G protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) are highly related to oncogenesis and cancer metastasis. G protein-coupled receptor 137 (GPR137) was initially reported as a novel orphan GPR about 10 years ago. Some orphan GPRs have been implicated in human cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of GPR137 in human colon cancer. Expression levels of GRP137 were analyzed in different colon cancer cell lines by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. Lentivirus-mediated short hairpin RNA was specifically designed to knock down GPR137 expression in colon cancer cells. Cell viability was measured by methylthiazoletetrazolium and colony formation assays. In addition, cell cycle characteristic was investigated by flow cytometry. GRP137 expression was observed in all seven colon cancer cell lines at different levels. The mRNA and protein levels of GPR137 were down-regulated in both HCT116 and RKO cells after lentivirus infection. Lentivirus-mediated silencing of GPR137 reduced the proliferation rate and colonies numbers. Knockdown of GPR137 in both cell lines led to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. These results indicated that GPR137 plays an important role in colon cancer cell proliferation. A better understanding of GPR137's effects on signal transduction pathways in colon cancer cells may provide insights into the novel gene therapy of colon cancer.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities against colorectal cancer (CRC) of electrospun polylactide (PLA) nanofibers loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-Flu) and oxaliplatin. For in vitro evaluation, human CRC HCT8 cells were directly exposed to the drug-loaded fiber mats, followed with MTT and flow cytometry (FCM) assay. For in vivo evaluation, the drug-loaded fiber mats were locally implanted into mouse colorectal CT26 tumor-bearing mice, followed with histological analysis and detection of survival rate. The results showed that the drug-loaded fiber mats was similar to that of the combination of free 5-Flu and oxaliplatin in vitro cytotoxicity but was much superior to intravenous injection of free drug in vivo anticancer activities, presenting with suppressed tumor growth rate and prolonged survival time of mice. In conclusion, anticancer activities of 5-Flu and oxaliplatin against CRC can be significantly improved by using PLA electrospun nanofibers as local drug delivery system.
The targeting protein for the Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2), a microtubule-associated protein, has been utilized as a tool to evaluate, more precisely, the proliferative behavior of tumor cells. The abnormal expression of TPX2 in a variety of malignant tumor types has been reported, however less is known about its role in cervical cancer. In the present study, the association between TPX2 expression and the biological behavior of cervical cancer, was investigated. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used to detect the expression of TPX2 in cervical cancer tissues. The inhibitory effect of TPX2-siRNA on the growth of SiHa human cervical carcinoma cells was studied in vitro. TPX2 expression was identified as significantly higher in cervical carcinoma compared with the control, normal cervical tissues. TPX2 siRNA transfected into SiHa cells induced apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. Similar results were obtained by in vivo transplantation, as TPX2 siRNA transfection significantly reduced tumor growth of the xenograft in nude mice. The results demonstrated that TPX2 is important in the regulation of tumor growth in cervical cancer and therefore may be a potential therapeutic target as a novel treatment strategy.
Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the anticancer activity of PD-0332991, a selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor, in the treatment of various types of cancer in a retinoblastoma protein (RB)-dependent manner. However, it remains unclear whether CDK4, CDK6 or both are required for RB phosphorylation in colorectal carcinoma and thus PD-0332991 can be used to target this CDK-RB axis for the cancer therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether CDK4, CDK6 and phosphorylated RB proteins were overexpressed in colorectal carcinoma tissues as compared to matched normal colorectal tissues. The results showed that knockdown of CDK6 but not CDK4 reduced RB phosphorylation and inhibited carcinoma cell growth. Thus, CDK6 plays a critical role in RB phosphorylation and cancer growth. PD-0332991 treatment blocked RB phosphorylation and inhibited cell growth through the induction of G1 arrest of colorectal carcinoma cells. The results demonstrated that, by targeting of CDK6-RB axis, PD-0332991 may prove to be a novel therapeutic agent in treating colorectal carcinoma.
Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are a family with more than 30 proteins that all contain an RGS domain. In the past decade, increasing evidence has indicated that RGS proteins play crucial roles in the regulation of G protein coupling receptors (GPCR), G proteins, and calcium signaling during cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation in a variety of tissues. In bone, those proteins modulate bone development and remodeling by influencing various signaling pathways such as GPCR-G protein signaling, Wnt, calcium oscillations and PTH. This review summarizes the recent advances in the understanding of the regulation of RGS gene expression, as well as the functions and mechanisms of RGS proteins, especially in regulating GPCR-G protein signaling, Wnt signaling, calcium oscillations signaling and PTH signaling during bone development and remodeling. This review also highlights the regulation of different RGS proteins in osteoblasts, chondrocytes and osteoclasts. The knowledge from the recent advances of RGS study summarized in the review would provide the insights into new therapies for bone diseases.
A two-stage chemical pretreatment of corn stover is investigated comprising an NaOH pre-extraction followed by an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) post-treatment. We propose that conventional one-stage AHP pretreatment can be improved using alkaline pre-extraction, which requires significantly less H2O2 and NaOH. To better understand the potential of this approach, this study investigates several components of this process including alkaline pre-extraction, alkaline and alkaline-oxidative post-treatment, fermentation, and the composition of alkali extracts.
The inability of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment xylose effectively under anaerobic conditions is a major barrier to economical production of lignocellulosic biofuels. Although genetic approaches have enabled engineering of S. cerevisiae to convert xylose efficiently into ethanol in defined lab medium, few strains are able to ferment xylose from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the absence of oxygen. This limited xylose conversion is believed to result from small molecules generated during biomass pretreatment and hydrolysis, which induce cellular stress and impair metabolism. Here, we describe the development of a xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain with tolerance to a range of pretreated and hydrolyzed lignocellulose, including Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX)-pretreated corn stover hydrolysate (ACSH). We genetically engineered a hydrolysate-resistant yeast strain with bacterial xylose isomerase and then applied two separate stages of aerobic and anaerobic directed evolution. The emergent S. cerevisiae strain rapidly converted xylose from lab medium and ACSH to ethanol under strict anaerobic conditions. Metabolomic, genetic and biochemical analyses suggested that a missense mutation in GRE3, which was acquired during the anaerobic evolution, contributed toward improved xylose conversion by reducing intracellular production of xylitol, an inhibitor of xylose isomerase. These results validate our combinatorial approach, which utilized phenotypic strain selection, rational engineering and directed evolution for the generation of a robust S. cerevisiae strain with the ability to ferment xylose anaerobically from ACSH.
The fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars, particularly xylose, into ethanol by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is known to be inhibited by compounds produced during feedstock pretreatment. We devised a strategy that combined chemical profiling of pretreated feedstocks, high-throughput phenotyping of genetically diverse S. cerevisiae strains isolated from a range of ecological niches, and directed engineering and evolution against identified inhibitors to produce strains with improved fermentation properties. We identified and quantified for the first time the major inhibitory compounds in alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP)-pretreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates, including Na(+), acetate, and p-coumaric (pCA) and ferulic (FA) acids. By phenotyping these yeast strains for their abilities to grow in the presence of these AHP inhibitors, one heterozygous diploid strain tolerant to all four inhibitors was selected, engineered for xylose metabolism, and then allowed to evolve on xylose with increasing amounts of pCA and FA. After only 149 generations, one evolved isolate, GLBRCY87, exhibited faster xylose uptake rates in both laboratory media and AHP switchgrass hydrolysate than its ancestral GLBRCY73 strain and completely converted 115 g/liter of total sugars in undetoxified AHP hydrolysate into more than 40 g/liter ethanol. Strikingly, genome sequencing revealed that during the evolution from GLBRCY73, the GLBRCY87 strain acquired the conversion of heterozygous to homozygous alleles in chromosome VII and amplification of chromosome XIV. Our approach highlights that simultaneous selection on xylose and pCA or FA with a wild S. cerevisiae strain containing inherent tolerance to AHP pretreatment inhibitors has potential for rapid evolution of robust properties in lignocellulosic biofuel production.
There is growing evidence indicating the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays a critical role in the progression of human colorectal carcinomas. IGF-1R is an attractive drug target for the treatment of colon cancer. Picropodophyllin (PPP), of the cyclolignan family, has recently been identified as an IGF-1R inhibitor. The aim of this study is to determine the therapeutic response and mechanism after colorectal carcinoma treatment with PPP.
