JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Possible Role of Template-based Lymphadenectomy in Reducing the Risk of Regional Node Recurrence after Nephroureterectomy in Patients with Renal Pelvic Cancer.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It remains unclear whether lymphadenectomy alters regional node recurrence after nephroureterectomy in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis. The predictive factors for regional node recurrence are still unclear. In this study, we retrospectively examined how the extent of lymphadenectomy influences regional node recurrence in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative Rebound of Anti-Blood Type Antibodies and Antibody-Mediated Rejection after ABO-Incompatible Living Related Kidney Transplantation.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study is to examine whether postoperative anti-blood type antibody rebound is attributed to kidney allograft rejection in ABO blood type-incompatible (ABO-I) living related kidney transplantation (KTx). A total of 191 ABO-I recipients who received ABO-I living related KTx between 2001 and 2013 were divided into two groups: Group 1 consisted of low rebound (?1:32), N=170, and Group 2 of high rebound (?1:64), N=21, according to the levels of the rebounded anti-blood type antibodies within one year after transplantation. No prophylactic treatment for rejection was administered for elevated anti-blood type antibodies, regardless of the levels of the rebounded antibodies. Within one year after transplantation, T cell-mediated rejection was observed in 13 of 170 recipients (13/170, 8%) in Group 1, and in 2 of 21 recipients (2/21, 10%) in Group 2 (Groups 1 vs. 2, P=0.432). Antibody-mediated rejection was observed in 15 of 170 recipients (15/170, 9%) and 2 of 21 recipients (2/21, 10%) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P=0.898). In this study, we found no correlation between the postoperative anti-blood type antibody rebound and the incidence of acute rejection. We concluded that no treatment is necessary for rebounded anti-blood type antibodies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical Symptoms Predict Poor Overall Survival in Chronic-dialysis Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma Associated with End-stage Renal Disease.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate which clinical symptoms predict the survival of patients with renal cell carcinoma associated with end-stage renal disease under chronic dialysis.
Related JoVE Video
High preoperative C-reactive protein values predict poor survival in patients on chronic hemodialysis undergoing nephrectomy for renal cancer.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have reported that elevated pretreatment C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with poor outcome in various malignancies, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC), in the general population. However, there is no evidence of such an association in dialysis patients. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of preoperative serum CRP levels in patients with RCC related to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring hemodialysis (HD).
Related JoVE Video
Template-based lymphadenectomy in urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis: a prospective study.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies showed the therapeutic benefit of lymphadenectomy in advanced stage urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract, but there is still a lack of prospective studies and standardization of the extent of lymphadenectomy. The aim of this multi-institutional study was to examine the role of lymphadenectomy in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibitory effects of p-aminohippurate and probenecid on the renal clearance of adefovir and benzylpenicillin as probe drugs for organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 and OAT3 in humans.
Eur J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Probe substrates for, and inhibitors of, specific transporters are desired to evaluate quantitatively the in vivo functions of transporters in humans. Based on published data, adefovir and benzylpenicillin were selected as organic anion transporter (OAT) 1- and OAT3-selective probe substrates, respectively. In human kidney slices, probenecid potently inhibited the uptake of both adefovir and benzylpenicillin with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 18.6±5.1 and 12.6±4.2?M, respectively, whereas p-aminohippurate (PAH) preferentially inhibited adefovir uptake. A clinical drug-interaction study involving healthy subjects was performed to investigate the dose-dependent inhibition potencies of probenecid and PAH on the renal clearance of the probe substrates. Adefovir or benzylpenicillin was coadministered with different oral doses of probenecid (500, 750, or 1500mg) or intravenous PAH infusion rates (70, 120, or 210mg/min/person) to the same subject using a crossover design. The renal clearance of adefovir was reduced by 45% and 46% in the subjects treated with the maximum dose of probenecid and PAH, respectively, which was in accordance with the results of in vitro inhibition study. On the other hand, renal clearance of benzylpenicillin was reduced by 78% in the subjects treated with the maximum dose of probenecid (1500mg), which could be explained by its in vitro Ki values. However, PAH unexpectedly increased the renal clearance of benzylpenicillin by 47%. These results suggest that adefovir and benzylpenicillin can be used as probe drugs for OAT1 and OAT3, respectively, and that PAH can be used to investigate the role of OAT1 in the urinary excretion of drugs in humans, whereas it may modulate other transport processes in the kidney.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced computed tomography after partial nephrectomy in early postoperative period to detect asymptomatic renal artery pseudoaneurysm.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We systematically examined the incidence and potential implications of renal artery pseudoaneurysm occurring after partial nephrectomy detected by computed tomography screening in the early postoperative period.
