JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
TOMM40 Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease Over a 2-Year Follow-Up Period.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously reported TOMM40 to be significantly down-regulated in whole blood of Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects at baseline and after one-year. In this longitudinal follow-up study of TOMM40 expression up to 2 years, we performed 6-monthly assessments for the first year and 2nd year blood sampling on 27 probable AD subjects compared with age- and gender-matched controls. TOMM40 gene expression remained significantly lower in AD patients at all time-points compared to controls, supported by confirmatory RT-PCR results. Our findings of consistently lower TOMM40 expression on longitudinal 2-year sampling support its potential role as a diagnostic blood AD biomarker.
Related JoVE Video
?/? T cell subsets in human aging using the classical ?/? T cell model.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aging is associated with an increased susceptibility to infections and diseases. It has also been associated with reduced functionality and altered distribution of immune cells, especially T cells. Whereas classical ?/? T cells, especially CD8(+) T cells, were shown to be highly susceptible to aging, the effects of viral persistent stimulations on the fate of ?/? T cells are much less documented. Healthy, elderly individuals of Chinese ethnical background were recruited under the aegis of SLAS-II. In this observational study, ?/? T cell populations were characterized by flow cytometry and compared with the ?/? CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in elderly and young controls. In our study, we identified a reduced frequency of ?/? T cells but not ?/? T cells with aging. The classical markers of ?/? T cell aging, including CD28, CD27, and CD57, did not prove significant for ?/? T cells. The extreme range of expression of these markers in ?/? T cells was responsible for the lack of relationship between ?/? T cell subsets, CD4/CD8 ratio, and anti-CMV titers that was significant for ?/? T cells and, especially, CD8(+) T cells. Although markers of aging for ?/? T cells are not clearly identified, our data collectively suggest that the presence of CD27 ?/? T cells is associated with markers of ?/? T cell aging.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic Utility of Montreal Cognitive Assessment in the Fifth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Major and Mild Neurocognitive Disorders.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) is a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. The new criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (DSM-5) mild neurocognitive disorder (NCD) define participants with cognitive decline but no dementia, and major NCD (dementia). We explored the usefulness of MOCA to detect major and mild NCD.
Related JoVE Video
Normative data for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status in elderly Chinese.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Asia will experience a surge in dementia prevalence within the next 20-40 years, but there is a dearth of well-normed neuropsychological tests that could assist with dementia diagnosis. Here, we report normative data for the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) in Elderly ethnic Chinese Singaporeans aged 55-91 years of age. A total of 1,165 male and female community-dwelling, cognitively normal elderly Chinese persons in Singapore, with varying levels of education and range of languages, were tested with the RBANS version A. The effects of age, education, language and gender on RBANS performance were examined. Negative effects of increased age and positive effects of education on the RBANS subtests, Index and Total Scale scores were found suggesting differential associations between age-related cognitive decline and education that vary according to the specific cognitive ability measured. The findings indicate that unique cultural and educational profile of elderly Chinese should be considered when applying the RBANS in this population.
Related JoVE Video
Iron deficiency in a multi-ethnic Asian population with and without heart failure: prevalence, clinical correlates, functional significance and prognosis.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current heart failure (HF) guidelines highlight the importance of iron deficiency (ID) in HF. Whether HF itself or age-related comorbidities contribute to ID is uncertain, and previous data were limited to Western populations. We aimed to study the prevalence, clinical correlates, functional significance and prognosis of ID in HF patients, compared with community-based controls in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian population.
Related JoVE Video
Unconditional and Conditional Standards Using Cognitive Function Curves for the Modified Mini-Mental State Exam: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses in Older Chinese Adults in Singapore.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The conventional practice of assessing cognitive status and monitoring change over time in older adults using normative values of the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) based on age bands is imprecise. Moreover, population-based normative data on changes in MMSE score over time are scarce and crude because they do not include age- and education-specific norms. This study aims to develop unconditional standards for assessing current cognitive status and conditional standards that take prior MMSE score into account for assessing longitudinal change, with percentile curves as smooth functions of age.
Related JoVE Video
Coexisting medical comorbidity and depression: multiplicative effects on health outcomes in older adults.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Depression in the elderly is often associated with coexisting medical illnesses. We investigated the individual and combined impacts of depression and medical illnesses on disability and quality of life among community-living older persons.
