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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sex-related differences of acute stroke unit care: results from the Austrian stroke unit registry.
Womens Health (Lond Engl)
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Evaluation of: Gattringer T, Ferrari J, Knoflach M et al. Sex-related differences of acute stroke unit care results from an Austrian stroke unit registry. Stroke 45, 1632-1638 (2014). The authors analyzed data from 47,209 patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack from January 2005 to December 2012. In this study, epidemiological data, stroke type, diagnostics and clinical scores were analyzed for age-adjusted preclinical and clinical characteristics as well as quality of acute stroke care. Moreover, outcome at 3 months was included in a multivariate model corrected for demographic and clinical confounders. While there were no reported sex differences in stroke care and thrombolysis rates, males more often received magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans. From follow-up data, a worse functional outcome was observed for females in univariate and multivariate analysis. In fact, females were less likely to be prescribed statins and more likely to receive antiplatelet therapy. As a stroke risk factor, a higher rate of atrial fibrillation was observed in females.
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Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.
Haidong Wang, Chelsea A Liddell, Matthew M Coates, Meghan D Mooney, Carly E Levitz, Austin E Schumacher, Henry Apfel, Marissa Iannarone, Bryan Phillips, Katherine T Lofgren, Logan Sandar, Rob E Dorrington, Ivo Rakovac, Troy A Jacobs, Xiaofeng Liang, Maigeng Zhou, Jun Zhu, Gonghuan Yang, Yanping Wang, Shiwei Liu, Yichong Li, Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Semaw Ferede Abera, Ibrahim Abubakar, Tom Achoki, Ademola Adelekan, Zanfina Ademi, Zewdie Aderaw Alemu, Peter J Allen, Mohammad AbdulAziz AlMazroa, Elena Alvarez, Adansi A Amankwaa, Azmeraw T Amare, Walid Ammar, Palwasha Anwari, Solveig Argeseanu Cunningham, Majed Masoud Asad, Reza Assadi, Amitava Banerjee, Sanjay Basu, Neeraj Bedi, Tolesa Bekele, Michelle L Bell, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Jed D Blore, Berrak Bora Basara, Soufiane Boufous, Nicholas Breitborde, Nigel G Bruce, Linh Ngoc Bui, Jonathan R Carapetis, Rosario Cárdenas, David O Carpenter, Valeria Caso, Ruben Estanislao Castro, Ferrán Catalá-López, Alanur Cavlin, Xuan Che, Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang, Rajiv Chowdhury, Costas A Christophi, Ting-Wu Chuang, Massimo Cirillo, Iuri da Costa Leite, Karen J Courville, Lalit Dandona, Rakhi Dandona, Adrian Davis, Anand Dayama, Kebede Deribe, Samath D Dharmaratne, Mukesh K Dherani, Ugur Dilmen, Eric L Ding, Karen M Edmond, Sergei Petrovich Ermakov, Farshad Farzadfar, Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Daniel Obadare Fijabi, Nataliya Foigt, Mohammad H Forouzanfar, Ana C Garcia, Johanna M Geleijnse, Bradford D Gessner, Ketevan Goginashvili, Philimon Gona, Atsushi Goto, Hebe N Gouda, Mark A Green, Karen Fern Greenwell, Harish Chander Gugnani, Rahul Gupta, Randah Ribhi Hamadeh, Mouhanad Hammami, Hilda L Harb, Simon Hay, Mohammad T Hedayati, H Dean Hosgood, Damian G Hoy, Bulat T Idrisov, Farhad Islami, Samaya Ismayilova, Vivekanand Jha, Guohong Jiang, Jost B Jonas, Knud Juel, Edmond Kato Kabagambe, Dhruv S Kazi, André Pascal Kengne, Maia Kereselidze, Yousef Saleh Khader, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan Khalifa, Young-Ho Khang, Daniel Kim, Yohannes Kinfu, Jonas M Kinge, Yoshihiro Kokubo, Soewarta Kosen, Barthélemy Kuate Defo, G Anil Kumar, Kaushalendra Kumar, Ravi B Kumar, Taavi Lai, Qing Lan, Anders Larsson, Jong-Tae Lee, Mall Leinsalu, Stephen S Lim, Steven E Lipshultz, Giancarlo Logroscino, Paulo A Lotufo, Raimundas Lunevicius, Ronan Anthony Lyons, Stefan Ma, Abbas Ali Mahdi, Melvin Barrientos Marzan, Mohammad Taufiq Mashal, Tasara T Mazorodze, John J McGrath, Ziad A Memish, Walter Mendoza, George A Mensah, Atte Meretoja, Ted R Miller, Edward J Mills, Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad, Ali H Mokdad, Lorenzo Monasta, Marcella Montico, Ami R Moore, Joanna Moschandreas, William T Msemburi, Ulrich O Mueller, Magdalena M Muszyńska, Mohsen Naghavi, Kovin S Naidoo, K M Venkat Narayan, Chakib Nejjari, Marie Ng, Jean de Dieu Ngirabega, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Luke Nyakarahuka, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Saad B Omer, Angel J Paternina Caicedo, Victoria Pillay-van Wyk, Dan Pope, Farshad Pourmalek, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Sajjad U R Rahman, Saleem M Rana, Robert Quentin