Regulators of G-protein Signaling (Rgs) proteins are the members of a multigene family of GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAP) for the Galpha subunit of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Rgs proteins play critical roles in the regulation of G protein couple receptor (GPCR) signaling in normal physiology and human diseases such as cancer, heart diseases, and inflammation. Rgs12 is the largest protein of the Rgs protein family. Some in vitro studies have demonstrated that Rgs12 plays a critical role in regulating cell differentiation and migration; however its function and mechanism in vivo is largely unknown. Here, we generated a floxed Rgs12 allele (Rgs12(flox/flox) ) in which the exon 2, containing both PDZ and PTB_PID domains of Rgs12, was flanked with two loxp sites. By using the inducible Mx1-cre and Poly I:C system to specifically delete Rgs12 at postnatal 10 days in interferon-responsive cells including monocyte and macrophage cells, we found that Rgs12 mutant mice had growth retardation with the phenotype of increased bone mass. We further found that deletion of Rgs12 reduced osteoclast numbers and had no significant effect on osteoblast formation. Thus, Rgs12(flox/flox) conditional mice provide a valuable tool for in vivo analysis of Rgs12 function and mechanism through time- and cell-specific deletion of Rgs12.
A core cross-linked polymeric micellar cisplatin(IV) conjugate prodrug is prepared by attaching the cisplatin(IV) to mPEG-b-PLL biodegradable copolymers to form micellar nanoparticles that can disintegrate to release the active anticancer agent cisplatin(II) in a mild reducing environment. Moreover, in vitro studies show that this cisplatin(IV) conjugate prodrug displays enhanced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cancer cells compared with cisplatin(II). Further studies demonstrate that the high cellular uptake and platinum-DNA adduct of this cisplatin(IV) conjugate prodrug can induce more cancer-cell apoptosis than cisplatin(II), which is responsible for its enhanced anticancer activity.
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and 2 (mTORC1/2) are overactive in colorectal carcinomas; however, the first generation of mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin have failed to show clinical benefits in treating colorectal carcinoma in part due to their effects only on mTORC1. The second generation of mTOR inhibitors such as PP242 targets mTOR kinase; thus, they are capable of inhibiting both mTORC1 and mTORC2. To examine the therapeutic potential of the mTOR kinase inhibitors, we treated a panel of colorectal carcinoma cell lines with PP242. Western blotting showed that the PP242 inhibition of mTORC2-mediated AKT phosphorylation at Ser 473 (AKT(S473)) was transient only in the first few hours of the PP242 treatment. Receptor tyrosine kinase arrays further revealed that PP242 treatment increased the phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at Tyr 1068 (EGFR(T1068)). The parallel increase of AKT(S473) and EGFR(T1068) in the cells following PP242 treatment raised the possibility that EGFR phosphorylation might contribute to the PP242 incomplete inhibition of mTORC2. To test this notion, we showed that the combination of PP242 with erlotinib, an EGFR small molecule inhibitor, blocked both mTORC1 and mTORC2 kinase activity. In addition, we showed that the combination treatment inhibited colony formation, blocked cell growth and induced apoptotic cell death. A systemic administration of PP242 and erlotinib resulted in the progression suppression of colorectal carcinoma xenografts in mice. This study suggests that the combination of mTOR kinase and EGFR inhibitors may provide an effective treatment of colorectal carcinoma.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the western world. In this study, we evaluated the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 gene (MMP2) in CRC and analyzed its correlation with clinicopathological features. We found that the expression of MMP2 was significantly higher in CRC tissues than in the colorectal tissues. In addition, high levels of MMP2 protein were positively correlated with the status of tumor size, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, Dukes stage, and tumor invasion. Moreover, patients with higher MMP2 levels had markedly shorter overall survivals than those with low MMP2 levels. Multivariate analysis results suggested that the level of MMP2 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for the survival of patients with CRC. Silencing MMP2 expression in CRC cell lines with lentiviral-mediated shRNA markedly suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, and invasion. Furthermore, we observed that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP protein levels were decreased in MMP2-down-regulated colorectal cells. Therefore, our study demonstrated that MMP2 is an important factor related to carcinogenesis and metastasis of CRC, and MMP2 promotes CRC cell growth and invasion by up-regulating VEGF and MT1-MMP expression, which makes this pathway a potential target for cancer treatment.