Related JoVE Video
The influence of education on Chinese version of Montreal cognitive assessment in detecting amnesic mild cognitive impairment among older people in a Beijing rural community.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the influence of education on the performance of Chinese version of Montreal cognitive assessment (C-MoCA) in relation to the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) in detecting amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) among rural-dwelling older people C-MoCA and MMSE was administered and diagnostic interviews were conducted among community-dwelling elderly in two villages in Beijing. The performance of C-MoCA and MMSE in detecting aMCI was evaluated by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Effect size of education on variations in C-MoCA scores was estimated with general linear model. Among 172 study participants (24 cases of aMCI and 148 normal controls), the AUC of C-MoCA was 0.72 (95% CI = 0.62-0.81, cutoff = 20/21), compared to AUC of MMSE of 0.74 (95% CI = 0.64-0.84, cutoff = 26/27). The performance of both C-MoCA and MMSE was especially poorer among those with low (0-6 years) education. After controlling for gender and age, education ( ?(2) = 0.204) had a surpassing effect over aMCI diagnosis ( ?(2) = 0.052) on variations in C-MoCA scores. Among rural older people, the MoCA showed modest accuracy and was no better than MMSE in detecting aMCI, especially in those with low education, due to the overwhelming effect of education relative to aMCI diagnosis on variations in C-MoCA performance.
Related JoVE Video
Frailty in older persons: multisystem risk factors and the Frailty Risk Index (FRI).
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Currently there is no risk factor scale that identifies older persons at risk of frailty.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term metformin usage and cognitive function among older adults with diabetes.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidence strongly supports the important role of insulin resistance in cognitive decline and dementia and suggests that insulin sensitizers may protect against cognitive decline in diabetic and pre-diabetic individuals. Inconclusive results have been reported in clinical trials of rosiglitazone, an insulin sensitizer that also increases cardiovascular mortality risks. No study has yet reported a protective cognitive effect of metformin, an insulin-sensitizing biguanide widely used in diabetic patients. We studied 365 older persons aged 55 and over in the population-based Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study with diabetes who were followed up over 4 years. The odds ratios (OR) of association of metformin use (n = 204) versus non-use (n = 161) with cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Exam ? 23), and by duration: up to 6 years (n = 114) and more than 6 years (n = 90) were evaluated in cross-sectional and longitudinal multivariate analyses. Controlling for age, education, diabetes duration, fasting blood glucose, vascular and non-vascular risk factors, metformin use showed a significant inverse association with cognitive impairment in longitudinal analysis (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.25-0.95). Metformin use showed significant linear trends of association across duration of use in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses (p = 0.018 and p = 0.002, respectively), with use for more than 6 years significantly associated with lowest risk of cognitive impairment in both cross-sectional analysis (OR = 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.80) and in longitudinal analysis (OR = 0.27, 95% CI 0.12-0.60). No significant interactive effects of metformin use with APOE-?4, depression, or fasting glucose level were observed. Among individuals with diabetes, long-term treatment with metformin may reduce the risk of cognitive decline. Further studies should establish the role of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, and the protective role of metformin in the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
Related JoVE Video
Psychiatric comorbidities in Asian adolescent asthma patients and the contributions of neuroticism and perceived stress.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Psychiatric comorbidity is reported to be common among adolescents with asthma, but little is known about its underlying psychological factors.
Related JoVE Video
A review of roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Since its introduction in 1995, nanoimprint lithography has been demonstrated in many researches as a simple, low-cost, and high-throughput process for replicating micro- and nanoscale patterns. Due to its advantages, the nanoimprint lithography method has been rapidly developed over the years as a promising alternative to conventional nanolithography processes to fulfill the demands generated from the recent developments in the semiconductor and flexible electronics industries, which results in variations of the process. Roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is the most demanded technique due to its high-throughput fulfilling industrial-scale application. In the present work, a general literature review on the various types of nanoimprint lithography processes especially R2R NIL and the methods commonly adapted to fabricate imprint molds are presented to provide a clear view and understanding on the nanoimprint lithography technique as well as its recent developments.
Related JoVE Video
Integrated care pathway for hip fractures in a subacute rehabilitation setting.
Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Introduction: The effectiveness of integrated care pathways for hip fractures in subacute rehabilitation settings is not known. The study objective was to assess if a hip fracture integrated care pathway at a subacute rehabilitation facility would result in better functional outcomes, shorter length of stay and fewer institutionalisations. Materials and Methods: A randomised controlled trial on an integrated care pathway for hip fracture patients in a subacute rehabilitation setting. Modifi ed Barthel Index, ambulatory status, SF-12, length of stay, discharge destination, hospital readmission and mortality were measured. Followup assessments were up to 1 year post-hip fracture. Results: There were no significant differences in Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Scores and proportions achieving premorbid ambulatory status at discharge, 6 months and 12 months respectively. There was a significant reduction in the median length of stay between the control group at 48.0 days and the intervention group at 35.0 days (P = 0.009). The proportion of readmissions to acute hospitals was similar in both groups up to 1 year. There were no significant differences for nursing home stay up to 1 year post-discharge and mortality at 1 year. Conclusion: Our study supports the use of integrated care pathways in subacute rehabilitation settings to reduce length of stay whilst achieving the same functional gains.