Related JoVE Video
Cytoreductive nephrectomy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a population-based analysis of perioperative outcomes according to clinical stage.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the perioperative outcomes of cytoreductive nephrectomy according to clinical T?stage, and to analyze factors affecting these outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Superior tolerability of altered dosing schedule of sunitinib with 2-weeks-on and 1-week-off in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma--comparison to standard dosing schedule of 4-weeks-on and 2-weeks-off.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Poor tolerability to sunitinib with the standard dosing schedule has become an issue. We retrospectively analyzed the treatment efficacy and the profile of adverse events of 2 weeks of sunitinib treatment followed by 1-week-off (Schedule 2/1) and compared the results with the standard dosing schedule with 4 weeks of treatment followed by 2-weeks-off (Schedule 4/2).
Related JoVE Video
Better recovery of kidney function in patients with de novo chronic kidney disease after partial nephrectomy compared with those with pre-existing chronic kidney disease.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared kidney functional recovery between patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease, those with de novo chronic kidney disease and those with normal kidney function, after partial nephrectomy. A total of 311 patients who underwent partial nephrectomy at Tokyo Womens Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, between January 2004 and July 2011 with sufficient kidney functional data participated in the study. Patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (group1: 78 patients) were defined as those with estimated glomerular filtration rate under 60?mL/min/m(2) before partial nephrectomy. Patients with de novo chronic kidney disease (group?2: 49) were defined as those with estimated glomerular filtration rate over 60?mL/min/m(2) before surgery and who developed estimated glomerular filtration rate under 60?mL/min/m(2) 3 months after partial nephrectomy. Normal patients (group?3: 184) were defined as those with estimated glomerular filtration rate over 60?mL/min/m(2) both before and after partial nephrectomy. Group?1 was associated with older age and higher comorbidity, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus, compared with other groups. R.E.N.A.L. score was not significantly different between the groups. Although the percent change of estimated glomerular filtration rate between the preoperative period and 3 months after partial nephrectomy in group?2 was significantly decreased compared with that in other groups (group?1: -6.8%, group?2: -18%, group?3: -7.3%), the renal functional recovery between 3 and 12 months after partial nephrectomy in group?2 was better than that in other groups (group?1: -0.5%, group?2: 5.6%, group?3: -0.4%). Patients with de novo chronic kidney disease had better kidney functional recovery than the other two groups, which might suggest that they were surgically assaulted and developed chronic kidney disease in the early postoperative period, and were essentially different from those with pre-existing chronic kidney disease.
Related JoVE Video
Cystic local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy in a hemodialysis patient.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is sometimes reported, cystic local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma has rarely been reported. We report the case of a 59-year-old man with hemodialysis who developed cystic local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma accompanied by acquired cystic disease of the kidney in the retroperitoneal space after laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. A cystic tumor of 5.1?cm in diameter occurred in the left retroperitoneal space 15?months after left laparoscopic radical nephrectomy, and enlarged to 7.2?cm in diameter with enhanced mass along the wall of the cyst 36?months after surgery. The cystic tumor was removed and showed local recurrence of renal cell carcinoma on pathological examination.
Related JoVE Video
Mannitol has no impact on renal function after open partial nephrectomy in solitary kidneys.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mannitol has been administered during partial nephrectomy as a renal protective agent for ischemic damage. However, we do not have any high-level clinical evidence of its effectiveness. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol during open partial nephrectomy by comparing the postoperative renal function of patients who received it and those who did not. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 55 patients who underwent open partial nephrectomy for renal cancer in a solitary kidney from January 1990 to December 2012, and who were followed up postoperatively for at least 6?months. Of the 55 patients, mannitol was given to 20 patients (group M+) and not to the other 35 patients (group M-). We compared not only the postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, but also its decrease rate and the incidence of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis in the two groups. There were no significant differences in perioperative patient characteristics between the two groups. Mannitol made no significant difference in both the postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate and its decrease rate at any point within 6?months of the postoperative period. The incidence of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis was one (5.0%) in group M+ and two (5.7%) in group M-. These findings suggest that there might be no advantage from the administration of mannitol during open partial nephrectomy.
