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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Raw Pig Blood Consumption and Potential Risk for Streptococcus suis Infection, Vietnam.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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We assessed consumption of raw pig blood, which is a risk factor for Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam, by using a mix-method design. Factors associated with consumption included rural residency, age, sex, occupation, income, and marital status. We identified risk groups and practices and perceptions that should be targeted by communication programs.
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Staphylococcus aureus nasopharyngeal carriage in rural and urban northern Vietnam.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Staphylococcus aureus is a common human pathogen that can colonise the respiratory tract and cause infection. Here we investigate the risk factors associated with nasopharyngeal carriage of S. aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus [MRSA]) in Vietnam.
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Low body weight and tenofovir use are risk factors for renal dysfunction in Vietnamese HIV-infected patients. A prospective 18-month observation study.
J. Infect. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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The use of tenofovir has been rapidly increasing in Vietnam. Several studies identified low body weight as a risk factor for tenofovir-induced nephrotoxicity. However, little is known about the impact of tenofovir on renal function in HIV-infected Vietnamese with generally low weight.
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CryptoDex: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial of adjunctive dexamethasone in HIV-infected adults with cryptococcal meningitis: study protocol for a randomised control trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a severe AIDS-defining illness with 90-day case mortality as high as 70% in sub-Saharan Africa, despite treatment. It is the leading cause of death in HIV patients in Asia and Africa.No major advance has been made in the treatment of CM since the 1970s. The mainstays of induction therapy are amphotericin B and flucytosine, but these are often poorly available where the disease burden is highest. Adjunctive treatments, such as dexamethasone, have had dramatic effects on mortality in other neurologic infections, but are untested in CM. Given the high death rates in patients receiving current optimal treatment, and the lack of new agents on the horizon, adjuvant treatments, which offer the potential to reduce mortality in CM, should be tested.The principal research question posed by this study is as follows: does adding dexamethasone to standard antifungal therapy for CM reduce mortality? Dexamethasone is a cheap, readily available, and practicable intervention.
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The bacterial aetiology of adult community-acquired pneumonia in Asia: a systematic review.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of adult mortality in Asia. Appropriate empirical treatment depends on knowledge of the pathogens commonly responsible. However, assessing the aetiological significance of identified organisms is often difficult, particularly with sputum isolates that might represent contamination with oropharyngeal flora.
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Comparison of patients hospitalized with influenza A subtypes H7N9, H5N1, and 2009 pandemic H1N1.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Influenza A(H7N9) viruses isolated from humans show features suggesting partial adaptation to mammals. To provide insights into the pathogenesis of H7N9 virus infection, we compared risk factors, clinical presentation, and progression of patients hospitalized with H7N9, H5N1, and 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus infections.
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Antibiotic sales in rural and urban pharmacies in northern Vietnam: an observational study.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The irrational overuse of antibiotics should be minimized as it drives the development of antibiotic resistance, but changing these practices is challenging. A better understanding is needed of practices and economic incentives for antibiotic dispensing in order to design effective interventions to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use. Here we report on both quantitative and qualitative aspects of antibiotic sales in private pharmacies in northern Vietnam.
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Limited geographic distribution of the novel cyclovirus CyCV-VN.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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A novel cyclovirus, CyCV-VN, was recently identified in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with central nervous system (CNS) infections in central and southern Vietnam. To explore the geographic distribution of this novel virus, more than 600?CSF specimens from patients with suspected CNS infections in northern Vietnam, Cambodia, Nepal and The Netherlands were screened for the presence of CyCV-VN but all were negative. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis between CyCV-VN and another novel cyclovirus recently identified in CSF from Malawian patients indicated that these represent distinct cycloviral species, albeit phylogenetically closely related. The data suggest that CyCV-VN has a limited geographic distribution within southern and central Vietnam. Further research is needed to determine the global distribution and diversity of cycloviruses and importantly their possible association with human disease.