Related JoVE Video
COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium): An international consortium to identify risk and protective factors and biomarkers of cognitive ageing and dementia in diverse ethnic and sociocultural groups.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A large number of longitudinal studies of population-based ageing cohorts are in progress internationally, but the insights from these studies into the risk and protective factors for cognitive ageing and conditions like mild cognitive impairment and dementia have been inconsistent. Some of the problems confounding this research can be reduced by harmonising and pooling data across studies. COSMIC (Cohort Studies of Memory in an International Consortium) aims to harmonise data from international cohort studies of cognitive ageing, in order to better understand the determinants of cognitive ageing and neurocognitive disorders.Methods/design: Longitudinal studies of cognitive ageing and dementia with at least 500 individuals aged 60 years or over are eligible and invited to be members of COSMIC. There are currently 17 member studies, from regions that include Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. A Research Steering Committee has been established, two meetings of study leaders held, and a website developed. The initial attempts at harmonising key variables like neuropsychological test scores are in progress.
Related JoVE Video
Tea consumption and mortality in the oldest-old Chinese.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the association between tea consumption and mortality in the oldest-old Chinese.
Related JoVE Video
Tea consumption and depressive symptoms in older people in rural China.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the association between tea consumption and depressive symptoms in Chinese older people and to explore the mediating role of cerebrovascular disease in the association.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary and supplemental antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrient intakes and pulmonary function.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A limited but growing body of evidence supports a significant role of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory micronutrients in pulmonary health. We investigated the associations of dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamins A, C, E and D, Se and n-3 PUFA with pulmonary function in a population-based study.
Related JoVE Video
Frailty predicts new and persistent depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults: findings from singapore longitudinal aging study.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between physical frailty at baseline and depressive symptoms at baseline and at follow-up.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in community dwelling Chinese: findings from the Shanghai three districts study.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies of the prevalence and risk factors for behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) have primarily been conducted in nursing home and clinic populations. Few population-based studies have been conducted in community-living persons with dementia.
Related JoVE Video
Reliability and Validity of a Self-rated Analogue Scale for Global Measure of Successful Aging.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dimension-specific objective measures are criticized for their limited perspective and failure to endorse subjective perceptions by respondents, but the validity and correlates of a subjective global measure of successful aging (SA) are still not well established. We evaluated the reliability and validity of a self-rated analogue scale of global SA in an elderly Singaporean population.
Related JoVE Video
Systemic inflammation, depression and obstructive pulmonary function: a population-based study.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-creative protein (CRP) indicating systemic inflammation are known to be elevated in chronic diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and depression. Comorbid depression is common in patients with COPD, but no studies have investigated whether proinflammatory cytokines mediate the association between pulmonary function and depressive symptoms in healthy individuals with no known history of obstructive pulmonary diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between elevated homocysteine, cognitive impairment, and reduced white matter volume in healthy old adults.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elevated homocysteine has emerged as a risk factor for cognitive impairment even in healthy elderly persons. Reduced brain volume and white matter hyperintensities also occur in healthy elderly as well, but the interrelationships between these have not been well studied. We report these interrelationships in non demented, relatively healthy, community-dwelling older adults from a single East Asian population.
Related JoVE Video
Depressive symptoms in older adults with chronic kidney disease: mortality, quality of life outcomes, and correlates.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), we investigated the prevalence of depressive symptoms, their impact on mortality and quality of life, and correlates of depressive symptoms.
Related JoVE Video
Asthma, life events and psychiatric disorders: a population-based study.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although asthma and other chronic physical conditions have been shown to be associated with psychiatric symptoms, the relative contributions of negative life events to this association and impaired quality of life (QOL) are not clear.
Related JoVE Video
Reliability and Validity of the Clinical Dementia Rating for Community-Living Elderly Subjects without an Informant.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Dis Extra
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale is widely used to assess cognitive impairment in Alzheimers disease. It requires collateral information from a reliable informant who is not available in many instances. We adapted the original CDR scale for use with elderly subjects without an informant (CDR-NI) and evaluated its reliability and validity for assessing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among community-dwelling elderly subjects.