Corn silk contains proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, Ca, K, Mg and Na salts, fixed and volatile oils, steroids such as sitosterol and stigmasterol, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids. Base on folk remedies, corn silk has been used as an oral antidiabetic agent in China for decades. However, the hypoglycemic activity of it has not yet been understood in terms of modern pharmacological concepts. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of corn silk on glycaemic metabolism.
The hypoglycemic activity of fermented mushroom of three fungi of basidiomycetes rich in vanadium was studied in this paper. Alloxan- and adrenalin-induced hyperglycemic mice were used in the study. The blood glucose and the sugar tolerance were determined. After the mice were administered (ig) with Coprinus comatus rich in vanadium, the blood glucose of alloxan-induced hyperglycemic mice decreased (p < 0.05), ascension of blood glucose induced by adrenalin was inhibited (p < 0.01) and the sugar tolerance of the normal mice was improved. However, the same result did not occur in Ganoderma lucidum and Grifola frondosa group. Compared with Ganoderma rich in vanadium and Grifola frondosa rich in vanadium, the hypoglycemic effects of Coprinus comatus rich in vanadium on hyperglycemic animals are significant; it may be used as a hypoglycemic food or medicine for hyperglycemic people.
The current study investigates the feasibility of using a biodegradable polymeric stent in common bile duct (CBD) repair and reconstruction. Here, poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA, molar ratio LA/GA = 80/20) was processed into a circular tube- and dumbbell-shaped specimens to determine the in vitro degradation behavior in bile. The morphology, weight loss, and molecular weight changes were then investigated in conjunction with evaluations of the mechanical properties of the specimen. Circular tube-shaped PLGA stents with X-ray opacity were subsequently used in common bile duct exploration (CBDE) and primary suturing in canine models. Next, X-ray images of CBD stents in vivo were compared and levels of serum liver enzymes and a histological analysis were conducted after stent transplantation. The results showed that the PLGA stents exhibited the required biomedical properties and spontaneously disappeared from CBDs in 4-5 weeks. The degradation period and function match the requirements in repair and reconstruction of CBDs to support the duct, guide bile drainage, and reduce T-tube-related complications.
Copper(II) 2,2-bipyridine (Cu(II) (bpy))-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (AHP) pretreatment was performed on three biomass feedstocks including alkali pre-extracted switchgrass, silver birch, and a hybrid poplar cultivar. This catalytic approach was found to improve the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of plant cell wall polysaccharides to monosaccharides for all biomass types at alkaline pH relative to uncatalyzed pretreatment. The hybrid poplar exhibited the most significant improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis with monomeric sugar release and conversions more than doubling from 30% to 61% glucan conversion, while lignin solubilization was increased from 36.6% to 50.2% and hemicellulose solubilization was increased from 14.9% to 32.7%. It was found that Cu(II) (bpy)-catalyzed AHP pretreatment of cellulose resulted in significantly more depolymerization than uncatalyzed AHP pretreatment (78.4% vs. 49.4% decrease in estimated degree of polymerization) and that carboxyl content the cellulose was significantly increased as well (fivefold increase vs. twofold increase). Together, these results indicate that Cu(II) (bpy)-catalyzed AHP pretreatment represents a promising route to biomass deconstruction for bioenergy applications.
c-Myc and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) genes are frequently deregulated and overexpressed in this malignancy, and strategies designed to inhibit c-Myc and VEGF expression in cancer cells may have considerable therapeutic value. In the present study, we design and use short interfering RNA (siRNA) to inhibit c-Myc and VEGF expression in colorectal cancer Volo cells and validate their effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell metastasis. Upon transient transfection with plasmid-encoding siRNA, it was found that expression of c-Myc and VEGF was significantly downregulated in siRNA-transfected cells and the downregulation of c-Myc and VEGF inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis and metastasis of Volo cells. c-Myc and VEGF downregulation also increased cell population in the G0-G1 phase. In conclusion, the specific siRNA efficiently silenced the expression of c-Myc and VEGF, further suppressed the cell proliferation, triggered cell apoptosis, and inhibited cell invasiveness of colorectal cancer Volo cells.