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Lab-in-a-pen: a diagnostics format familiar to patients for low-resource settings.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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We present a low cost, simple and integrated device for medical diagnostics in low-resource settings called the lab-in-a-pen. Finger pricking, and sample collection and processing, are integrated with commercially available paper-based assays in a pen format. This approach ensures safety (i.e. biological sample and sharps containment) and can be used by untrained end users across multiple settings. The pen format also leverages existing low cost, high volume manufacturing and assembly methods. We characterize sample wicking in the lab-in-a-pen using porcine whole blood. The clinical diagnostic utility and usability of the lab-in-a-pen is established by testing of patients for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and Hepatitis B 'e' antigen (HBeAg) by medical staff at the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam.
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A PROspective study on the Usage patterns of Doripenem in the Asia-Pacific region (PROUD study).
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Doripenem is approved in the Asia-Pacific (APAC) region for treating nosocomial pneumonia (NP) including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs). Clinical usage of doripenem (500mg intravenously, infused over 1h or 4h every 8h for 5-14 days) in APAC was evaluated in a prospective, open-label, non-comparative, multicentre study of inpatients (?18 years) with NP, VAP, cIAI or cUTI. A total of 216 [intention-to-treat (ITT)] patients received doripenem: 53 NP (24.5%); 77 VAP (35.6%); 67 cIAI (31.0%); and 19 cUTI (8.8%). Doripenem MIC90 values for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were 32, 32, 0.094 and 0.64?g/mL, respectively. Doripenem was used most commonly as monotherapy (86.6%) and as second-line therapy (62.0%). The clinical cure rate in clinically evaluable patients was 86.7% at the end of therapy (EOT) and 87.1% at test of cure (TOC) (7-14 days after EOT). In the ITT population, overall clinical cure rates were 66.2% at EOT and 56.5% at TOC. The median duration of hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and mechanical ventilation was 20, 12 and 10 days, respectively. Of 146 discharged patients, 7 were re-admitted within 28 days of EOT; 1 VAP patient was re-admitted to the ICU. The all-cause mortality rate was 22.7% (49/216). The most common treatment-related adverse events were diarrhoea (1.4%) and vomiting (1.4%). Doripenem is a viable option for treating APAC patients with NP, VAP, cIAI or cUTI. [ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 00986102].
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Klebsiella pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage in rural and urban Vietnam and the effect of alcohol consumption.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Community acquired K. pneumoniae pneumonia is still common in Asia and is reportedly associated with alcohol use. Oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. However, little is known regarding K. pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage rates and risk factors. This population-based cross-sectional study explores the association of a variety of demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as alcohol consumption with oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae in Vietnam.
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Antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies: a situation analysis for Viet Nam.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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Antimicrobial resistance is a major contemporary public health threat. Strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance have been comprehensively set forth, however in developing countries where the need for effective antimicrobials is greatest implementation has proved problematic. A better understanding of patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies may permit more appropriately targeted interventions.Viet Nam, with a large population, high burden of infectious disease and relatively unrestricted access to medication, is an excellent case study of the difficulties faced by emerging economies in controlling antimicrobial resistance.
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WHO antiretroviral therapy guidelines 2010 and impact of tenofovir on chronic kidney disease in Vietnamese HIV-infected patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The 2010 WHO antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have resulted in increased tenofovir use. Little is known about tenofovir-induced chronic kidney disease (CKD) in HIV-infected Vietnamese with mean body weight of 55 kg. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of CKD in this country.
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Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME) is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam.
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Multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 variant El Tor isolated in northern Vietnam between 2007 and 2010.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Since 2007, there has been a re-emergence of cholera outbreaks in northern Vietnam. To understand the molecular epidemiological relatedness and determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of responsible V. cholerae O1 outbreak strains, a representative collection of 100 V. cholerae O1 strains was characterized. V. cholerae O1 strains isolated from diarrhoeal patients in northern Vietnam between 2007 and 2010 were investigated for antibiotic susceptibility and characterized by using phenotypic and genotypic tests, including PFGE analysis. Ten clinical V. cholerae O1 isolates from Bangladesh and Zimbabwe were included for comparison. The results revealed that all isolates were resistant to co-trimoxazole and nalidixic acid, 29?% were resistant to tetracycline and 1?% were resistant to azithromycin. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin-sulbactam, doxycycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin and 95?% were susceptible to azithromycin. MIC values did show reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and 63?% of the strains were intermediately resistant to tetracycline. The isolates expressed phenotypic traits of both serogroup O1 Ogawa and El Tor and harboured an rstR El Tor and ctxB classical biotype. Among the outbreak isolates, only a single PFGE pattern was observed throughout the study period. This study shows that multi-drug resistant V. cholerae altered El Tor producing classical CT strains are now predominant in northern Vietnam.
