapy (study 1) or with citalopram monotherapy (study 2, N = 32) for 4 weeks.Response rates (decrease in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score >50%) were 50% for lithium and 72% for citalopram (P = 0.12). Citalopram-treated subjects showed a greater decrease in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores (significant at 2 weeks). In the lithium study, only patients with a recurrent episode (DSM-IV: 296.3) responded (15/22), as opposed to none of 8 patients with a first/single episode (DSM-IV: 296.2) (P = 0.002). Patients with a single episode responded significantly more often to citalopram than to lithium (P = 0.007). Both drugs were well tolerated. Only one patient (citalopram) terminated the study prematurely owing to adverse effects.Our results do not support the use of lithium as an alternative to SSRI in the treatment of acute MDD. The finding of a better response to lithium in patients with a recurrent depression has not been reported before and warrants replication. The comparison is limited by the lack of a randomized double-blind design.
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[Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics in non-delusional unipolar depressed patients with non-response to antidepressant-monotherapy].
Psychiatr Prax
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Objective Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics is used in depressive patients with non-response to antidepressants. We investigated the utility of this strategy.Methods Systematic computer-based search in the online library Pubmed for randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trials (RCT) from the years 1990 to 2011.Results We found 14 RCT about augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics in depressive patients with non-response to antidepressants. Trials examined olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine and aripiprazole.Conclusions Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics is an alternative to the augmentation with lithium in unipolar depressive patients with non-response to antidepressants. But treatment with atypical antipsychotics as opposed to placebo increases the risk of non-compliance due to side-effects of medication. Augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics in unipolar depression is an off-label therapy in Germany except for the augmentation with extended-release quetiapine. Knowledge about treatment strategies regarding augmentation of antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics can increase the chance of a successful treatment, but interactions and side-effects should be considered.
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Impact of citalopram on the HPA system. A study of the combined DEX/CRH test in 30 unipolar depressed patients.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system is one of the best replicated pathophysiological findings in depression. However, studies on the influence of treatment on the HPA system have partly yielded inconsistent results.
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Lithium monotherapy increases ACTH and cortisol response in the DEX/CRH test in unipolar depressed subjects. A study with 30 treatment-naive patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Distorted activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system is one of the most robustly documented biological abnormalities in major depression. Lithium is central to the treatment of affective disorders, but little is known about its effects on the HPA system of depressed subjects.
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Long-term treatment with supraphysiological doses of thyroid hormone in affective disorders - effects on bone mineral density.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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To investigate the long-term effects of supraphysiological, TSH suppressive doses of levothyroxine (TSDL) on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with affective disorders during an average treatment duration of 69 months.
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Low effective organizational strategies in visual memory performance of unmedicated alcoholics during early abstinence.
Psychosoc Med
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2010
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Objective: Alcohol-dependent patients in early abstinence show an impairment of cognitive functions which can be seen in poor implementation of newly learned skills for avoiding relapse. Executive dysfunction may persist during abstinence in alcohol-dependent persons, thus mitigating long-term abstinence. This study assessed visual memory function and choice of organizational strategies in alcoholics, as these are major factors necessary to implement ongoing behavior changes which are required for maintaining abstinence.Methods: We investigated 25 severely alcohol-dependent male patients between days 7 to 10 of abstinence, immediately after clinical withdrawal symptoms have ceased, compared to 15 healthy age, sex, and education matched controls. Pharmacological therapy had been terminated at least four half-lifes before inclusion into the study. Visual perceptual learning and organizational strategies were assessed with the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (R-OCF).Results: There were no group differences in copying or recalling the figure, but time differences occurred. Alcoholics and healthy controls performed worse in recalling than in copying. But, alcoholics used less effective organizational strategies.Conclusions: There was a deficit in choice of organizational strategy in newly abstinent and unmedicated alcohol-dependent patients. Due to the imperfect organizational strategies, alcoholics might need auxiliary therapeutic care to strengthen their cognitive ability.
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[Evidence-based treatment of depression: what does the new S3- and national healthcare guideline Unipolar Depression really recommend?].
Z Psychosom Med Psychother
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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The paper reflects central recommendations and methodological issues of the new German guidelines for the treatment of depression, as discussed in the article New German Guidelines for the Treatment of Depression - The Central Role of Psychotherapy (Schauenburg et al. 2009). Members of the steering group for these guidelines disagree with the authors description in several points, especially with reference to the efficacy of pharmacotherapy with antidepressants and psychotherapy, as well as the relationship between both strategies of therapy and their combination in diverse phases of treatment (acute/maintenance). Furthermore, we try to clarify some misunderstandings in matters of the guidelines methodology which arose in the paper cited.
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Lithiums emerging role in the treatment of refractory major depressive episodes: augmentation of antidepressants.
Neuropsychobiology
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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The late onset of therapeutic response and a relatively large proportion of nonresponders to antidepressants remain major concerns in clinical practice. Therefore, there is a critical need for effective medication strategies that augment treatment with antidepressants.
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Long-term outcome after lithium augmentation in unipolar depression: focus on HPA system activity.
Neuropsychobiology
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2009
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Lithium augmentation is a first-line strategy for depressed patients resistant to antidepressive therapy, but little is known about patients subsequent long-term course or outcome predictors. We investigated long-term outcomes of unipolar depressed patients who had participated in a study on the effects of lithium augmentation on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system using the combined dexamethasone/corticotrophin-releasing hormone (DEX/CRH) test.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.