Blast simulators often use passive-rupture membranes to generate shock waves similar to free-field blasts. The purpose of this study was to compare rupture patterns and pressure traces of three distinct membrane materials for biological and biomechanical blast studies. An Advanced Blast Simulator (ABS) located at the Center for Injury Biomechanics at Virginia Tech was used to test membrane characteristics. Acetate, Mylar, and aluminum sheets with different thicknesses were used to obtain pressures between 70?210 kPa. Static pressure was measured inside the tube at the test section using piezoelectric pressure sensors. Peak overpressure, positive duration, and positive impulse were calculated for each test. Rupture patterns and characteristic pressure traces were unique to each membrane type and thickness. Shock wave speed ranged between 1.2-1.8 Mach for static overpressures of 70?210 kPa. Acetate membranes fragmented sending pieces down the tube, but produced ideal (Friedlander) pressure traces. Mylar membranes bulged without fragmenting, but produced less-than-ideal pressure traces. Aluminum membranes did not fragment and produced ideal pressure traces. However, the cost of manufacturing and characterizing aluminum membranes should be considered during membrane selection. This study illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of using Mylar, acetate, and aluminum for passive rupture membranes for blast simulators.
Most understandings of successful aging are developed within a heteronormative cultural framework, leading to a dearth of theoretical and empirical scholarship relevant to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) older adults. This study explores the experiences of transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life in order to develop culturally diverse conceptualizations of health and wellness in older age.
Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) and gait aids are commonly used by survivors of stroke to ambulate, but they have not been used as inclusion or exclusion criteria for physiological studies. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in neuromuscular function and blood flow characteristics between the lower limbs of ambulatory, AFO-using survivors of stroke (n = 9).
Concepts of time are ubiquitous in studies of aging. This article integrates an existential perspective on time with a notion of queer time based on the experiences of older transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life. Interviews were conducted with male-to-female identified persons aged 50 years or older (N = 22), along with participant observation at three national transgender conferences (N = 170 hr). Interpretive analyses suggest that an awareness of "time left to live" and a feeling of "time served" play a significant role in later life development and help expand gerontological perspectives on time and queer aging.
The aim of the study was to analyze the constituents of the dichloromethane fraction obtained from A. moluccana and also to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of ?,?-amyrenone isolated from A. moluccana in mice. The dichloromethane fraction was evaluated by gas chromatography and submitted to purification. The mixture of ?,?-amyrenone was isolated and then evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw-oedema or pleurisy and CFA-induced arthritis models in mice. Five triterpenes, ?,?-amyrenone, glutinol, and ?,?-amyrin were isolated from dichloromethane fraction of A. moluccana leaf extract. The mixture of ?,?-amyrenone, dosed orally, was able to reduce mechanical hypersensitivity and paw-oedema induced by carrageenan, interfering with neutrophil migration. Similar results were observed in the carrageenan-induced pleurisy model. Repeated administration of the compounds was also effective in reducing the mechanical sensitization and oedema developed in the arthritis model induced by CFA. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that ?,?-amyrenone interferes in both acute and chronic inflammatory processes. We can infer that these effects involve, at least in part, a reduction in the neutrophil migration. Therefore, it seems reasonable to suggest that ?,?-amyrenone could represent a new therapeutic tool for the management of painful and inflammatory diseases, especially those presenting a chronic profile.
Vitamin D(3) belongs to the few nutritional compounds that has, via the binding of its metabolite 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) to the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR), a direct effect on gene regulation. The relation of thousands of genomic VDR-binding sites to a few hundred primary 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) target genes is still largely unresolved. We studied chromatin domains containing genes for the adhesion molecules CD97 and LRRC8A, the glucose transporter SLC37A2 and the coactivator NRIP1. These domains vary significantly in size (7.3 to 956 kb) but contain each one major VDR-binding site. In monocytic cells these four sites are associated with open chromatin and occupied by VDR, while in macrophage-like cells only the sites of LRRC8A, SLC37A2 and NRIP1 are accessible and receptor bound. The VDR site of CD97 does, in contrast to the three other loci, not carry any DR3-type binding sequence. CD97, LRRC8A, SLC37A2 and NRIP1 are early responding 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) target genes in monocytic cells, while in macrophage-like cells they respond less and, in part, delayed. In primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 71 prediabetic subjects of a vitamin D(3) intervention study (VitDmet) CD97, LRRC8A, SLC37A2 and NRIP1 can be used as transcriptomic biomarkers for classifying human individuals for their possible benefit from vitamin D(3) supplementation. In particular, NRIP1 exceeds the potential of the previously identified marker CD14 by more than 40% and seems to be a well-suited molecular marker for the vitamin D(3) status in the hematopoietic system.
Disruptions in calcium (Ca) homeostasis during exercise may influence skeletal adaptations to exercise training. In young men, vigorous cycling causes increases in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen [CTX]); responses are attenuated by Ca supplementation. The study aimed to determine whether vigorous walking causes similar increases in PTH and CTX in older women and how the timing of Ca supplementation before and during exercise influences these responses.
This study was performed to understand the degree to which medical students' self-efficacy (SE) moderates the influence of calling on students' speciality commitment, emphasizing the need to understand variables that predict primary care specialization. The researchers hypothesized that students who perceived their career as a calling would be more committed to their speciality, especially when students had high SE. Medical students (Years 1-4; N = 152) completed an online survey to rate their calling, speciality commitment, and SE. Calling was measured by the Brief Calling scale (Dik et al., J Career Assess 20:242-263, 2012), while speciality choice was measured by Hollenbeck et al. (J Appl Psychol 74:18-23, 1989) measure of commitment. SE was measured by the Jerusalem and Schwarzer's general SE scale (see Scholz et al., Eur J Psychol Assess 18:242-51, 2002). Calling (r = 0.24, p < 0.01) and SE (r = 0.20, p < 0.05) were found to moderately correlate with speciality commitment, thus emphasizing the possibility that they may have an interaction. The interaction of calling and SE significantly predicted speciality commitment (? = -0.20, t(148) = -2.55, p < 0.05) and explained a significant proportion of variance in speciality commitment (R (2) = 0.12, F(3, 148) = 6.875, p < 0.001). Students with a high presence of calling may have high speciality commitment, despite low SE.