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H5N1-SeroDetect EIA and rapid test: a novel differential diagnostic assay for serodiagnosis of H5N1 infections and surveillance.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Continuing evolution of highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 influenza viruses in wild birds with transmission to domestic poultry and humans poses a pandemic threat. There is an urgent need for a simple and rapid serological diagnostic assay which can differentiate between antibodies to seasonal and H5N1 strains and that could provide surveillance tools not dependent on virus isolation and nucleic acid technologies. Here we describe the establishment of H5N1 SeroDetect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and rapid test assays based on three peptides in HA2 (488-516), PB1-F2 (2-75), and M2e (2-24) that are highly conserved within H5N1 strains. These peptides were identified by antibody repertoire analyses of H5N1 influenza survivors in Vietnam using whole-genome-fragment phage display libraries (GFPDLs). To date, both platforms have demonstrated high levels of sensitivity and specificity in detecting H5N1 infections (clade 1 and clade 2.3.4) in Vietnamese patients as early as 7 days and up to several years postinfection. H5N1 virus-uninfected individuals in Vietnam and the United States, including subjects vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccines or with confirmed seasonal virus infections, did not react in the H5N1-SeroDetect assays. Moreover, sera from individuals vaccinated with H5N1 subunit vaccine with moderate anti-H5N1 neutralizing antibody titers did not react positively in the H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA or rapid test assays. The simple H5N1-SeroDetect ELISA and rapid tests could provide an important tool for large-scale surveillance for potential exposure to HP H5N1 strains in both humans and birds.
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Immunological and viral determinants of dengue severity in hospitalized adults in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The relationships between the infecting dengue serotype, primary and secondary infection, viremia and dengue severity remain unclear. This cross-sectional study examined these interactions in adult patients hospitalized with dengue in Ha Noi.
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AIDS vaccine for Asia Network (AVAN): expanding the regional role in developing HIV vaccines.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to spread and an AIDS vaccine is urgently needed. Regional alliances and international collaborations can foster the development and evaluation of the next generation of AIDS vaccine candidates. The importance of coordinating and harmonizing efforts across regional alliances has become abundantly clear. We recently formed the AIDS Vaccine for Asia Network (AVAN) to help facilitate the development of a regional AIDS vaccine strategy that accelerates research and development of an AIDS vaccine through government advocacy, improved coordination, and harmonization of research; develops clinical trial and manufacturing capacity; supports ethical and regulatory frameworks; and ensures community participation.
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Impact of CRF01_AE-specific polymorphic mutations G335D and A371V in the connection subdomain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) on susceptibility to nucleoside RT inhibitors.
Microbes Infect.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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Certain mutations in the connection subdomain and RNase H domain of reverse transcriptase (RT) of subtype B HIV-1 contribute to resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). However, the impact of non-B subtype polymorphisms in this region on drug resistance remains unclear. In this study, we determined the frequencies of drug resistance mutations of the entire RT in patients with treatment failure from a cohort of Circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE HIV-1-infected patients in Hanoi, Viet Nam. Subsequently, we assessed the impact of CRF01_AE polymorphisms G335D and A371V with or without thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) on susceptibility to NRTI with recombinant viruses. In 49 patients with treatment failure, resistance mutations to NRTIs in the N-terminal half of RT were observed in 89.8%. In the C-terminal half, G335D (100%), N348I (36.8%), A371V (100%), A376S (5.3%) and A400T (97.4%) were detected, although G335D, A371V and A400T were considered polymorphisms of CRF01_AE. Drug susceptibility showed G335D, A371V, or both did not confer resistance by themselves but conferred significant resistance to NRTIs with TAMs, especially in mutants containing G335D, A371V and TAM type 2. Our results suggest the important role of CRF01_AE polymorphisms in the C-terminal half of RT in drug resistance.