Related JoVE Video
A brain-computer interface based cognitive training system for healthy elderly: a randomized control pilot study for usability and preliminary efficacy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cognitive decline in aging is a pressing issue associated with significant healthcare costs and deterioration in quality of life. Previously, we reported the successful use of a novel brain-computer interface (BCI) training system in improving symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Here, we examine the feasibility of the BCI system with a new game that incorporates memory training in improving memory and attention in a pilot sample of healthy elderly. This study investigates the safety, usability and acceptability of our BCI system to elderly, and obtains an efficacy estimate to warrant a phase III trial. Thirty-one healthy elderly were randomized into intervention (n?=?15) and waitlist control arms (n?=?16). Intervention consisted of an 8-week training comprising 24 half-hour sessions. A usability and acceptability questionnaire was administered at the end of training. Safety was investigated by querying users about adverse events after every session. Efficacy of the system was measured by the change of total score from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) before and after training. Feedback on the usability and acceptability questionnaire was positive. No adverse events were reported for all participants across all sessions. Though the median difference in the RBANS change scores between arms was not statistically significant, an effect size of 0.6SD was obtained, which reflects potential clinical utility according to Simons randomized phase II trial design. Pooled data from both arms also showed that the median change in total scores pre and post-training was statistically significant (Mdn?=?4.0; p<0.001). Specifically, there were significant improvements in immediate memory (p?=?0.038), visuospatial/constructional (p?=?0.014), attention (p?=?0.039), and delayed memory (p<0.001) scores. Our BCI-based system shows promise in improving memory and attention in healthy elderly, and appears to be safe, user-friendly and acceptable to senior users. Given the efficacy signal, a phase III trial is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Anxiety and depression, chronic physical conditions, and quality of life in an urban population sample study.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
No previous studies have empirically demonstrated a multiplicative interactive effect of anxiety disorders and/or depression (ADD) and chronic medical conditions on quality of life (QOL). We hypothesized that QOL impairment was worsened by the presence of ADD and medical co-morbidity, more than when it was with either medical co-morbidity alone or ADD alone.
Related JoVE Video
Physical Health and Cognitive Function Independently Contributed to Functional Disability among Chinese Older Adults: Data from Two Asian Metropolises.
J Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective. We aimed to examine the independent contributions of physical health and cognitive function to disability among Chinese older adults living in two Asian metropolises and explore the potential influences of environment. Design and Participants. Cross-sectional analysis based on data from two population-based studies: the Shanghai Survey of Alzheimers Disease and Dementia (n = 4639) and the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study (n = 2397). Disability was defined as needing help in at least one activity of daily living. Results. The prevalence of functional disability was higher in Shanghai sample (5%) than that in Singapore sample (1.8%). Number of chronic diseases, self-rated health status, cognitive function (measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination), and environment (Singapore versus Shanghai) significantly contributed to functional disability independent of each other. The adjusted Odds Ratio was 1.35 (95%CI 1.22-1.50), 2.85 (95% CI 2.36-3.43), 0.89 (95% CI 0.85-0.94), and 0.68 (95% CI 0.48-0.96), respectively. The strength of associations between health variables and disability appeared to be influenced by environment. Conclusion. Physical health and cognitive function independently contributed to functional disability. The associations are modulated by environmental factors.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of a brief seven-item response bias-free geriatric depression scale.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Shortened versions of various depression scales have typically been based on conventional techniques such as factor analysis, without simultaneously considering the removal of culturally biased items that show differential item functioning (DIF). The authors recently showed that eight items in the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) evidenced DIF, associated with gender, age, ethnicity, and chronic illnesses. By selecting out these items, the authors derived a shortened 7-item GDS and compared it with derivations based on conventional factor analysis and logistic regression techniques and validated its test performance in Asian elderly.
Related JoVE Video
Adjunctive benzodiazepine treatment of hospitalized schizophrenia patients in Asia from 2001 to 2008.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed to patients with schizophrenia in many countries, but as little is known about such treatment in Asia, we evaluated their adjunctive use for 6761 in-patients diagnosed with schizophrenia in nine Asian countries using a cross-sectional study design in 2001, 2004 and 2008. Multivariate logistic regression and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess predictors of benzodiazepine use and dose, respectively. Overall, 54% of the patients received adjunctive benzodiazepines at an average daily dose equivalent to 30.3 mg diazepam, with minor changes over the years sampled. Benzodiazepine use was highest in Taiwan and Japan, lowest in Thailand and China, and was associated with fewer years ill, presence of delusions (OR 1.24), hallucinations (OR 1.22), disorganized speech (OR 1.17), social or occupational dysfunction (OR 1.16), and use of mood stabilizers (OR 3.15), antiparkinsonian (OR 1.79) or antidepressant drugs (OR 1.33), and lower doses of antipsychotics (all p=0.016 to <0.001). Benzodiazepine doses were highest in Taiwan and China, lowest in Korea and Singapore; higher doses were associated with being young, male, physically aggressive, receiving mood stabilizers, and having electroconvulsive treatment (all p=0.019 to <0.001). Benzodiazepine use was associated with neurological and systemic adverse effects. In conclusion, benzodiazepine use was common in Asian patients with schizophrenia. Predictors of benzodiazepine use and dose differed in this population. Critical clinical guidelines should be developed specifically for Asian countries to address sound practices in regard to use of benzodiazepines for psychotic disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements and cognitive decline: Singapore Longitudinal Aging Studies.