Related JoVE Video
Negative impact of papillary histological subtype in patients with renal cell carcinoma extending into the inferior vena cava: single-center experience.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the impact of histological subtypes on the survival of patients presenting with renal cell carcinoma extending into the inferior vena cava.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of survival rates in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma according to treatment era including cytokine and targeted therapy.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We compared the survival rates in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma between the cytokine and molecular targeted therapy era. The study included 321 patients who were diagnosed with metastatic renal cell carcinoma between 1987 and 2011. The patients were divided into two groups according to when they started therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma: in the cytokine era (1987-2007) and in the targeted therapy era (after 2008). The beginning of the follow-up period was defined as the time of discovery of metastasis occurrence. Cytokine and targeted therapy eras included 235 and 86 patients, respectively. Seventy-five percent of the patients in the cytokine era actually received cytokine therapy. Eighty-one percent of the patients in the targeted therapy era received targeted therapy and 14% received both cytokine and targeted therapy. There were no significant differences in overall survival rates (cytokine 29 months, targeted 38 months, P = 0.1789).
Related JoVE Video
Prognosis and characteristics of renal cell carcinoma in hemodialysis patients: bilateral occurrence does not influence cancer-specific survival.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare characteristics and prognosis unilateral and bilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in hemodialysis (HD) patients.
Related JoVE Video
Decompressive surgery in combination with preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization: successful improvement of ambulatory function in renal cell carcinoma patients with metastatic extradural spinal cord compression.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We analyzed the results of direct decompressive surgery plus stabilization of the vertebrae involved (DDSS) in six non-ambulatory patients with metastatic extradural spinal cord compression (MESCC) due to renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) was performed prior to surgery to reduce intraoperative blood loss. Radiotherapy and systemic therapy, including cytokine or targeted therapy and zoledronic acid, were added to the surgery. The DDSS procedure was performed successfully in all patients, with an estimated mean blood loss of 1726 mL. After surgery, all patients regained ambulatory function within 2 months. Patients were ambulatory with the use of assisting apparatus for 4-29 months (median 10.5 months). Median overall survival time after surgery was 15 months (range 4-38 months). In conclusion, DDSS with preoperative TAE can be performed safely and significantly improves the ambulatory function of non-ambulatory RCC patients with MESCC.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative renal function after partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease: a comparison with radical nephrectomy.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We assessed whether adequately functioning parenchyma is preserved in patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD) after partial nephrectomy (PN) compared with those who underwent radical nephrectomy (RN). A total of 95 patients with pre-existing CKD who underwent curative surgery for pathological T1a-T2N0M0 renal cell carcinoma with a follow-up period of 12 months or more were the subject of the present study. Of these, 51 patients underwent RN, and 44 PN. Renal function was assessed by using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR). We classified the subjects into two groups according to the preoperative e-GFR: preoperative e-GFR 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (68 patients); and 30-44 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (27 patients). In the former group, the probability of freedom from new onset of e-GFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) stemmed from the significant difference between the PN and RN groups (P = 0.006; PN: 2 years 64%; RN: 2 years 22%). In contrast, in the latter group, the probability of freedom from new onset of e-GFR <30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) was not associated with a significant difference between PN and RN group (P = 0.80). Overall survival and the number of the patients who went on to develop end-stage renal disease requiring renal replacement therapy between PN and RN were not significantly different in each group. Death from renal cell carcinoma was not noted in either group. PN could significantly prevent development to late-stage CKD in patients with preoperative e-GFR 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) compared with RN. Patients with preoperative e-GFR 30-44 mL/min/1.73 m(2) should be reviewed in a more strict study.
Related JoVE Video
The role of lymph node dissection in the management of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UCUUT) is a disease with poor prognosis and a high incidence of lymphatic metastasis at 30-40%. Lymphadenectomy may be a possible surgical strategy to control the spread of lymphatic cancer, but its therapeutic benefit in UCUUT has remained controversial in contrast to bladder cancer in which consensus has been almost reached with respect to the necessity of extended lymphadenectomy. We hypothesized that radical lymphadenectomy may also be important for UCUUT since UCUUT is histologically similar to bladder cancer. One of the major reasons for uncertainty about whether lymphadenectomy has any therapeutic value may have resulted from an incomplete understanding of the regional nodes. Thus, we started our analyses by clarifying this issue, and found that the primary sites of lymphatic metastases encompassed a relatively wide area, especially on the right side, when compared with the conventional recognition. We further reported complete lymphadenectomy in which all regional sites which were dissected appeared to provide a survival benefit for patients with UCUUT at an advanced stage. To date, several studies from the other institutes have added supportive evidence for the therapeutic role of lymphadenectomy. Although there are several points to be determined such as the extent of the template, the minimum number of lymph nodes removed, or the candidate for lymphadenectomy, performing lymphadenectomy is unlikely to have a negative effect on the patient. In the future, we expect that controlled prospective studies will further clarify the potential role of lymphadenectomy in UCUUT.