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Influenza A H5N1 and HIV co-infection: case report.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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The role of adaptive immunity in severe influenza is poorly understood. The occurrence of influenza A/H5N1 in a patient with HIV provided a rare opportunity to investigate this.
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Stimulating the development of national Streptococcus suis guidelines in Viet Nam through a strategic research partnership.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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Streptococcus suis is a common cause of adult bacterial meningitis in Viet Nam, and possibly other parts of Asia, yet this disabling infection has been largely neglected. Prevention, diagnosis and treatment are relatively straightforward and affordable but, in early 2007, no national diagnostic, case management or prevention guidelines existed in Viet Nam.
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Acute febrile myalgia in Vietnam due to trichinellosis following the consumption of raw pork.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2009
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Trichinellosis outbreaks occur occasionally in Vietnam following the consumption of undercooked pork. Diagnosing trichinella can be problematic because fever and myalgia are nonspecific, and diagnosis may be delayed. We describe 5 Vietnamese patients in whom trichinellosis was diagnosed after several weeks of illness.
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Modelling the progression of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Vietnam and the opportunities for reassortment with other influenza viruses.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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A novel variant of influenza A (H1N1) is causing a pandemic and, although the illness is usually mild, there are concerns that its virulence could change through reassortment with other influenza viruses. This is of greater concern in parts of Southeast Asia, where the population density is high, influenza is less seasonal, human-animal contact is common and avian influenza is still endemic.
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A new analytical framework of continuum of prevention and care to maximize HIV case detection and retention in care in Vietnam.
BMC Health Serv Res
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The global initiative Treatment 2.0 calls for expanding the evidence base of optimal HIV service delivery models to maximize HIV case detection and retention in care. However limited systematic assessment has been conducted in countries with concentrated HIV epidemic. We aimed to assess HIV service availability and service connectedness in Vietnam.
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Clonality despite sex: the evolution of host-associated sexual neighborhoods in the pathogenic fungus Penicillium marneffei.
PLoS Pathog.
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Molecular genetic approaches typically detect recombination in microbes regardless of assumed asexuality. However, genetic data have shown the AIDS-associated pathogen Penicillium marneffei to have extensive spatial genetic structure at local and regional scales, and although there has been some genetic evidence that a sexual cycle is possible, this haploid fungus is thought to be genetically, as well as morphologically, asexual in nature because of its highly clonal population structure. Here we use comparative genomics, experimental mixed-genotype infections, and population genetic data to elucidate the role of recombination in natural populations of P. marneffei. Genome wide comparisons reveal that all the genes required for meiosis are present in P. marneffei, mating type genes are arranged in a similar manner to that found in other heterothallic fungi, and there is evidence of a putatively meiosis-specific mutational process. Experiments suggest that recombination between isolates of compatible mating types may occur during mammal infection. Population genetic data from 34 isolates from bamboo rats in India, Thailand and Vietnam, and 273 isolates from humans in China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam show that recombination is most likely to occur across spatially and genetically limited distances in natural populations resulting in highly clonal population structure yet sexually reproducing populations. Predicted distributions of three different spatial genetic clusters within P. marneffei overlap with three different bamboo rat host distributions suggesting that recombination within hosts may act to maintain population barriers within P. marneffei.
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Clinical characteristics and outcome of Penicillium marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients in northern Vietnam.
AIDS Res Ther
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This study reports the clinical characteristics and outcome of HIV-associated Penicilliummarneffei infection in northern Vietnam.
