Cytoplasmic proteome and secretome profiles of differently stimulated human dendritic cells.
Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent and specialized antigen-presenting cells, play a key role in the regulation of the adaptive immunity. Immature DCs were generated by in vitro culturing of peripheral blood monocytes and functionally activated with the classical pathogen-associated molecular pattern lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Alternative activation resulting in Th-2 polarization was induced with lipid oxidation products derived from 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphorylcholin (OxPAPC). Tolerogenic cells were obtained by treating DCs with human rhinovirus (HRV). The aim of this study was the identification of proteome profiles related to the functionally different dendritic cell phenotypes. Cytoplasmic proteins were analyzed by shotgun proteomics resulting in the identification of 1690 proteins. While mature and alternatively activated DCs displayed highly distinct protein expression profiles, HRV-treated DCs showed minor proteome alterations. As DCs exert many specific functions via secretion, we investigated the secretomes by a combination of 2D-PAGE and shotgun proteomics. We successfully identified a broad variety of cytokines (e.g., GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, interleukin-1beta, 6, 12 beta, 28B and 29), chemokines (e.g., CCL3, 5, 8, 17, 18, 19, 24, CXCL1, 2, 9 and 10) and growth factors (growth/differentiation factor 8, C-type lectin domain family 11 member A). The relative composition of secretome profiles, although comprising much less proteins, was found to be much more affected by functional alteration of cells than the cytoplasmic protein composition. In conclusion, we demonstrate that functional distinct subsets of DCs display distinct proteome profiles which comprise biomarker candidates. These proteins may prove useful for the interpretation of complex clinical proteomics data.