Reilly, David Rojas-Rueda, Luca Ronfani, Lesley Rushton, Mohammad Yahya Saeedi, Joshua A Salomon, Uchechukwu Sampson, Itamar S Santos, Monika Sawhney, Jürgen C Schmidt, Marina Shakh-Nazarova, Jun She, Sara Sheikhbahaei, Kenji Shibuya, Hwashin Hyun Shin, Kawkab Shishani, Ivy Shiue, Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, Jasvinder A Singh, Vegard Skirbekk, Karen Sliwa, Sergey S Soshnikov, Luciano A Sposato, Vasiliki Kalliopi Stathopoulou, Konstantinos Stroumpoulis, Karen M Tabb, Roberto Tchio Talongwa, Carolina Maria Teixeira, Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Alan J Thomson, Andrew L Thorne-Lyman, Hideaki Toyoshima, Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene, Parfait Uwaliraye, Selen Begüm Uzun, Tommi J Vasankari, Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos, Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov, Stein Emil Vollset, Stephen Waller, Xia Wan, Scott Weichenthal, Elisabete Weiderpass, Robert G Weintraub, Ronny Westerman, James D Wilkinson, Hywel C Williams, Yang C Yang, Gokalp Kadri Yentur, Paul Yip, Naohiro Yonemoto, Mustafa Younis, Chuanhua Yu, Kim Yun Jin, Maysaa El Sayed Zaki, Shankuan Zhu, Theo Vos, Alan D Lopez, Christopher J L Murray.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Remarkable financial and political efforts have been focused on the reduction of child mortality during the past few decades. Timely measurements of levels and trends in under-5 mortality are important to assess progress towards the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) target of reduction of child mortality by two thirds from 1990 to 2015, and to identify models of success.
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Sex differences in cardiovascular outcomes, pharmacological treatments and indicators of care in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes: Analyses on administrative database.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The impact of diabetes on cardiovascular disease in both sexes is known, but the specifics have not been fully clarified. We investigated whether sex-related differences exist in terms of management and hospitalization in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes.
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Validation of the DRAGON score in 12 stroke centers in anterior and posterior circulation.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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The DRAGON score predicts functional outcome in the hyperacute phase of intravenous thrombolysis treatment of ischemic stroke patients. We aimed to validate the score in a large multicenter cohort in anterior and posterior circulation.
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Management of carotid stenosis in women: consensus document.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Specific guidelines for management of cerebrovascular risk in women are currently lacking. This study aims to provide a consensus expert opinion to help make clinical decisions in women with carotid stenosis.
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Obesity and the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage: the multicenter study on cerebral hemorrhage in Italy.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The effect of obesity on the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may depend on the pathophysiology of vessel damage. To further address this issue, we investigated and quantified the correlations between obesity and obesity-related conditions in the causal pathways leading to ICH.
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Severity of acute intracerebral haemorrhage, elderly age and atrial fibrillation: independent predictors of poor outcome at three months.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Prognostic risk factors of haemorrhagic stroke are not yet fully identified. This study investigated clinical factors leading to poor outcome at three months in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) in order to better understand the role of clinical features in prognostic evaluation.
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Systemic thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke and Internal Carotid ARtery Occlusion: the ICARO study.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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The beneficial effect of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke attributable to internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator in these patients.
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Non-neurological complications of acute stroke: frequency and influence on clinical outcome.