The EF1? genes were stable in the large majority of soybean tissues during development and in specific tissues/conditions under stress. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis strongly depends on transcript normalization using stable reference genes. Reference genes are generally encoded by multigene families and are used in qPCR normalization; however, little effort has been made to verify the stability of different gene members within a family. Here, the expression stability of members of the soybean EF1? gene family (named EF1? 1a1, 1a2, 1b, 2a, 2b and 3) was evaluated in different tissues during plant development and stress exposure (SA and PEG). Four genes (UKN1, SKIP 16, EF1? and MTP) already established as stably expressed were also used in the comparative analysis. GeNorm analyses revealed different combinations of reference genes as stable in soybean tissues during development. The EF1? genes were the most stable in cotyledons (EF1? 3 and EF1? 1b), epicotyls (EF1? 1a2, EF1? 2b and EF1? 1a1), hypocotyls (EF1? 1a1 and EF1?), pods (EF1? 2a and EF1? 2b) and roots (EF1? 2a and UKN1) and less stable in tissues such as trifoliate and unifoliate leaves and germinating seeds. Under stress conditions, no suitable combination including only EF1? genes was found; however, some genes were relatively stable in leaves (EF1? 1a2) and roots (EF1? 1a1) treated with SA as well as in roots treated with PEG (EF1? 2b). EF1? 2a was the most stably expressed EF1? gene in all soybean tissues under stress. Taken together, our data provide guidelines for the selection of EF1? genes for use as reference genes in qPCR expression analyses during plant development and under stress conditions.
Few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol and drug use in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The current study sought to examine the prevalence and associated demographic, disease-related, and psychological correlates of substance use in an East Coast United States outpatient MS sample.
Protease activated receptors (PARs) are G-protein coupled receptors that are activated by an unique proteolytic mechanism. These receptors play crucial roles in hemostasis and thrombosis but also in inflammation and vascular development. PARs have also been implicated in tumor progression, invasion and metastasis. In this study, we investigated expression and signaling of PAR1 in nonmalignant pleural mesothelial (Met-5A) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (NCI-H28) cells. We found that the expression level of PAR1 was markedly higher in NCI-H28 cells compared to Met-5A and human primary mesothelial cells. Other three malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines, i.e. REN, Ist-Mes2, and Mero-14, did not show any significant PAR1 over-expression compared to Met-5A cell line. Thrombin and PAR1 activating peptides enhanced Met-5A and NCI-H28 cell proliferation but in NCI-H28 cells higher thrombin concentrations were required to obtain the same proliferation increase. Similarly, thrombin caused extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in both cell lines but NCI-H28 cells responded at higher agonist concentrations. We also determined that PAR1 signaling through Gq and G12/13 proteins is severely altered in NCI-H28 cells compared to Met-5A cells. On the contrary, PAR1 signaling through Gi proteins was persistently maintained in NCI-H28 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated a reduction of cell surface PAR1 expression in NCI-H28 and malignant pleural mesothelioma REN cells. Thus, our results provide evidences for dysfunctional PAR1 signaling in NCI-H28 cells together with reduced plasma membrane localization. The role of PAR1 in mesothelioma progression is just emerging and our observations can promote further investigations focused on this G-protein coupled receptor.
Social dominance hierarchies play a pivotal role in shaping the behaviour of many species, and sex differences within these hierarchies often exist. To date, however, few physical markers of dominance have been identified. Such markers would be valuable in terms of understanding the etiology of dominant behaviour and changes in social hierarchies over time. Animals may also use such traits to evaluate the potential dominance of others relative to themselves (i.e. a physical "cue"). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), for example, has been suggested as a cue to dominance in humans, with links to both dominant behaviour and the perception of dominance in other individuals. Whether this association is present in non-human animals is currently not known. Therefore, here we examine within-species links between fWHR and dominant behaviour in 64 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) aged between 2 and 40 years. fWHR was positively associated with alpha status and with a dimensional rating of assertive personality in both males and females. Moreover, fWHR showed significant sexual dimorphism in adults but not juveniles, suggesting a developmental change may occur during puberty. In a sub-sample, sex differences were mediated by weight, suggesting fWHR dimorphism does not exceed what would be expected by differences in body weight. This is the first report of an association between face shape and behaviour in a non-human species. Results are discussed in terms of the role that face-behaviour associations might play within capuchin societies, and the possible selective forces that might have led to the evolution of fWHR-dominance associations in humans.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute hormone response to exercise differed between low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise and traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in college-aged women. A total of 13 healthy women (aged 18-25 yrs), who were taking oral contraceptives, volunteered for this randomized crossover study. Subjects performed a session of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR) (20% of 1-RM, 1 set 30 reps, 2 sets 15 reps) and a session of traditional high intensity resistance exercise without blood flow restriction (HI) (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1-RM) on separate days. Fasting serum cortisol and growth hormone (GH) and blood lactate responses were measured in the morning pre and post exercise sessions. GH (Change: HI: 6.34 ± 1.72; BFR: 4.22 ± 1.40 ng·mL(-1)) and cortisol (Change: HI: 4.46 ± 1.53; BFR: 8.10 ± 2.30 ug·dL(-1)) significantly (p < 0.05) increased immediately post exercise for both protocols compared to baseline and there were no significant differences between the protocols for these responses. In contrast, blood lactate levels (HI: 7.35 ± 0.45; BFR: 4.02 ± 0.33 mmol·L(-1)) and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly (p < 0.01) higher for the HI protocol. In conclusion, acute BFR restricted resistance exercise stimulated similar increases in anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women. Key PointsGrowth hormone and cortisol levels significantly increased after a single bout of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise in young women.There were no significant differences in hormone responses between the low intensity blood flow restricted protocol and the traditional high intensity higher total workload protocol.Low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise provides a sufficient stimulus to elicit anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women.
The essential oils of leaves and twigs from the Euphorbiaceous Croton draconoides, C. urucurana and Julocroton triqueter were obtained and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In total, 101 volatile constituents were identified, comprising an average of 90% of the oil, mostly made up of mono- and sesquiterpenes. The monoterpene hydrocarbons varied from 1.2 to 40.2%, the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons from 34.0 to 49.6% and the oxygenated sesquiterpenes from 11.5 to 51.3%. The main compounds found in the oil of C. draconoides were beta-pinene (16.9%), alpha-pinene (16.5%), curzerene (12.8%), germacrene D (9.0%), gamma-elemene (4.7%), and elemol (4.4%). The oil of C. urucurana showed sesquicineole (23.0%), dehydro-sesquicineole (13.8%), beta-caryophyllene (7.9%), beta-bisabolol (5.0%), germacrene D (4.2%) and beta-elemene (4.1%) as the chief compounds. The oil of J. triqueter was dominated by beta-caryophyllene (16.3%), beta-phellandrene (10.2%), spathulenol (5.1%), caryophyllene oxide (5.0%), delta-cadinene (4.3%), (E)-nerolidol (4.3%), and alpha-copaene (4.1%).