J Nutr Health Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the association between long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplements intake and cognitive decline in an older Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
Religion, health beliefs and the use of mental health services by the elderly.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have investigated whether elderly people of particular religious affiliations were more or less likely to seek treatment for mental illness, and whether it was related to their health beliefs.
Related JoVE Video
Statin use and depressive symptoms in a prospective study of community-living older persons.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association between statin use and depression is complex, and research findings have been mixed. The present study aimed to investigate the association of statin use with depressive symptoms among community-living older persons, and its effect modifications by gender and medical co-morbidity.
Related JoVE Video
Cross-cultural application of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS): performances of elderly Chinese Singaporeans.
Clin Neuropsychol
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is a paucity of normative studies outside of North America and on elderly populations with very low education level. In the present study we examined the performance of poorly educated elderly on the Repeatable Battery Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) with 352 cognitively normal elderly Chinese persons living in the community in Singapore who were enrolled in the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study (SLAS). Those with no formal education performed significantly less well than those with some years of formal education across four of five RBANS indices as well as the Total Scale score. Age- and education-adjusted normative data for the RBANS were established for the sample. The means and standard deviations of each of 12 subtests raw scores, five Index scores and the Total Scale score were calculated and stratified by age and education. Data from the present study should considerably advance the clinical utility of the RBANS in Chinese geriatric evaluations in Singapore, and can serve as a reference source for poorly educated elderly Chinese from around the region and beyond.
Related JoVE Video
Low blood pressure and depressive symptoms among Chinese older subjects: a population-based study.
Am. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationships between blood pressure and depression are unclear. There are inconsistent reports of an association between low blood pressure and depressive symptoms.
Related JoVE Video
Use of complementary and alternative medicines and mental disorders in community-living Asian older adults.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) and its link with mental health is poorly understood. It is not clear whether mentally ill persons use CAM because conventional medical care does not meet their needs. In a nationally representative random sample of 1092 individuals aged 60 in Singapore, we determined CAM use and the prevalence of mental disorders using Geriatric Mental State (GMS) and found that overall CAM use, predominantly Chinese herbal medicines, was reported by an estimated 42.7% of the population. Depression (odds ratio=OR=1.94; 95% CI=1.26-2.98) and poor self-rated mental health (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.25-4.80) were associated with CAM use, independently of other risks factors and correlates of CAM use. Although depressed Asians more frequently used CAM than conventional health care, we could find no evidence in this study to indicate that among individuals with depression, CAM users compared to nonusers, were less likely to seek treatment from general and mental health professionals or were more likely to have negative beliefs and attitudes about mental illnesses and its treatment. This is consistent with the common observation that the use of CAM complements rather than replaces conventional treatments.
Related JoVE Video
Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards pandemic influenza among cases, close contacts, and healthcare workers in tropical Singapore: a cross-sectional survey.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing behavioral changes. We aim to determine the differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices in various different cohorts and explore the pertinent factors that influenced behavior in tropical Singapore.
Related JoVE Video
Adequacy of psychiatric training: a Singaporean perspective.
Acad Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The specialty training program for psychiatry in Singapore is transitioning to a seamless 5-year training program. It is timely to assess the perceived adequacy of current psychiatric specialty training.
Related JoVE Video
Ethnic variations in dementia: the contributions of cardiovascular, psychosocial and neuropsychological factors.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ethnic variations in dementia rate have been reported worldwide. Understanding these differences is vital for aetiological research, clinical care and health service planning. While age and gender have been consistently implicated, the reasons behind interethnic variation remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Comorbid cognitive impairment and depression is a significant predictor of poor outcomes in hip fracture rehabilitation.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effects of depression and cognitive impairment on hip fracture rehabilitation outcomes are not well established. We aimed to evaluate the associations of depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment (individually and combined) with ambulatory, living activities and quality of life outcomes in hip fracture rehabilitation patients.