Intern Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Understanding the nature and clinical relevance of non-neurological complications is crucial to provide an appropriate management to patients with acute stroke. The aims of this study in patients with acute stroke were to assess the in-hospital frequency of non-neurological complications and the correlation between these complications and adverse outcome (death or disability) at 3 months. Patients with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke admitted to the Stroke Unit of the University of Perugia were included in a prospective cohort study. Pre-defined non-neurological complications were considered for study purposes. Study outcomes were 3-month death and composite of death and disability. Stroke was defined as not disabling (mRS 0-2) or disabling (mRS 3-5) or leading to death (mRS 6). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors for study outcomes. 1,101 consecutive patients (mean age 72.2 ± 13.1 years; 57.1% males; 926 ischemic and 175 hemorrhagic) were included in the study; 338 patients (30.7%) experienced at least one non-neurological complication. 269 patients (24.4%) had fever, 210 patients (19.1%) infection in one or more sites, 86 patients (7.8%) venous thromboembolism (VTE) and 34 patients (3.0%) myocardial infarction. At 3 months, 511 patients (46.4%) were disabled and 123 had died (11.2%). Regression logistic analysis found that: (1) age (OR 1.06 for 1 added year; 95% CI 1.03-1.08), NIHSS score on admission (OR 1.31 for 1 added point; 95% CI 1.25-1.38), current smoking (OR 1.92; 95% CI 1.08-3.39), infection in any site (OR 4.13; 95% CI 1.51-11.28) and VTE (OR 6.03; 95% CI 1.44-25.11) were associated with death and/or disability (mRS ? 3) and that (2) age (OR 1.06 for 1 added year; 95% CI 1.02-1.09), high NIHSS score on admission (OR 1.21 for 1 added point; 95% CI 1.15-1.27), male gender (OR 1.93; 95% CI 1.04-3.62), fever (OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.08-4.86) and myocardial infarction (OR 6.57; 95% CI 2.30-18.74) were associated with increased mortality. In conclusions, patients with acute stroke are at high risk of non-neurological complications, such as fever with or without infections, venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction. Non-neurological complications are associated with increased long-term disability and death.
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Acute myocardial infarction and heart failure in acute stroke patients: frequency and influence on clinical outcome.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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In patients admitted for acute stroke, the clinical burden of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and acute heart failure (AHF) is unclear. In these patients we evaluated: (1) the prevalence of AMI and AHF; (2) the effect of AMI and/or AHF on mortality at 3 months; (3) the risk factors for AMI and/or AHF. Consecutive patients admitted for acute stroke were prospectively assessed for the occurrence of AMI and AHF during the hospital stay. Mortality at 3 months was also assessed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors for cardiovascular events and death. Eight hundred fourteen patients were included in the study, 685 of which had an ischemic stroke (84.2%). Fifty-three patients (6.5%) had an AMI and/or an AHF (13 AMI alone, 28 AHF alone and 12 AMI and AHF); all these events occurred in patients with ischemic stroke. At 3 months, 151 patients had died (18.8%). Among patients who had an AMI and/or AHF, 60.4% died as compared with 119 of the 750 patients who did not have these events (15.9%) (p < 0.0001). At logistic regression analysis, AMI and/or AHF were associated with increased mortality at 3 months (p = 0.001). History of angina (p = 0.003), AMI in the 3 months before admission (p < 0.0001), hyperglycemia (p = 0.047), and high NIHSS on admission (p < 0.0001) were associated with in hospital AMI and/or AHF. In acute stroke patients, AMI and AHF are common and associated with increased mortality at 3 months. Whether a timely and more careful management of these complications may improve clinical outcome should be further explored.
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Hyperdense middle cerebral and/or internal carotid arteries in acute ischemic stroke: rate, predictive factors and influence on clinical outcome.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2011
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In patients with acute stroke, the hyperdense middle cerebral artery (MCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) signs on CT scans are markers of early ischemia, but their prognostic implications remain unclear.The aims of this prospective study were to assess: (1) the occurrence rate of hyperdense MCA and/or ICA in patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke; (2) the risk factors for hyperdense MCA and/or ICA; (3) the correlation between hyperdense MCA and/or ICA and functional outcome at 3 months.
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Gene-drug interaction in stroke.