Parasitic protozoa of the flagellate order Kinetoplastida represent one of the deepest branches of the eukaryotic tree. Among this group of organisms, the mechanism of RNA interference (RNAi) has been investigated in Trypanosoma brucei and to a lesser degree in Leishmania (Viannia) spp. The pathway is triggered by long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and in T. brucei requires a set of five core genes, including a single Argonaute (AGO) protein, T. brucei AGO1 (TbAGO1). The five genes are conserved in Leishmania (Viannia) spp. but are absent in other major kinetoplastid species, such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major. In T. brucei small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are methylated at the 3 end, whereas Leishmania (Viannia) sp. siRNAs are not. Here we report that T. brucei HEN1, an ortholog of the metazoan HEN1 2-O-methyltransferases, is required for methylation of siRNAs. Loss of TbHEN1 causes a reduction in the length of siRNAs. The shorter siRNAs in hen1(-/-) parasites are single stranded and associated with TbAGO1, and a subset carry a nontemplated uridine at the 3 end. These findings support a model wherein TbHEN1 methylates siRNA 3 ends after they are loaded into TbAGO1 and this methylation protects siRNAs from uridylation and 3 trimming. Moreover, expression of TbHEN1 in Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis did not result in siRNA 3 end methylation, further emphasizing mechanistic differences in the trypanosome and Leishmania RNAi mechanisms.
Secondary data sources are widely used to measure the built asset environment, although their validity for this purpose is not well-established. Using community-engaged research methodology, this study conducted a census of public-facing, built assets via direct observation and then tested the performance of these data against widely used secondary datasets. After engaging community organizations, a community education campaign was implemented. Using web-enabled cell phones and a web-based application prepopulated with the secondary data, census workers verified, modified, and/or added assets using street-level observation, supplementing data with web searches and telephone calls. Data were uploaded to http://www.SouthSideHealth.org . Using direct observation as the criterion standard, the sensitivity of secondary datasets was calculated. Of 5,773 assets on the prepopulated list, direct observation of public-facing assets verified 1,612 as operating; another 653 operating assets were newly identified. Sensitivity of the commercial list for nonresidential, operating assets was 61 %. Using the asset census as the criterion standard, secondary datasets were incomplete and inaccurate. Comprehensive, accurate built asset data are needed to advance urban health research, inform policy, and improve individuals access to assets.
Blood pressure lability is a phenomenon in which there is a wide range of extreme highs and lows in blood pressure measurements. These highs and lows occur at irregular intervals, and it is difficult for health care providers to isolate when this phenomenon occurs. Hypertension and hypotension occurring within minutes of the other can cause a showering of embolized blood clots to travel to the brain, heart, or lungs. The labile nature of the blood pressure can lead to the evolution of an ischemic stroke, heart failure, angina, and myocardial infarction. The aim of this article is to describe the relationship between blood pressure lability and ischemic stroke, including triggers, implications, and treatment options. A case study is included to illustrate treatment options available to health care providers.
The toxicity of 16 pharmaceutical active ionic liquids (IL-APIs) was evaluated by automated approaches based on sequential injection analysis (SIA). The implemented bioassays were centered on the inhibition of human carboxylesterase 2 and Vibrio fischeri, in the presence of the tested compounds. The inhibitory effects were quantified by calculating the inhibitor concentration required to cause 50% of inhibition (EC50). The EC50 values demonstrated that the cetylpyridinium group was one of the most toxic cations and that the imidazolium group was the less toxic. The obtained results provide important information about the safety of the studied IL-APIs and their possible use as pharmaceutical drugs. The developed automated SIA methodologies are robust screening bioassays, and can be used as a generic tools to identify the (eco)toxicity of the structural elements of ILs, contributing to a sustainable development of drugs.
Gaucher disease (GD) type I is the most common type of GD. Its main clinical manifestations are hepatosplenomegaly as well as bone and hematological abnormalities. The objective of the present study was to perform a literature review on the growth and metabolism of GD type I patients.
The goal of this study was to examine anabolic hormone, muscle damage marker and inflammation marker responses to two types of resistance training protocols in older men. Thirty-six healthy older males (mean age = 56.6 ± 0.6 years) completed 6 weeks of high-intensity resistance training (HI-RT), low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction (LI-BFR) or no exercise control group (CON) three times per week. Three upper body exercises were performed by both exercise groups at the same intensity (at 80% 1-RM), but lower body exercises were performed by the HI-RT group at 80% 1-RM and by the LI-BFR group at 20% 1-RM with vascular restriction. Resting serum creatine kinase (CK), interleukin 6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) and testosterone (T) were measured before and after training. No significant group differences in resting CK, IL-6, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and T were detected following training (P>0.05). In addition, there were no significant changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), but a trend for significant decreases in the percent changes in thigh subcutaneous fat (P = 0.051). Although training-induced anabolic hormone response did not reach statistical significance, our findings on CK and IL-6 indicated that the LI-BFR training protocol was safe and well tolerated for older men to perform to improve muscular strength.
Introduction: There are three recombinant enzymes available for the treatment of Gaucher disease (GD): imiglucerase, velaglucerase alfa, and taliglucerase alfa. Case report: A male GD type III patient, 14 years old, genotype p.L444P/L444, diagnosed at 2 years old. He had been treated with imiglucerase for 9 years since the diagnosis. In 2008, however, he presented a severe adverse reaction to imiglucerase, characterized by cough, laryngeal stridor, and periorbital edema. The infusions were suspended for 3 months when imiglucerase was restarted with premedication and a slower infusion rate. After 5 months, he presented a new adverse reaction with vomiting, tachypnea, cough, and periorbital edema. Intradermal testing confirmed IgE-mediated reaction but serological tests were negative. After 2 years and 10 months with no specific treatment and a significant worsening of the clinical picture, taliglucerase alfa was prescribed, with premedication and a slower infusion rate. At the first infusion, he presented moderate adverse reaction and the infusions were suspended. After 2 months, velaglucerase alfa was initiated uneventfully. He maintains day-hospital infusions without premedication and shows improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters. Conclusion: This is the first report of the use of velaglucerase alfa in patients with GD type III. The use of recombinant enzymes is safe for the majority of GD patients, but severe reactions may occur even many years after the beginning of the treatment. Premedication and slower infusion rate reduce the incidence of adverse reactions but may not solve the problem. This case report further demonstrates the different safety profile among all the recombinant enzymes available for the treatment of GD.