Related JoVE Video
Prediction of the overall renal tubular secretion and hepatic clearance of anionic drugs and a renal drug-drug interaction involving organic anion transporter 3 in humans by in vitro uptake experiments.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study investigated prediction of the overall renal tubular secretion and hepatic clearances of anionic drugs based on in vitro transport studies. The saturable uptake of eight drugs, most of which were OAT3 substrates (rosuvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, valsartan, olmesartan, trichlormethiazide, p-aminohippurate, and benzylpenicillin) by freshly prepared human kidney slices underestimated the overall intrinsic clearance of the tubular secretion; therefore, a scaling factor of 10 was required for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation. We examined the effect of gemfibrozil and its metabolites, gemfibrozil glucuronide and the carboxylic metabolite, gemfibrozil M3, on pravastatin uptake by human kidney slices. The inhibition study using human kidney slices suggests that OAT3 plays a predominant role in the renal uptake of pravastatin. Comparison of unbound concentrations and K(i) values (1.5, 9.1, and 4.0 ?M, for gemfibrozil, gemfibrozil glucuronide, and gemfibrozil M3, respectively) suggests that the mechanism of the interaction is due mainly to inhibition by gemfibrozil and gemfibrozil glucuronide. Furthermore, extrapolation of saturable uptake by cryopreserved human hepatocytes predicts clearance comparable with the observed hepatic clearance although fluvastatin and rosuvastatin required a scaling factor of 11 and 6.9, respectively. This study suggests that in vitro uptake assays using human kidney slices and hepatocytes provide a good prediction of the overall tubular secretion and hepatic clearances of anionic drugs and renal drug-drug interactions. It is also recommended that in vitro-in vivo extrapolation be performed in animals to obtain more reliable prediction.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical results and pharmacokinetics of sorafenib in chronic hemodialysis patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in a single center.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the safety and feasibility of sorafenib in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis by examining the influence of pharmacokinetic parameters to their benefit and also the occurrence of drug-related adverse events of sorafenib.
Related JoVE Video
Template-based lymphadenectomy in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: impact on patient survival.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The benefit of lymphadenectomy (LND) in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UCUUT) has remained controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the LND template and the total number of lymph nodes (LN) when increasing the number of patients undergoing complete dissection of regional nodes (CompLND).
Related JoVE Video
[Case report of rhabdoid tumor of the kidney occurring in own kidney following kidney transplantation from the living relative].
Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The patient was a 30-year-old man who had undergone living-donor kidney transplantation for renal failure caused by IgA nephropathy at age 29. On post-transplantation day 83, he visited our department with a chief complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. CT performed on post-transplantation day 95 revealed a tumor (size, 4 cm) in the right native kidney that had not been observed at the time of transplantation. CT performed on post-transplantation day 153 showed that the tumor had enlarged to 6 cm, while retrograde pyelogram performed on post-transplantation day 171 was negative for renal pelvic tumor. On post-transplantation day 193, radical right nephrectomy was performed. The tumor had directly invaded the diaphragm and the lower surface of the liver, and was histopathologically diagnosed as rhabdoid tumor of the kidney. As the pathological tissue was extremely malignant, hepatic posterior segmentectomy, right adrenalectomy, and lymph node dissection were further performed for metastases on post-transplantation day 200. On the 23rd day after radical right nephrectomy (post-transplantation day 216), the patient developed dyspnea. Chest CT showed pleural effusion, hemothorax in right lung and metastases in both lungs. The patients general status gradually worsened thereafter, and he died on the 53rd day after radical right nephrectomy (post-transplantation day 246). Rhabdoid tumor of the kidney is a rare renal tumor that affects children, and only four adult cases have been reported to date. We report our experience with this rare case.