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Combining cohort analysis and monitoring of HIV early-warning indicators of drug resistance to assess antiretroviral therapy services in Vietnam.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
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Antiretroviral therapy (ART) retention and 5 early-warning indicators (EWIs) of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) were abstracted at 27 adult and 4 pediatric clinics in Vietnam in 2009. Of 4531 adults and 313 children, 81.2% and 84.4% respectively were still on ART at 12 months. More than 90% of the clinics monitored achieved the World Health Organization (WHO) targets for lost-to-follow-up (LTFU), ART prescribing practices, and ARV supply continuity. Only 83.9% of the clinics met the target for first-line ART retention and 79.3% met the target for clinic appointment-keeping. Clinic factors (i.e. number of patients, administrative level, and geographical region) were associated with ART retention and LFTU. Data were useful in guiding public health action to optimize ART services.
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Loss to Followup in HIV-Infected Patients from Asia-Pacific Region: Results from TAHOD.
AIDS Res Treat
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This study examined characteristics of HIV-infected patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database who were lost to follow-up (LTFU) from treatment and care. Time from last clinic visit to 31 March 2009 was analysed to determine the interval that best classified LTFU. Patients defined as LTFU were then categorised into permanently LTFU (never returned) and temporary LTFU (re-entered later), and these groups compared. A total of 3626 patients were included (71% male). No clinic visits for 180 days was the best-performing LTFU definition (sensitivity 90.6%, specificity 92.3%). During 7697 person-years of follow-up, 1648 episodes of LFTU were recorded (21.4 per 100-person-years). Patients LFTU were younger (P = 0.002), had HIV viral load ?500?copies/mL or missing (P = 0.021), had shorter history of HIV infection (P = 0.048), and received no, single- or double-antiretroviral therapy, or a triple-drug regimen containing a protease inhibitor (P < 0.001). 48% of patients LTFU never returned. These patients were more likely to have low or missing haemoglobin (P < 0.001), missing recent HIV viral load (P < 0.001), negative hepatitis C test (P = 0.025), and previous temporary LTFU episodes (P < 0.001). Our analyses suggest that patients not seen at a clinic for 180 days are at high risk of permanent LTFU, and should be aggressively traced.
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Severe pandemic H1N1 2009 infection is associated with transient NK and T deficiency and aberrant CD8 responses.
PLoS ONE
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It is unclear why the severity of influenza varies in healthy adults or why the burden of severe influenza shifts to young adults when pandemic strains emerge. One possibility is that cross-protective T cell responses wane in this age group in the absence of recent infection. We therefore compared the acute cellular immune response in previously healthy adults with severe versus mild pandemic H1N1 infection.
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Clinical validation of a point-of-care multiplexed in vitro immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies (the MSD influenza test) in four hospitals in Vietnam.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests for influenza can considerably shorten the time to clinical decision making. An investigational POC test based on a multiplexed immunoassay was developed by Meso Scale Diagnostics, LLC (MSD), with the objective to make a more sensitive rapid test that can also subtype influenza A viruses (1977 H1, H3, and H5). Between February and November 2010, we conducted a prospective multicenter study at four hospitals in Vietnam and compared the performance of this test to that of the WHO/CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) on nasal and throat swab specimens from patients presenting with influenza-like illness. Five hundred sixty-three adults and children with a median age of 25 months were enrolled. Sensitivity and specificity of the test with combined results from nasal and throat swab samples were 74.0% (131/177) and 99.7% (351/352), respectively, compared to RT-PCR. The POC test was as sensitive for influenza virus B as for influenza virus A (74.4% [64/86] versus 73.6% [67/91]). The positivity rate was associated with lower cycle threshold values (a marker for higher viral loads), sample type (73.6% for nasal swab versus 52.4% for throat swab), and younger age. A total of 210 (18.7%) out of 1,126 MSD tests failed, and for 34 (6%) of patients, both test samples failed (these were excluded from the performance analysis). Subtyping could be assessed only for influenza virus A/H3N2, as 1977 H1N1 was not circulating at the time and no H5N1-infected patients were enrolled, and was successful only in 9/54 patients infected with H3 influenza virus who had a positive POC test result for influenza virus A. This novel POC test provided highly sensitive detection of influenza viruses A and B compared to the reported sensitivities of other rapid tests. However, 18.7% of tests failed for technical reasons and subtyping for H3 was poor. Drawbacks to the technology include the requirement for a dedicated reader instrument and the need for continual updating of subtyping antibodies within the test array.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.