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of developing a number of diseases. Here we investigated samples from 71 pre-diabetic individuals of the VitDmet study, a 5-month high dose vitamin D3 intervention trial during Finnish winter, for their changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations and the expression of primary vitamin D target genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and adipose tissue. A negative correlation between serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone and 25(OH)D3 suggested an overall normal physiological vitamin D response among the participants. The genes CD14 and thrombomodulin (THBD) are up-regulated primary vitamin D targets and showed to be suitable gene expression markers for vitamin D signaling in both primary tissues. However, in a ranking of the samples concerning their expected response to vitamin D only the top half showed a positive correlation between the changes of CD14 or THBD mRNA and serum 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Interestingly, this categorization allows unmasking a negative correlation between changes in serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and the inflammation marker interleukin 6. We propose the genes CD14 and THBD as transcriptomic biomarkers, from which the effects of a vitamin D3 supplementation can be evaluated. These biomarkers allow the classification of subjects into those, who might benefit from a vitamin D3 supplementation, and others who do not.
We investigated the effect of early-phase insulin secretion on the incidence of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) participating in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS). We examined how a lifestyle intervention affected early-phase insulin secretion (ratio of total insulin area under the curve [AUC] and total glucose AUC [AIGR] from 0 to 30 min) during a 4-year follow-up intervention trial and whether AIGR(0-30) response was modified by insulin sensitivity (IS) and obesity.
The lipopeptide daptomycin is a member of the newest FDA-approved antimicrobial class, exhibiting potency against a broad range of Gram-positive pathogens with only rare incidences of clinical resistance. Environmental bacteria harbor an abundance of resistance determinants orthologous to those in pathogens and thus may serve as an early-warning system for future clinical emergence. A collection of morphologically diverse environmental actinomycetes demonstrating unprecedented frequencies of daptomycin resistance and high levels of resistance by antibiotic inactivation was characterized to elucidate modes of drug inactivation. In vivo studies revealed that hydrolysis plays a key role, resulting in one or both of the following structural modifications: ring hydrolysis resulting in linearization (in 44% of inactivating isolates) or deacylation of the lipid tail (29%). Characterization of the mechanism in actinomycete WAC4713 (a Streptomyces sp. with an MIC of 512 ?g/ml) demonstrated a constitutive resistance phenotype and established daptomycins circularizing ester linkage to be the site of hydrolysis. Characterization of the hydrolase responsible revealed it to be likely a serine protease. These studies suggested that daptomycin is susceptible to general proteolytic hydrolysis, which was further supported by studies using proteases of diverse origin. These findings represent the first comprehensive characterization of daptomycin inactivation in any bacterial class and may not only presage a future mechanism of clinical resistance but also suggest strategies for the development of new lipopeptides.
Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is most commonly used for bone density and morphology assessment of the limbs, but it can also be used for soft tissue area quantification by segmenting regions representing different tissues. Scanning and analyzing cross-sectional areas of larger thighs present a special challenge due to increased statistical noise created from fewer detected x-ray photons. The purpose of this technical note is to compare total, muscle and fat cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the midthigh with Stratec 3000 pQCT scans using no filter, a weak smoothing filter and a strong smoothing filter to CSA measurements of midthigh MRI scans analyzed by Image J, a public domain image processing program. Nine healthy men and women participated in this study. CSAs did not differ significantly between MRI and strongly filtered pQCT images with per cent differences ranging from -3.1% for muscle to +6.5% for fat. The per cent difference in muscle CSA values between MRI and pQCT with the weak filter (-24.0 ± 38.0%) or no filter (-44.9 ± 22.7%) was strongly related to total thigh CSA (r = 0.78-0.92, p < 0.05). We propose that the midthigh can be assessed for soft tissue area measurements with pQCT, provided that strong smoothing filter is utilized.
The purpose of this study was to determine the difference in cuff pressure which occludes arterial blood flow for two different types of cuffs which are commonly used in blood flow restriction (BFR) research. Another purpose of the study was to determine what factors (i.e., leg size, blood pressure, and limb composition) should be accounted for when prescribing the restriction cuff pressure for this technique. One hundred and sixteen (53 males, 63 females) subjects visited the laboratory for one session of testing. Mid-thigh muscle (mCSA) and fat (fCSA) cross-sectional area of the right thigh were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Following the mid-thigh scan, measurements of leg circumference, ankle brachial index, and brachial blood pressure were obtained. Finally, in a randomized order, arterial occlusion pressure was determined using both narrow and wide restriction cuffs applied to the most proximal portion of each leg. Significant differences were observed between cuff type and arterial occlusion (narrow: 235 (42) mmHg vs. wide: 144 (17) mmHg; p = 0.001, Cohens D = 2.52). Thigh circumference or mCSA/fCSA with ankle blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure, explained the most variance in the cuff pressure required to occlude arterial flow. Wide BFR cuffs restrict arterial blood flow at a lower pressure than narrow BFR cuffs, suggesting that future studies account for the width of the cuff used. In addition, we have outlined models which indicate that restrictive cuff pressures should be largely based on thigh circumference and not on pressures previously used in the literature.
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI, Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of arylsulphatase B. The incidence of MPS VI is very low, usually less than 1 case for every 1,000,000 newborns. In Northeast Brazil we identified in the county of Monte Santo (52,360 inhabitants) thirteen patients with MPS VI. The aim of this work was to identify the mutation(s) present in these patients and analyze intragenic SNPs to define possible haplotypes. The 13 MPS VI patients were found to be homozygous for the p.H178L mutation. All patients have the same haplotype for the intragenic SNPs. Based on current data, the prevalence of MPS VI in this region is estimated as 1:5,000 newborns. These results, together with pedigree analysis, strongly suggest a founder effect accounting for the high frequency of p.H178L mutation in this area. This reinforces the need of a comprehensive community genetics program for this area.