Unrestrained glycolysis characterizes energy meta-bolism in cancer cells. Thus, antiglycolytic reagents such as 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) and 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) may be used as anticancer drugs. In the present study, we examined the anticancer effects of 2-DG and 3-BrPA in pancreatic cancer cells and investigated whether these effects were regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). To this end, 2-DG and 3-BrPA were administered to wild-type (wt) MiaPaCa2 and Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells that were incubated under hypoxic (HIF-1?-positive) or normoxic (HIF-1?-negative) conditions. In addition, 2-DG and 3-BrPA were also administered to si-MiaPaCa2 and si-Panc-1 cells that lacked HIF-1? as a result of RNA interference. Following drug exposure, cell population was measured using a viability assay. Both HIF-1?-positive and HIF-1?-negative MiaPaCa2 cells were further studied for their expression of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and for their contents of ATP and fumarate. In the viability assay, either 2-DG or 3-BrPA decreased the tested cells. Concurrent use of 2-DG and 3-BrPA resulted in a greater decrease of cells and also facilitated ATP depletion. In addition, 3-BrPA was seen to both decrease SOD1 and increase fumarate, which suggests that the reagent impaired the mitochondria. 3-BrPA also decreased both full-length PARP and cleaved PARP, which suggests that 3-BrPA-induced decrease in cell population was a result of cell necrosis rather than apoptosis. When HIF-1? was induced in wt-MiaPaCa2 cells by hypoxia, some effects of 2-DG and 3-BrPA were attenuated. We conclude that: i) concurrent use of 2-DG and 3-BrPA has better anticancer effects in pancreatic cancer cells, ii) 3-BrPA impairs the mitochondria of pancreatic cancer cells and induces cell necrosis, and iii) HIF-1? regulates the anticancer effects of 2-DG and 3-BrPA in pancreatic cancer cells.
A polymeric cisplatin(IV) prodrug in the form of cross-linked micelles (M(Pt(IV)) was prepared by first constructing MPEG-b-PCL-b-PLL micelles and then attaching a cisplatin(IV) complex with two axial succinic moieties to the lysine residues of the carrier polymer in aqueous medium. The micelles obtained were characterized by TEM, DLS, and zeta potential measurement. Their in vitro release experiments were carried out at pH 7.4 and 5.0 or in the presence of 5mM sodium ascorbate (NaAsc). Results showed that the micelles were sensitive to both acidic hydrolysis and mild reducing agents; in the presence of 5mM NaAsc, cisplatin(II) was directly released and the released cisplatin(II) could chelate with nucleobases; the micelles displayed comparable cytotoxicities to cisplatin; and the micelles were much more efficiently internalized by the cells than cisplatin(II) and cisplatin(IV) counterparts. Moreover, in vivo study showed accumulation of more Pt species in the tumor site and lower systematic toxicity compared to free cisplatin(II) and cisplatin(IV). This polymeric prodrug of cisplatin is expected to be used more for future study and applications.
A strategy of preparing composite micelles containing both cisplatin(IV) prodrug and paclitaxel was developed, i.e., synthesizing a cisplatin(IV) conjugate and a paclitaxel conjugate starting with the same biodegradable and amphiphilic block copolymer, and co-assembling the two conjugates. The composite micelles could release effective anticancer drug cisplatin(II) upon cellular reduction and PTX via acid hydrolysis once they came into the cancerous cells. Moreover, the composite micelles displayed synergistic effect in vitro and the combination therapy in micellar dosage-form led to reduced systematic toxicity and enhanced antitumor efficacy in vivo.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is highly expressed in colorectal carcinomas and, as a result, it leads to the activation of downstream mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase pathways for cancer growth and progression. Clinical and preclinical studies, however, have shown that inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) alone is not sufficient to treat colorectal carcinomas. In search of effective combination therapies, we show here that simultaneous targeting of EGFR with its inhibitor, erlotinib and mTOR with its inhibitor, rapamycin inhibits the phosphorylation and activation of downstream phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, mTOR and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) pathways, resulting in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and the growth of both KRAS wild-type and mutated colorectal carcinoma cells. This study has demonstrated the principle that the combination of erlotinib and rapamycin may provide an effective therapy for colorectal carcinomas.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.