Stroke Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Stroke is the third cause of mortality and one of most frequent causes of long-term neurological disability, as well as a complex disease that results from the interaction of environmental and genetic factors. The focus on genetics has produced a large number of studies with the objective of revealing the genetic basis of cerebrovascular diseases. Furthermore, pharmacogenetic research has investigated the relation between genetic variability and drug effectiveness/toxicity. This review will examine the implications of pharmacogenetics of stroke; data on antihypertensives, statins, antiplatelets, anticoagulants, and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator will be illustrated. Several polymorphisms have been studied and some have been associated with positive drug-gene interaction on stroke, but the superiority of the genotype-guided approach over the clinical approach has not been proved yet; for this reason, it is not routinely recommended.
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High diastolic blood pressure is a risk factor for in-hospital mortality in complete MCA stroke patients.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2011
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Complete middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke is a life-threatening condition, which can lead to death in the form of "malignant MCA syndrome"; characterized by massive brain edema and cerebral herniation. Moreover, patients with complete MCA infarct have high mortality due to complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with complete MCA stroke. Consecutive patients with complete MCA stroke were enrolled in a prospective single center in-hospital outcome study having mortality as its end point. Among 780 ischemic stroke patients, 125 had complete MCA strokes (16%) and 44 (35.2%) of these died in hospital. A high NIHSS-score (OR 1.17 95%CI 1.03-1.34, P=0.013) and high diastolic blood pressure on admission (OR 1.05 95%CI 1.01-1.09) resulted being independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with complete MCA stroke. The median value of diastolic blood pressure at admission was 90 mmHg in patients who died and 80 mmHg in survivors (P=0.01). The risk of death increased by 5% for each mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure on admission after adjusting for other risk factors. The rate of mortality was 22% in patients with diastolic blood pressure lower than 90 mmHg, 56% for those with diastolic blood pressure between 90 and 109 mmHg and 67% for those with diastolic blood pressure higher than 110 mmHg. This study suggests that high diastolic blood pressure on admission in acute MCA stroke patients is linearly correlated with in-hospital mortality.
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Association of vascular risk factors with cervical artery dissection and ischemic stroke in young adults.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Little is known about the risk factors for cervical artery dissection (CEAD), a major cause of ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity are important risk factors for IS. However, their specific role in CEAD is poorly investigated. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of vascular risk factors in CEAD patients versus referents and patients who suffered an IS of a cause other than CEAD (non-CEAD IS) in the multicenter Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients (CADISP) study.
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Admission leukocytosis in acute cerebral ischemia: influence on early outcome.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Leukocytes are the first cells that arrive in the stroke region(s), and they increase in peripheral blood. The contribution or leukocytes in the early acute phase of cerebral ischemia has not yet been investigated.
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Risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events in patients with cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack and patent foramen ovale: the FORI (Foramen Ovale Registro Italiano) study.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2010
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The optimal management of patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke found to have a patent foramen ovale (PFO) at diagnostic workup remains unclear. The aims of this observational multicenter study were to evaluate: (1) the risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events in patients with cryptogenic minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and PFO who either underwent percutaneous PFO closure or received only medical treatment, and (2) the risk factors associated with recurrent events.
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Effects of statins on early and late results of carotid stenting.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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Increasing data suggest that statins can significantly decrease cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events due to a plaque stabilization effect. However, the benefit of statins in patients undergoing carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for carotid stenosis is not well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether statins use was associated with decreased perioperative and late risks of stroke, mortality, and restenosis in patients undergoing CAS.
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Risk factors for cerebral ischemic events in patients with atrial fibrillation on warfarin for stroke prevention.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) on treatment with oral anticoagulants may still suffer ischemic cerebrovascular events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for cerebral ischemic events in warfarin-treated AF patients with an International Normalized Ratios (INR) above 1.8 on admission.
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Stroke pharmacogenomics.
Expert Opin Pharmacother
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2009
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Circulatory disease accounts for fifteen million deaths each year, of which stroke accounts for four and a half million- with an estimated nine million stroke survivors annually. The overall incidence rate of stroke is 2 to 2.5 per thousand adults with an approximate prevalence of 5 per thousand and an estimated 5-year risk of stroke recurrence of 15 to 40 percent. Conventional risk factors for stroke include: increasing age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, increased body mass index, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation and lack of physical activity. Age is the strongest risk factor for both ischemic and haemorrhagic stroke with its incidence doubling for each successive decade after the age of fifty-five years. However, there is a substantial portion of patients with significant cerebrovascular disease who do not have any of these stroke risk-factors, leading to the speculation that there are other factors that have not been identified yet So as to improve diagnosis and treatment strategies, as well as to reduce the related public health burden, it could be helpful to successfully identify its extremely complex genetic determinants (polygenic, multiple genes play a role). Pharmacogenetics is the field of pharmacology that deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response by correlating gene expression and gene variants with the efficacy or toxicity of drugs. The principle drugs in stroke medicine are antithrombotics. The aim of this paper was to review the most commonly used drugs for stroke such as rtPA in the acute phase as well as antiplatelets and wafarin for secondary prophylaxis.