Making the transition from hospital to home can be challenging for many older adults. This article presents practice perspectives on these transitions, based on a social work intervention for older adults discharged from an acute care setting to home. An analysis of interviews with clinical social workers who managed 356 cases (n ?=? 3) and a review of their clinical notes (n =? 581) were used to identify salient themes relevant to care transitions. Concepts developed and discussed identify the role of surprises after discharge, an expanded view of the client system, and relationship building as instrumental in carrying out effective care transitions.
Blood-flow-restricted (BFR) exercise is an emerging type of exercise that may be particularly beneficial to elderly or special populations. These populations may also benefit from reductions in blood pressure (BP). The effect of BFR exercise on postexercise BP has not been examined; this should first be examined in a young, healthy population as a preliminary investigation.
We report on the investigation of the surface morphology and DC conductivity of nanostructured layer-by-layer (LbL) films from nickel tetrasulfonated phthalocyanine (NiTsPc) alternated with either multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs/NiTsPc) or multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in chitosan (MWNTs+Ch/NiTsPc). We have explored the surface morphology of the films by using fractal concepts and dynamic scale laws. The MWNTs/NiTsPc LbL films were found to have a fractal dimension of ca. 2, indicating a quasi Euclidean surface. MWNTs+Ch/NiTsPc LbL films are described by the Lai-Das Sarma-Villain (LDV) model, which predicts the deposition of particles and their subsequent relaxation. An increase in the wetting contact angle of MWNTs+Ch/NiTsPc LbL films was observed, as compared with MWNTs/NiTsPc LbL films, which presented an increase in the fractal dimension of the first system. Room temperature conductivities were found be ca. 0.45 S/cm for MWNTs/NiTsPc and 1.35 S/cm for MWNTs+Ch/NiTsPc.
The discovery of antibiotics more than 70 years ago initiated a period of drug innovation and implementation in human and animal health and agriculture. These discoveries were tempered in all cases by the emergence of resistant microbes. This history has been interpreted to mean that antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria is a modern phenomenon; this view is reinforced by the fact that collections of microbes that predate the antibiotic era are highly susceptible to antibiotics. Here we report targeted metagenomic analyses of rigorously authenticated ancient DNA from 30,000-year-old Beringian permafrost sediments and the identification of a highly diverse collection of genes encoding resistance to ?-lactam, tetracycline and glycopeptide antibiotics. Structure and function studies on the complete vancomycin resistance element VanA confirmed its similarity to modern variants. These results show conclusively that antibiotic resistance is a natural phenomenon that predates the modern selective pressure of clinical antibiotic use.
Low-intensity blood flow restricted (LI-BFR) resistance training has been shown to produce comparable increases in muscle hypertrophy to traditional high-intensity (HI) resistance training. However, a comparison of the acute vascular responses between the two types of exercise has not been made. The purpose of this study is to compare the acute vascular responses of HI, low-intensity (LI), and LI-BFR resistance exercise. Using a randomized, cross-over design, 11 young (28 ± 5 years) males completed three acute resistance exercise bouts (HI, LI and LI-BFR). Before (Pre), and starting at 15- and 45-min after each exercise bout, large (LAEI) and small (SAEI) artery compliance and calf blood flow were assessed. Calf blood flow was normalized per unit pressure as calf vascular conductance (CVC). Repeated measures (condition × time) ANOVA revealed a main time effect for LAEI and a main condition effect for SAEI. LAEI increased following exercise but returned to baseline at 45-min post. SAEI was greater during the HI condition compared to the LI or LI-BFR conditions. There was a significant condition × time interaction for CVC. CVC was elevated at 15- and 45-min post during the HI condition and at 15-min following the LI condition. CVC was not altered following the LI-BFR condition. These results suggest that HI, LI, and LI-BFR resistance exercise cause similar acute increases in large artery compliance but HI causes greater increases in small artery compliance and calf vascular conductance than LI or LI-BFR resistance exercise.
The antiherpes effects of the crude extract obtained from Ilex paraguariensis leaves (yerba mate) and their purified fractions were investigated. The most active fraction was selected and assayed to determine the viral multiplication steps upon which it acted. In order to detect the major components of this fraction, thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis was performed. The antiviral activity was evaluated against HSV-1 and HSV-2 by a viral plaque number reduction assay (IC(50) ) and the cytotoxicity by a MTT assay (CC(50) ). According to the obtained results, all tested samples showed antiherpes activity at noncytotoxic concentrations, and the ethyl acetate fraction was the most active (SI = CC(50) /IC(50) ?= 188.7 and 264.7 for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively). The results also demonstrated that this fraction exerts antiviral activity by the reduction of viral infectivity, the inhibition of virus entry into cells and cell-to-cell virus spread, as well as by the impaired levels of ICP27, ICP4, gD and gE proteins of HSV-1. The TLC analysis showed that this fraction contains monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponins, matesaponin-1 (a bidesmosidic one), caffeic and chlorogenic acids and rutin, which suggests that they could act synergistically and be responsible for the detected antiherpes activity.
The purpose was to examine relationships between age, fat mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) with resting leptin levels in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Young (aged 18-30 yr, n=30) and estrogen-deficient postmenopausal (aged 55-75 yr, n=43) women were recruited. Total body and segmental fat mass and bone-free lean body mass (BFLBM) and total body, lumbar spine, and proximal femur BMD were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum-resting, fasted leptin levels were measured by Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA), and leptin-to-fat mass ratios were calculated. Young and older women had similar amounts of BFLBM, but older women had greater (p<0.05) amounts of fat mass and 35% higher leptin levels. Age differences in leptin concentrations were no longer significant after controlling for fat mass. Older women had significantly (p<0.05) lower hip BMD values. Age was negatively related (r=-0.29, p<0.05) to leptin:trunk fat ratio. Increases in fat mass, not menopause per se, contributes to higher leptin levels in older women. Relationships between leptin and BMD may be age dependent.
Antiracism training for staff of health care institutions is a promising intervention strategy to address racial and ethnic disparities in health care. In 2001, Southern County Public Health Department (SCPHD) staff completed a mandatory Dismantling Racism (DR) training, and some continued with an optional DR process to challenge institutional racism within their agency. To explore factors influencing participation in optional DR activities (i.e., caucuses and Change Team), a process evaluation was conducted involving in-depth interviews with 28 SCPHD administrators and staff members, whose participation in the DR process varied. Findings demonstrate that familiarity with and receptiveness to the relationship between racism and health care inequities influenced participation in DR activities. Perceived relevance and impact of the DR process on the organization and staff were also major factors affecting participation. Improvements for implementing such efforts including the consideration of institutional power and other implications for addressing racial health care inequities through antiracism initiatives are discussed.