Related JoVE Video
Presurgical targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors for advanced renal cell carcinoma: clinical results and histopathological therapeutic effects.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We retrospectively analyzed our patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who underwent presurgical targeted therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors to clarify the safety and clinical benefit. The histopathological effect of this treatment was also examined.
Related JoVE Video
Potent and specific inhibition of mMate1-mediated efflux of type I organic cations in the liver and kidney by pyrimethamine.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This report describes a potent and selective inhibitor of multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) protein, pyrimethamine (PYR), and examines its effect on the urinary and biliary excretion of typical Mate1 substrates in mice. In vitro inhibition studies demonstrated that PYR is a potent inhibitor of mouse (m)Mate1 (K(i) = 145 nM) among renal organic cation transporters mOctn1 and mOctn2 (K(i) > 30 microM), mOct1 (K(i) = 3.6 microM), and mOct2 (K(i) = 6.0 microM). PYR inhibited the uptake of metformin by kidney brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) (K(i) = 41 nM) and canalicular membrane vesicles in the presence of outward gradient of H+. PYR treatment significantly increased the kidney-to-plasma ratio of tetraethylammonium, and both the liver- and kidney-to-plasma ratios of metformin in mice, whereas it did not affect their plasma concentrations and urinary excretion rates. Furthermore, the plasma lactate concentration, a biomarker for inhibition of gluconeogenesis by metformin, was significantly higher in the PYR-treated group than in the control group. These results not only suggest the importance of mMate1 in the efflux of organic cations into the urine and bile in mice but also the importance of canalicular efflux mediated by MATE proteins for the therapeutic efficacy of metformin. PYR is a potent inhibitor of human (h)MATE1 and hMATE2-K (K(i) = 77 and 46 nM, respectively) and H+ and organic cation exchanger in human kidney BBMVs (K(i) = 31 nM) in the presence of outward gradient of H+. Taken together, PYR can be used as a potent probe inhibitor of human MATE transporters.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular cloning and expression of starfish protein kinase C isoforms.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the roles of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in Echinoderms, we cloned starfish cDNAs for novel, atypical, and conventional PKCs. They showed highest homology with PKCdelta, iota, and alpha isoforms respectively. It was predicted from the whole genome sequence and by RT-PCR that sea urchin has only one isoform of each PKC subgroups. It is thus likely that these isoforms are the prototypes or ancestors of the PKC subgroups. The phylogenetic tree suggests that atypical PKC was first formed by evolution from the common prototype of AGC protein kinase family, and novel and conventional PKCs next. RT-PCR analysis indicated that novel and atypical PKC mRNAs are expressed ubiquitously in all tissues of adult starfish, whereas conventional PKC mRNA is expressed mainly in the ovary and oocytes, and only slightly in the tube foot and stomach. Upon heterologous expression, only atypical PKC was expressed in the functional form in insect cells.
Related JoVE Video
The inhibition of human multidrug and toxin extrusion 1 is involved in the drug-drug interaction caused by cimetidine.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cimetidine is known to cause drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with organic cations in the kidney, and a previous clinical study showed that coadministration of cimetidine or probenecid with fexofenadine (FEX) decreased its renal clearance. FEX was taken up into human kidney by human organic anion transporter (hOAT) 3 (SLC22A8), but the mechanism of its luminal efflux has not been clarified. The present study examined the molecular mechanism of these DDIs. Saturable uptake of FEX was observed in human kidney slices, with K(m) and V(max) values of 157+/-7 microM and 418+/-16 nmol/15 min/g kidney, respectively. Cimetidine only slightly inhibited its uptake even at 100 microM, far greater than its clinically relevant concentration, whereas 10 microM probenecid markedly inhibited its uptake. As candidate transporters for the luminal efflux of FEX, we focused on human multidrug and toxin extrusions MATE1 (SLC47A1) and MATE2-K (SLC47A2). Saturable uptake of FEX could be observed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing human MATE1 (hMATE1), whereas hMATE2-K-specific uptake of FEX was too small to conduct its further kinetic analysis. The hMATE1-mediated uptake clearance of FEX was inhibited by cimetidine in a concentration-dependent manner, and it was decreased to 60% of the control value in the presence of 3 microM cimetidine. Taken together, our results suggest that the DDI of FEX with probenecid can be explained by the inhibition of renal uptake mediated by hOAT3, whereas the DDI with cimetidine is mainly caused by the inhibition of hMATE1-mediated efflux of FEX rather than the inhibition of its renal uptake process.