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A comparative analysis of the outcomes of carotid stenting and carotid endarterectomy in women.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) advised little benefit from surgery in women because of high operative risk. Whether these findings are also applicable to carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is subject of investigation. Our aim was to determine the risk of perioperative and late complications related to CAS and CEA in women.
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Acute hyperglycemia and early hemorrhagic transformation in ischemic stroke.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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Hyperglycemia has been claimed to be associated with hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke treated with thrombolysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether the admission blood glucose level is related to HT in a prospective study in consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke.
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Effect of carotid stenosis on the prognostic value of admission blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Data on the correlation between blood pressure (BP) on admission and clinical outcome in patients with acute stroke are conflicting. The aims of the present study in consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke were to evaluate: (a) the relationship between systolic or diastolic BP on admission and mortality at 3 months; (b) the role of carotid artery disease ipsilateral to the index stroke on this relationship.
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The concept of ischemic penumbra in acute stroke and therapeutic opportunities.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2009
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Ischemic penumbra was first defined by Astrup in 1981 as perfused brain tissue at a level within the thresholds of functional impairment and morphological integrity, which has the capacity to recover if perfusion is improved. It exists, even for a short period of time in the center of ischemia, from which irreversible necrosis propagates to the neighboring tissues over time. Penumbra has become the focus of intense imaging research to differentiate it from infarction. Accurate detection of this tissue at risk could be used to identify patients who would benefit most from acute treatment. Currently, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is the only approved drug that has shown significant benefits in acute stroke patients when administered intravenously less than 4.5 h after stroke. However, its use is limited. Discrimination between infarct core and the surrounding potentially salvageable tissue is useful to better identify patients suitable for treatment. This can be achieved by positron emission tomography, single-photon-emission computed tomography, computed tomography perfusion scan and perfusion-weighted and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Identification of the penumbra might enable selective rtPA use in patients with large penumbras and small infarct cores, even beyond the 4.5-hour time window, where the penumbra may persist for more than 12 h. The purpose of this review was to describe neuroimaging modalities capable of identifying penumbra tissue so as to provide surrogate markers for new trials in acute ischemic stroke patients.
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Antiplatelet treatment in primary and secondary stroke prevention in women.
Eur. J. Intern. Med.
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Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and the first cause of disability in the Western world. Over the last 20 years, antiplatelet agents have reduced overall stroke rates in primary and secondary prevention in men. However, this has not been the case for women. In this narrative review, the most widely used antiplatelet therapies for primary and secondary prevention in stroke, excluding cardioembolic stroke, will be outlined. First, the largest randomised controlled trials will be analysed as well as the enrolment percentages of women. Second, analyses on sex-interaction effects in each study will be examined. Moreover, the Authors will discuss the need to develop targeted antiplatelet therapies specifically for women. Based on current results, the most randomised clinical trials and meta-analyses on antiplatelet agents in cerebrovascular disease have not performed sub-analyses on sex-related differences and this is mainly because women were underrepresented. Despite this, antiplatelet agents are considered to be equally effective for both sexes in primary and secondary stroke prevention. Finally, aspirin is the most widely studied antiplatelet in women and has been shown to provide greater benefit for women as primary prevention of ischemic stroke without a significant increased risk in haemorrhage.
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Perioperative stroke risk in nonvascular surgery.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
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Perioperative stroke is an ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident that can arise intraoperatively or from 3 to 30 days after surgery. This relatively rare complication deserves attention because of its high mortality and serious disability, the latter of which can lead to prolonged hospital stay as well as discharge to long-term care facilities. The aim of this article was to review the literature on perioperative stroke in general surgery, excluding carotid and cardiac surgeries because these have already been thoroughly investigated in previous papers.
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Familial occurrence of cervical artery dissection--coincidence or sign of familial predisposition?