HUVEC or mouse 3T3 cells infected with SV-40 generate within 3 to 5 days post-infection an ENOX2 species corresponding to the exon-4 minus splice variant of a tumor-associated NADH oxidase (ENOX2 or tNOX) expressed at the cancer cell surface. This study was to seek evidence for splicing factors that might direct formation of the exon 4 minus ENOX2 splice variant. To determine if silencing of ENOX2 exon 4 occurs because of motifs located in exon 4, transfections were performed on MCF-10A (mammary non-cancer), BT-20 (mammary cancer), and HeLa (cervical cancer) cells using a GFP minigene construct containing either a constitutively spliced exon (albumin exon 2) or the alternatively spliced ENOX2 exon 4 between the two GFP halves. Removal of exon 4 from the processed RNA of the GFP minigene construct occurred with HeLa and to a lesser extent with BT-20 but not in non-cancer MCF-10A cells. The Splicing Rainbow Program was used to identify all of the possible hnRNPs binding sites of exon 4 of ENOX2. There are 8 Exonic Splicing Silencers (ESSs) for hnRNP binding in the exon 4 sequences. Each of these sites were mutated by site-directed mutagenesis to test if any were responsible for the splicing skip. Results showed MutG75 ESS mutation changed the GFP expression which is a sign of splicing silence, while other mutations did not. As MutG75 changed the ESS binding site for hnRNP F, this result suggests that hnRNP F directs formation of the exon 4 minus variant of ENOX2.
Adolescent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination uptake, as a means of cervical cancer prevention, remains suboptimal with significant racial disparity. A survey study of mothers already engaging in their own cancer screening, at a predominantly black urban site and a predominantly white suburban site, finds that a majority of mothers surveyed support hypothetical mandates for adolescent HPV vaccination three years after the introduction of these vaccines. Enactment of state laws may represent an efficient means to improve HPV vaccination in adolescent daughters of these mothers. Nevertheless, in a sizable minority, maternal perceptions of the HPV vaccine may hinder adherence to these vaccination laws. In these women, tailored interventions directed at these perceptions may be required.
Both load cell and mechanical scale-based hydrostatic weighing (HW) systems are used for the measurement of underwater weight. However, there has been no direct comparison of the 2 methods. The purpose of the current investigation was to simultaneously compare a load cell and mechanical scale for use in HW. Twenty-seven men and women (mean ± SD, age: 22 ± 2 years) participated in the 2-day investigation. Each subject completed 2 HW assessments 24 hours apart. Single-day comparisons of all trials for both days revealed no significant difference between the mechanical scale and the load cell (mean difference < 0.016 kg, p > 0.05). True underwater weight values were not significantly different between methods for either days (mean difference < 0.014 kg, p > 0.05) and accounted for a mean difference in percent fat (%FAT) of <0.108%. The 95% limits of agreement indicated a maximum difference between methods of 0.53% FAT. Both methods produced similar reliability SEM values (mechanical SEM < 0.72%FAT, load cell SEM < 0.75%FAT). In conclusion, there was no difference between mechanical scale and load cell measurements of underwater weights and the added precision of the load cell only marginally (<0.16%FAT) improved day-to-day reliability. Either a mechanical scale or load cell can be used for HW with similar accuracy and reliability in young adults with a body mass index of 18.7-34.4 (5-25%FAT).
A new RNA world has emerged in the past 10 years with the discovery of a plethora of 20- to 30-nucleotide long small RNAs that are involved in various gene silencing mechanisms. These small RNAs have considerably changed our view of the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms, with a major shift towards epigenetic and post-transcriptional mechanisms. In this article, we focus on the striking diversity of small silencing RNAs that have been identified in several protozoan parasites and their potential biological role.
The aim of this study was to examine and compare the effects of different resistance training protocols on bone marker concentrations in older men. Thirty-seven healthy older male subjects were assigned to one of three groups: high-intensity resistance training (HI-RT, age = 57.5 ± 0.8); low-intensity resistance training with vascular restriction (LI-VRT, age = 59.9 ± 1.0); and control (CON, age = 57.0 ± 1.1). Blood samples were collected before and after 6 weeks of resistance training to measure the changes in bone formation [bone alkaline phosphatase, (Bone ALP)] and resorption (C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of Type-I collagen, CTX) marker concentrations. A significant main effect for time was detected in Bone ALP to CTX ratio for the exercise groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant group effect for percentage changes in serum Bone ALP (21% for LI-VRT, 23% for HI-RT, and 4.7% for CON) and post hoc analysis identified significant increases in serum Bone ALP concentrations in LI-VRT (p = 0.03) and HI-RT (p = 0.02) when compared with CON. The exercise groups had significantly (p < 0.01) greater strength increases in all upper body and leg exercises compared with CON with no significant differences between the exercise groups except for leg extension strength (HI-RT > LI-VRT, p < 0.05). Serum concentrations of Bone ALP and Bone ALP to CTX ratio improved in both resistance training protocols, suggesting increased bone turnover with a balance favoring bone formation. Therefore, despite using low mechanical load, LI-VRT is a potentially effective training alternative to traditional HI-RT for enhancing bone health in older men.
Rock climbing is rapidly increasing in popularity as a recreational activity and as a competitive sport. Few studies have tested acute physiological responses to climbing, and no studies to date have tested hormone responses to a climbing-based workout. This study aimed to measure testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (C) responses to continuous vertical climbing in young male rock climbers. Ten male rock climbers, aged between 21 and 30 years, climbed laps on a submaximal 55 climbing route for 30 min, or until exhaustion, whichever came first. Heart rate (HR) was recorded after every lap. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture before (Pre), immediately post (IP), and 15 min after the climbing exercise (P15) to assess blood lactate and plasma GH, T, and C. Subjects climbed 24.9 ± 1.9 min and 507.5 ± 82.5 feet. Peak HR was 182.1 ± 2.3 bpm, and lactate (Pre: 2.9 ± 0.6 mmol/dL, IP: 11.1 ± 1.0 mmol/dL) significantly (P < 0.05) increased from Pre to IP. T concentrations significantly (P < 0.05) increased from Pre (6.04 ± 0.31 ng/mL) to IP (7.39 ± 0.40 ng/mL) and returned to baseline at P15 (6.23 ± 0.33 ng/mL). Cortisol levels did not significantly change during the protocol. GH significantly (P < 0.01) increased from Pre (0.63 ± 0.17 ng/mL) to IP (19.89 ± 4.53 ng/mL) and remained elevated at P15 (15.03 ± 3.89 ng/mL). An acute, short-term bout of high-intensity continuous climbing was an effective exercise stimulus for elevating plasma testosterone and growth hormone levels in young males.