Related JoVE Video
Somatic and non-affective symptoms of old age depression: ethnic differences among Chinese, Indians and Malays.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Somatic and other non-affective symptomatology characterizes late life depression and contributes to its under-diagnosis, especially in some ethnic groups.
Related JoVE Video
Folate, vitamin B12, homocysteine, and depressive symptoms in a population sample of older Chinese adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the independent associations between folate, B12, and homocysteine levels and depressive symptoms in older adults.
Related JoVE Video
Criterion-based validity and reliability of the Geriatric Depression Screening Scale (GDS-15) in a large validation sample of community-living Asian older adults.
Aging Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have evaluated the validation of 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in a heterogeneous population with different age, ethnicity and comorbidities of elderly users of social services in the community.
Related JoVE Video
Continued work employment and volunteerism and mental well-being of older adults: Singapore longitudinal ageing studies.
Age Ageing
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
to examine the effect of late life engagement in continued work involvement or volunteer activities during retirement on mental well-being.
Related JoVE Video
Y-Box-binding protein-1 is a promising predictive marker of radioresistance and chemoradioresistance in nasopharyngeal cancer.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Y-Box-binding protein-1, a member of the cold-shock domain DNA- and RNA-binding protein superfamily, is known to mediate chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Y-Box-binding protein-1 in nasopharyngeal cancer in vitro and in tumor tissue samples as well as analyze the clinicopathological significance of Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression in nasopharyngeal cancer, in particular as a predictor of outcome after treatment. The Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression profile was evaluated at the mRNA and protein levels in poorly differentiated CNE-2 nasopharyngeal cancer cells by real-time RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression in 143 nasopharyngeal cancer specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathologic parameters. Y-Box-binding protein-1 mRNA and protein were found to be expressed in CNE-2 nasopharyngeal cancer cells in vitro. Of 143 patient tissue sections, 137 (96%) were stained positive for the Y-Box-binding protein-1 protein. Y-Box-binding protein-1 immunostaining was observed to be predominantly cytoplasmic. A higher recurrence of nasopharyngeal cancer was found in patients whose tissues had increased Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression (P<0.001). The Cox proportionate hazard regression model also established that high Y-Box-binding protein-1 immunoreactivity was significantly correlated with increased risk (2.13 times) of recurrence as compared to low Y-Box-binding protein-1 immunoreactivity (P=0.01). Within groups of patients treated by radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, recurrent cases had significantly higher Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression than nonrecurrent cases (P<0.001 and P=0.0035, respectively). These data suggest that Y-Box-binding protein-1 expression has clinicopathological significance with potential as a predictive marker of recurrence in nasopharyngeal cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Determinants of successful aging using a multidimensional definition among Chinese elderly in Singapore.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most studies of successful aging have used restricted definitions based on the absence of disability and identified a small number of predictors. The authors aimed to examine whether a broad multidimensional definition of successful aging has good construct validity and identified a wider range of predictors that are relevant for multifaceted interventions.
Related JoVE Video
Depressive symptoms and incident cognitive impairment in cognitively well-functioning older men and women.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate whether the effect of depressive symptoms on the risk of cognitive decline and incident cognitive impairment (CI) in cognitively well-functioning older persons differed between men and women and whether sex differences in cerebrovascular factors might explain this.
Related JoVE Video
Depressive symptoms, physician visits and hospitalization among community-dwelling older adults.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationship between depressive symptoms and health service use among older people is not well understood. In this study we examined the two-way relationships between depressive symptoms and hospitalization and/or physician visits by older adults.
Related JoVE Video
Improving treatment access and primary care referrals for depression in a national community-based outreach programme for the elderly.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mental illness is highly prevalent and disabling, but is under-treated. Outreach services attempt to overcome system and personal barriers to care, but there are few reports of their effects in improving access and use of mental health services. In the Community-based Early Psychiatric Interventional Strategy (CEPIS) programme in Singapore, community nurses routinely screened seniors for depressive symptoms, and provided psychoeducation and referral for primary care treatment. We evaluated the impact of the outreach programme and the extent to which determinants of treatment-seeking were altered by removing socioeconomic, physical and cognitive barriers to care.
Related JoVE Video
Albumin, apolipoprotein E-epsilon4 and cognitive decline in community-dwelling Chinese older adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the association between serum albumin and cognitive impairment and decline in community-living older adults.