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
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BACKGROUNDAND PURPOSE: The etiology of spontaneous cervical artery dissection (CeAD) is poorly understood in most patients. Mild cervical trauma preceding the dissection event is a common finding, but many CeAD occur spontaneously. It is likely that genetic factors may increase the risk for CeAD. However, familial cases are excedingly rare. Familial clustering of CeAD may be accidental or associated with genetic or environmental risk factors shared between affected relatives. In this explorative study, we aim to show that specific risk factors for familial CeAD exist.
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Predictive value of admission blood glucose level on short-term mortality in acute cerebral ischemia.
J. Diabetes Complicat.
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Admission hyperglycemia increases the risk of death in patients with acute stroke. However, the most appropriate cut-off of glucose level indicating an increased risk of short-term mortality remains unknown.
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Genetics of ischemic stroke, stroke-related risk factors, stroke precursors and treatments.
Pharmacogenomics
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Stroke remains a leading cause of death worldwide and the first cause of disability in the western world. Ischemic stroke (IS) accounts for almost 80% of the total cases of strokes and is a complex and multifactorial disease caused by the combination of vascular risk factors, environment and genetic factors. Investigations of the genetics of atherosclerosis and IS has greatly enhanced our knowledge of this complex multifactorial disease. In this article we sought to review common single-gene disorders relevant to IS, summarize candidate gene and genome-wide studies aimed at discovering genetic stroke risk factors and subclinical phenotypes, and to briefly discuss pharmacogenetics related to stroke treatments. Genetics of IS is, in fact, one of the most promising research frontiers and genetic testing may be helpful for novel drug discoveries as well as for appropriate drug and dose selection for treatment of patients with cerebrovascular disease.
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Caudate infarcts and hemorrhages.
Front Neurol Neurosci
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The caudate nucleus (CN) is composed of a head, body and tail. The head of the CN contributes to forming the floor of the lateral ventricle frontal horn. Moreover, the head, which is medially separated by the septum pellucidum extends beyond the anterior part of the thalamus, stroking the telencephalic cortex. The superior part of the head is covered by the knee of the corpus callosum, while the inferior part is below the thalamus and lenticular nucleus, which delimits the internal capsule. CN strokes are classified into hemorrhagic and ischemic. The clinical presentation of CN hemorrhage is often characterized by a clinical presentation mimicking subarachnoid hemorrhage, while clinical features of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes included behavioral abnormalities dysarthria, movement disorders, language disturbances and memory loss. Most studies to date that have examined vascular CN pathologies have evidenced good outcomes.
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Visual dysfunctions.
Front Neurol Neurosci
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Damage at many different locations within the visual system can result in visual deficits, and a knowledge of the anatomy involved makes it possible to understand these deficits. In this chapter, we will review the visual system from basic anatomy to the description of more complex higher visual function.
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Headache.
Front Neurol Neurosci
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Headache can be a symptom of vast pathologies, and common secondary headache including head or neck trauma, cranial or cervical vascular disorder, non-vascular intracranial disorders headache related to a substance or its withdrawals, infection, disorders of homeostasis, disorders of cranium or facial mouth or cranial disorders, and headache attributable to psychiatric. Stroke-related headache has been reported between 7 and 65% and headache is also the most frequent symptom of cerebral venous thrombosis, which is present in nearly 90% of patients.
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Towards understanding seasonal variability in cervical artery dissection (CeAD).
J. Neurol.
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Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) occurs more often in autumn or winter than in spring or summer. We searched for clinical variables associated with this seasonality by comparing CeAD patients with onset of symptoms in autumn–winter (September 22–March 21) versus those with first CeAD symptom in spring–summer (March 22–September 21). We performed a cross-sectional study using data from the multicenter CADISP (Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients) registry. Age- and sex-matched patients with ischemic stroke attributable to a cause other than CeAD (non-CeAD patients) were analyzed to study the specificity of our findings. Autumn–winter CeAD patients had a higher median brachial pulse pressure at admission (55 vs. 52 mmHg; p = 0.01) and more recent infections (22.0% vs. 16.6%; p = 0.047), but prevalence of trauma was not associated with seasonal onset. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that higher pulse pressure was significantly associated with autumn–winter CeAD (p = 0.01), while age, gender, history of hypertension, recent infection, and recent trauma were not. No association between pulse pressure and seasonal occurrence was found in non-CeAD ischemic stroke patients. Increased pulse pressure was associated with the higher frequency of CeAD in autumn or winter.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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