We report an 18-month-old Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) patient who developed a rapid-onset neuropathy, with proximal and distal weakness, and non-uniform nerve conduction studies. The neuropathy responded well to immunomodulation, confirming the coexistence of an inherited and an inflammatory neuropathy. Unexpected clinical and/or electrophysiological manifestations in CMT1A patients should alert clinicians to concomitant inflammatory neuropathy. In addition, this association raises reflections about disease mechanism in CMT1A.
The ability to accurately estimate changes in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) could be a useful tool for strength and conditioning practitioners to assess the effectiveness of a resistance training program. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to compare the reliability of 2 separate anthropometric-based field estimations of thigh muscle CSA with that of a more accurate, sophisticated imaging technique (peripheral quantitative computed tomography [pQCT] scanner) and (b) to determine if the field methods would be sensitive enough to detect changes in CSA during a resistance training program. Twenty-five healthy, untrained men completed 8 weeks of resistance training. Cross-sectional area testing occurred twice before the start of training, for reliability and again every 2 weeks during the study. Testing consisted of a pQCT scan of the right thigh followed by circumference and skinfold measurements. Two separate equations (Moritani and deVries [M + D] and Housh multiple regression [HMR]) were used to estimate CSA from the anthropometric data. The M + D and HMR methods demonstrated intraclass correlations of 0.983 and 0.961, respectively, but both significantly underestimated thigh muscle CSA when compared to the pQCT. This error was consistent, however, and consequently, the field methods were able to demonstrate increases in muscle CSA with a pattern similar to those from the pQCT. Thus, these equations can be useful tools to evaluate an athletes progress toward the goal of increasing muscle CSA. It is the authors hope that the present study will increase awareness among practitioners of these useful field methods for estimating training-induced changes in muscle CSA.
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Growth failure is characteristic of untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI: Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). Growth was studied in fifty-six MPS VI patients (5 to 29 years old) prior to and for up to 240 weeks of weekly infusions of recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB) at 1 mg/kg during Phase 1/2, Phase 2, Phase 3 or Phase 3 Extension clinical trials. Height, weight, and Tanner stage data were collected. Pooled data were analyzed to determine mean height increase by treatment week, growth impacts of pubertal status, baseline urinary GAG, and age at treatment initiation. Growth rate for approximately 2 years prior to and following treatment initiation was analyzed using longitudinal modeling. RESULTS: Mean height increased by 2.9 cm after 48 weeks and 4.3 cm after 96 weeks on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Growth on ERT was not correlated with baseline urinary GAG. Patients under 16 years of age showed greatest increases in height on treatment. Model results based on pooled data showed significant improvement in growth rate during 96 weeks of ERT when compared to the equivalent pretreatment time period. Delayed pubertal onset or progression was noted in 10 patients entering the clinical trials; all of whom showed progression of at least one Tanner stage during 2 years on ERT, and 6 of whom (60%) completed puberty. CONCLUSION: Analysis of mean height by treatment week and longitudinal modeling demonstrate significant increase in height and growth rate in MPS VI patients receiving long-term ERT. This impact was greatest in patients aged below 16 years. Height increase may result from bone growth and/or reduction in joint contractures. Bone growth and resolution of delayed puberty may be related to improvements in general health, bone cell health, nutrition, endocrine gland function and reduced inflammation.
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has been used to track changes in total body water (TBW). Accurate TBW estimations can be influenced by both methodological and biological factors. One methodological variation that contributes to BIS TBW errors is the electrode placement. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reproducibility and validity of fixed-distance electrode placements (5 cm) with the standard single-site electrode placements. Twenty-nine subjects (fifteen men and fourteen women) participated in the reproducibility study, while sixty-nine subjects (thirty-three men and thirty-six women) participated in the validity study. The reproducibility study included two measurements that were taken 24 h apart, while the validity study consisted of a 12-week exercise intervention with measurements taken at weeks 1 and 12. TBW was estimated using BIS and 2H techniques. Reproducibility results indicated that fixed-distance electrodes reduced the day-to-day standard error of the measurement in men (from 1·13 to 0·81 litres) but not in women (0·47 litres). sem values were lower for women than for men, suggesting that BIS TBW estimates are sex dependent. Validity results produced similar accurate findings (mean difference < 0·21 litres). However, fixed-distance electrodes improved delta TBW errors (mean difference improvements>0·04 litres in men, women, and men and women combined). When tracking changes in TBW, fixed-distance electrodes may reduce reproducibility errors and allow for smaller changes to be detected. However, the reduction of reproducibility errors may be greater for men than for women. Therefore, reproducibility calculations should be based on the sex of the sample population.
The common polymorphism rs9939609 of the fat mass and obesity-associated gene (FTO) is strongly associated with obesity, but the biological function is still unknown. We compared the FTO gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) between overweight and normal weight individuals. We also investigated if mRNA levels of FTO in adipose tissue correlated with the adiposity or inflammatory markers and mRNA levels of genes involved in the response to hypoxia (HIF-1a) and cell death(HMGB1).
A 3-year-old Ragdoll cat was referred for investigation of polyuria, polydipsia, vomiting, weight loss and hypercalcaemia. Serum biochemical abnormalities included total and ionised hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia. Following clinical investigations a diagnosis of idiopathic hypercalcaemia was made. Because of the severity of the hypercalcaemia and the associated clinical signs, treatment for hypercalcaemia was commenced with pamidronate. Major electrolyte abnormalities were detected but, remarkably, were accompanied by minimal clinical signs. The cat was subsequently treated with oral alendronate and is clinically normal 15 months later. Reports of the use of bisphosphonates in cats are limited and close monitoring of patients is recommended.