Related JoVE Video
Vitamin B-12, apolipoprotein E genotype, and cognitive performance in community-living older adults: evidence of a gene-micronutrient interaction.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relation between vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in older adults is unclear. Limited evidence suggests that the relation is modulated by apolipoprotein E epsilon4. Hence, it is important to further examine this gene-nutrient interaction.
Related JoVE Video
APOE-epsilon4, depressive symptoms, and cognitive decline in Chinese older adults: Singapore Longitudinal Aging Studies.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The precise relationship between depression and cognitive decline in older adults is unclear. We investigated the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE)-epsilon4 genotype in modulating the effect of depressive symptoms on cognitive decline.
Related JoVE Video
Cognitive function and brain structure correlations in healthy elderly East Asians.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the effect of age and health variables known to modulate cognitive aging on several measures of cognitive performance and brain volume in a cohort of healthy, non-demented persons of Chinese descent aged between 55 and 86 years. 248 subjects contributed combined neuropsychological, MR imaging, health and socio-demographic information. Speed of processing showed the largest age-related decline. Education and plasma homocysteine levels modulated age-related decline in cognitive performance. Total cerebral volume declined at an annual rate of 0.4%/yr. Gray and white matter volume loss was comparable in magnitude. Regionally, there was relatively greater volume loss in the lateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally, around the primary visual cortex as well as bilateral superior parietal cortices. Speed of processing showed significant positive correlation with gray matter volume in several frontal, parietal and midline occipital regions bilaterally. In spite of differences in diet, lifestyle and culture, these findings are broadly comparable to studies conducted in Caucasian populations and suggest generalizability of processes involved in age-related decline in cognition and brain volume.
Related JoVE Video
Determinants of mental health service use in the national mental health survey of the elderly in Singapore.
Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite high prevalence of mental health problems, only a minority of elderly people seek treatment. Although need-for-care factors are primary determinants of mental health service use, personal predisposing or enabling factors including health beliefs are important but are not well studied.
Related JoVE Video
Trends in COPD mortality and hospitalizations in countries and regions of Asia-Pacific.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The growing burden of COPD in the Asia-Pacific region supports the need for more intensive research and analysis of the epidemiology of COPD to raise awareness of the disease and its causes, to ensure the development of effective national health policies and to facilitate equitable deployment of finite health-care resources in the prevention and management of COPD. This study estimated and compared COPD mortality and hospital morbidity rates and trends in these rates over time across countries and regions of Asia-Pacific.
Related JoVE Video
Co-morbid association of depression and COPD: a population-based study.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Depression occurs commonly among patients with COPD, but the independent association of depression and COPD and the effect of depression on COPD outcomes are not well established.
Related JoVE Video
Curcumins-rich curry diet and pulmonary function in Asian older adults.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Research on the effects of dietary nutrients on respiratory health in human populations have not investigated curcumin, a potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compound present principally in turmeric used in large amounts in Asian curry meals.
Related JoVE Video
The peripheral messenger RNA expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3? genes in Alzheimers disease patients: a preliminary study.
Psychogeriatrics
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the peripheral leucocytic messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) gene in Alzheimers disease (AD) patients.
Related JoVE Video
Life event stress and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): associations with mental well-being and quality of life in a population-based study.
BMJ Open
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate whether life event stress was associated with greater psychological distress and poorer quality of life in older individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), in comparison with their counterparts without COPD.
Related JoVE Video
Homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12, and physical function in older adults: cross-sectional findings from the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is a paucity of studies, as well as inconsistent findings, on the associations of homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B-12 with physical function and decline in older persons.
Related JoVE Video
Does inflammation determine whether obesity is metabolically healthy or unhealthy? The aging perspective.
Mediators Inflamm.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity is a major health issue in developed as well as developing countries. While obesity is associated with relatively good health status in some individuals, it may become a health issue for others. Obesity in the context of inflammation has been studied extensively. However, whether obesity in its various forms has the same adverse effects is a matter of debate and requires further research. During its natural history, metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) converts into metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO). What causes this transition to occur and what is the role of obesity-related mediators of inflammation during this transition is discussed in this paper.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents with asthma: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It remains unclear whether anxiety and depressive symptoms are more prevalent in adolescents with asthma when compared with healthy individuals. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the difference in the aggregate prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms between adolescents with asthma and healthy controls and to explore the underlying moderators that potentially explain the heterogeneity of the effect size. A meta-analysis of published work was performed using the random effects model. The differences in aggregate prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms between adolescents with asthma and healthy controls were determined. Meta-regression and subgroup analysis were performed to identify factors that may contribute to heterogeneity. A total of eight studies were eligible for analysis. The aggregate prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms was significantly higher among 3546 adolescents with asthma than that of 24,884 controls (depression, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.18.6-0.39 vs. 0.13; 95% CI, 0.09-0.19; anxiety, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.19-0.52 vs. 0.21; 95% CI, 0.12-0.33). The risk of developing depression and anxiety is significantly higher among adolescents with asthma when compared with controls (depression: pooled odds ratio, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.65-2.64; p < 0.001; anxiety: pooled odds ratio, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.63-2.07; p < 0.001). Meta-regression revealed that the proportions of Caucasian (p = 0.008) and smokers (p < 0.001) were significant moderators which explained the significant heterogeneity when comparing the risk of developing depressive symptoms among adolescent asthma patients vs. controls while age, gender, and severity of asthma were not significant. Family doctors, pediatricians, and healthcare providers should formulate strategies to detect depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescents with asthma and offer psychological interventions to reduce the burden of psychiatric comorbidity.