Related JoVE Video
Prediction of the hepatic and renal clearance of transporter substrates in rats using in vitro uptake experiments.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clearance route and the absolute values for hepatic and renal clearance of drugs are important criteria for the selection of drug candidates. Based on pharmacokinetic theory, by assuming that uptake is the rate-determining process for the biliary excretion of drugs, organ intrinsic clearance should be simply estimated by the intrinsic uptake. In this study, to investigate whether organ clearance can be predicted from the in vitro uptake activity, we performed uptake experiments using isolated hepatocytes and kidney slices, integration plot analyses, and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies using 12 barely metabolized drugs in rats. The in vivo hepatic and renal clearance could be approximated by uptake clearance estimated from integration plot analyses, except for the renal clearance of some drugs that was relatively small. The comparison of intrinsic uptake clearance from in vitro experiments and integration plot studies revealed that in vivo hepatic uptake was well explained by uptake into isolated hepatocytes, whereas in kidney, in vivo uptake clearance was 10 to 100 times that in kidney slices and a scaling factor is required for its prediction from in vitro experiments. The organ clearance and the fraction excreted into urine could be predicted from in vitro studies except for drugs whose renal clearance was relatively small. This study suggests that the uptake process is the determining factor for organ clearance of minimally metabolized drugs, and uptake assays using isolated hepatocytes and kidney slices are useful for evaluating the uptake clearance.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical outcome of high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a long-term single center experience.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report on the long-term clinical outcome of high-grade (G3) non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients treated at a single institution.
Related JoVE Video
Similar functional outcomes after partial nephrectomy for clinical T1b and T1a renal cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Urol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the medium-term functional outcomes of partial nephrectomy for clinical T1b renal cell carcinoma, and to compare them with those of radical nephrectomy for clinical T1b and with those of partial nephrectomy for clinical T1a tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Cytoreductive nephrectomy for pT3b-T4 M1 renal cell carcinoma in 39 patients: single center analysis.
Int. J. Urol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We reviewed cytoreductive nephrectomy for pT3b-T4 renal cell carcinoma with metastasis and evaluated the prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival. A total of 39 patients who underwent cytoreductive nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma with pathological T3b-T4 (2009 Union for International Cancer Control consensus) from 1986 to 2011 in our hospital were the participants in this study. Prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival were analyzed. The median patient age was 64 years (range 31-84). Pathological T3b, T3c and T4 were found in 24 (61%), one (3%) and 14 (36%) patients, respectively. The distribution of the histological type was clear cell type in 34 (87%), papillary type in two (5%) and any type of renal cell carcinoma with a sarcomatoid component in three patients (8%). The median overall and cancer-specific survival was 7.5 and 7.6 months, respectively. Low-grade performance status, regional lymph node metastasis, higher pT stage and histological type were prognostic factors for cancer-specific survival on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, lymph node metastasis, higher pT stage and histological type (non-clear cell or sarcomatoid component) were significant predictors for cancer-specific survival. With cytoreductive nephrectomy for patients with pT4, lymph node metastasis and non-clear cell histology, we have to be particularly careful in terms of cancer control.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Role of lymphadenectomy in the management of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and the upper urinary tract.
Int. J. Urol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of lymphadenectomy has been controversial in urological malignancies. Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and upper urinary tract has a high potential to spread through the lymphatic network compared with other malignancies, including renal cell carcinoma or prostate cancer. In urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, lymphadenectomy of pelvic nodes had been considered as the standard procedure when radical cystectomy was carried out. Recently, many investigators have examined the influence of its extent, and the majority of the studies have supported the beneficial role of extended lymphadenectomy in accurate staging or in improving patient survival. Although randomized controlled trials are required to establish a greater level of evidence, more urological surgeons have already noticed the necessity for extended lymphadenectomy in bladder cancer. In contrast to bladder cancer, there have been far fewer studies on urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. This might be because of the smaller number of the patients with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract and the lack of understanding of regional nodes. However, studies of lymph node mapping and the retrospective analyses with respect to the benefit of lymphadenectomy have been carried out in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract by some investigators, although the results are still controversial. However, the results from multi-institutional studies by high volume centers have supported the beneficial role of lymphadenectomy in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract, as it has been proposed in bladder cancer. Thus, lymphadenectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and the upper urinary tract might have a potential role in staging and improving the oncological outcomes.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.