Related JoVE Video
Pulmonary function and cognitive decline in an older Chinese population in Singapore.
COPD
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Various cognitive deficits associated with reduced pulmonary function are reported in different studies, but the pattern of cognitive deficits across multiple domains and its associated everyday functional disability remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination test: normative data for Singapore Chinese older adults and its performance in detecting early cognitive impairment.
Singapore Med J
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to determine the stratified normative data by age and education for a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) test from a large sample of community-dwelling Chinese older adults in Singapore, and to examine the MMSEs value in detecting early cognitive impairment.
Related JoVE Video
Kidney function and cognitive and functional decline in elderly adults: findings from the Singapore longitudinal aging study.
J Am Geriatr Soc
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate whether lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with subsequent cognitive and instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) decline in a prospective cohort study.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in depressive symptoms and functional disability among community-dwelling depressive older adults.
Int Psychogeriatr
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have shown that the presence of depressive symptoms among older persons was evidently associated with subsequent physical and functional decline. However, few studies have directly examined the impact of changes in depressive symptoms or depressed mood on changes in functional ability. The present prospective study examined whether changes in the levels and remission of depressive symptoms were associated with changes in functional ability among community-living older persons who were treated for depressive symptoms in a primary care setting.
Related JoVE Video
Downregulation of TOMM40 expression in the blood of Alzheimer disease subjects compared with matched controls.
J Psychiatr Res
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (TOMM40) gene has been reported in several GWAS to be associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). Gene expression studies thus far only showed TOMM40 differential expression in one study on brain cortex and not in peripheral blood. We studied the gene expression profiles of AD blood versus controls in an Asian population in Singapore. In this first analysis we focused on genes that have been previously reported on GWAS. We found TOMM40 to be significantly down-regulated in blood samples of AD in one discovery and two validation sets, totalling 45 subjects (mean age 76.90, SD 6.46) and 45 controls (mean age 76.23, SD 5.09), matched for ethnicity and gender. The function of TOMM40 is not yet fully characterized but is believed to be involved in import and trafficking of protein into mitochondria. Therefore TOMM40 downregulation, found in the brain in severe AD and in our blood profile, may be a potential marker for AD, disease severity or progression and merit further investigation.
Related JoVE Video
Symposium on nutrition and cognition: towards research and application for different life stages.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A SYMPOSIUM ON NUTRITION AND COGNITION: Towards research and application for different life stages was held on October 2010 in Malaysia. The influence of diet and nutrition on the cognitive development of the child and on cognitive decline in later life was reviewed. Central to the study of such topics is the assessment of cognitive functioning. Cognitive functioning falls into six main areas: executive functioning, memory, attention, perception, psychomotor and language skills, although each domain can be further subdivided. As it is in the nature of human functioning that the performance on any cognitive test can reflect aspects of many of these domains, ideally a battery of tests should be used to establish the basis of any difference in performance. In intervention studies, frequently there has been a failure to demonstrate a beneficial influence of changes in diet. A possible reason is that studies have failed to acknowledge the time scale and critical ages over which diet has an impact. Diet may have a slow and progressive influence making it difficult for short-term studies to show an improvement. In addition, as many factors influence human behaviour, dietary interventions should only be one part of a coordinated approach; the effect of diet will depend on the social and psychological context in which an individual lives. Placing diet into a broader social and psychological context greatly increases the chance of generating significant findings. This report highlights and reviews presentations and discussions at the symposium.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of duration, participation rate, and supervision during community rehabilitation on functional outcomes in the first poststroke year in Singapore.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the effect of duration, participation rate, and supervision during community rehabilitation on functional outcome during the first poststroke year.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.