Oral infection by Trypanosoma cruzi has been the primary cause of recent outbreaks of acute Chagas diseases. This route of infection may involve selective binding of the metacyclic trypomastigote surface molecule gp82 to gastric mucin as a first step towards invasion of the gastric mucosal epithelium and subsequent systemic infection. Here we addressed that question by performing in vitro and in vivo experiments. A recombinant protein containing the complete gp82 sequence (J18), a construct lacking the gp82 central domain (J18*), and 20-mer synthetic peptides based on the gp82 central domain, were used for gastric mucin binding and HeLa cell invasion assays, or for in vivo experiments. Metacyclic trypomastigotes and J18 bound to gastric mucin whereas J18* failed to bind. Parasite or J18 binding to submaxillary mucin was negligible. HeLa cell invasion by metacyclic forms was not affected by gastric mucin but was inhibited in the presence of submaxillary mucin. Of peptides tested for inhibition of J18 binding to gastric mucin, the inhibitory peptide p7 markedly reduced parasite invasion of HeLa cells in the presence of gastric mucin. Peptide p7*, with the same composition as p7 but with a scrambled sequence, had no effect. Mice fed with peptide p7 before oral infection with metacyclic forms developed lower parasitemias than mice fed with peptide p7*. Our results indicate that selective binding of gp82 to gastric mucin may direct T. cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes to stomach mucosal epithelium in oral infection.
Pulmonary function is impaired in untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI). Pulmonary function was studied in patients during long-term enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB; rhN-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase). Pulmonary function tests prior to and for up to 240 weeks of weekly infusions of rhASB at 1 mg/kg were completed in 56 patients during Phase 1/2, Phase 2, Phase 3 and Phase 3 Extension trials of rhASB and the Survey Study. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and, in a subset of patients, maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), were analyzed as absolute volume in liters. FEV1 and FVC showed little change from baseline during the first 24 weeks of ERT, but after 96 weeks, these parameters increased over baseline by 11% and 17%, respectively. This positive trend compared with baseline continued beyond 96 weeks of treatment. Improvements from baseline in pulmonary function occurred along with gains in height in the younger group (5.5% change) and in the older patient group (2.4% change) at 96 weeks. Changes in MVV occurred earlier within 24 weeks of treatment to approximately 15% over baseline. Model results based on data from all trials showed significant improvements in the rate of change in pulmonary function during 96 weeks on ERT, whereas little or no improvement was observed for the same time period prior to ERT. Thus, analysis of mean percent change data and longitudinal modeling both indicate that long-term ERT resulted in improvement in pulmonary function in MPS VI patients.
The nature of muscular contractions and episodes of impact loading during technical rock climbing are often varied and complex, and the resulting effects on bone health are unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare total body, lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and tibia and forearm bone quality in male rock climbers (RC) (n = 15), resistance trained men (RT) (n = 16), and untrained male controls (CTR) (n = 16). Total body, anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine, proximal femur, and forearm aBMD and body composition were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (Lunar Prodigy, v. 10.50.086; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin, U.S.A.). Volumetric BMD (vBMD), bone content, bone area, and muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) of the tibia and forearm were measured using pQCT (peripheral quantitative computed tomography; Stratec XCT 3000, Pforzheim, Germany). No significant group differences were seen in bone-free lean body mass. CTR had significantly (p < 0.05) greater body fat % than RC and RT and significantly (p < 0.05) greater fat mass than RC. Lumbar spine and femoral neck aBMD were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in RT compared to both RC and CTR. RC had significantly (p < 0.05) lower aBMD at the 33% radius site than CTR. Forearm MCSA was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in CTR than in the other groups. No significant differences were seen between groups for vBMD or bone area of the tibia and forearm. In conclusion, resistance-trained men had higher bone density at the central skeletal sites than rock climbers; however, bone quality variables of the peripheral limbs were similar in rock climber and resistance-trained groups.
To investigate differences in muscle and fat tissue between amputated and intact limbs in subjects with transfemoral and transtibial amputations and to determine the effect of amputation level on limb differences. We hypothesized that the amputated limb would have a higher relative amount of fat than the intact limb, and transfemoral amputees would have greater limb differences in muscle size than transtibial amputees.
Epidemiological studies indicate that nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common cause of cirrhosis described as cryptogenic. To address this from a histological perspective and to examine the significance of residual histological findings as an indication of prior NASH, we looked back at biopsies in patients who presented with cirrhosis without sufficient histological features to diagnose NASH but who had prior histologically confirmed non-cirrhotic NASH.
Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is frequently found in individuals with untreated celiac disease (CD), possibly due to calcium and vitamin D malabsorption, release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and misbalanced bone remodeling. A gluten-free diet (GFD) promotes a rapid increase in BMD that leads to complete recovery of bone mineralization in children. Children may attain normal peak bone mass if the diagnosis is made and treatment is given before puberty, thereby preventing osteoporosis in later life. A GFD improves, but rarely normalizes, BMD in patients diagnosed with CD in adulthood. In some cases, nutritional supplementation may be necessary. More information on therapeutic alternatives is needed.
The aim of the present study was to review the possible role of dietary lipids in diabetic nephropathy (DN), taking into account associated abnormalities of serum lipids and interaction of dietary and genetic aspects. Dietary lipids may have an important role in the development and progression of DN. The fat diet composition has been associated with DN, particularly with microalbuminuria, serum lipids abnormalities, and endothelial function. However, the beneficial effect of fat intake modification for these patients is not fully established, especially regarding hard outcomes, such as DN incidence and progression, kidney failure, and death. Moreover, genetic factors may influence the response of serum lipids to fat intake. The identification of specific genetic polymorphisms associated with this interaction could allow adoption of individual nutritional strategies in DN.
Mastrunço (Coronopus didymus--CD) is currently considered as a medicinal specie often used in Brazil, especially in southeast region, for the treatment of several diseases in which pain and inflammation are common. Treatment with the plant can be done by infusion, decoction, or through food. The aim of this study was: to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of CD following the traditional procedure.
The tight glycemic control can prevent and/or delay the development of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). Dietary carbohydrates are the main determinant of postprandial blood glucose and glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load are used to predict blood glucose response to foods. The aim of this paper was to critically review the role of low GI diets in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) prevention and metabolic control. The risk for development of T2DM with high GI diets ranged from 1.21 to 1.59.The reduction from 12-32 units in the GI of diets decreased 0.39-0.50% in HbA1c values. However, the effects of these diets on lipid profile and body weight in patients with T2DM remain controversial. In conclusion, the current evidence indicates that the inclusion of GI in the dietary planning for patients with T2DM contributes to the improvement of glycemic control.
Dietary fiber may contribute to both the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In epidemiological studies the intake of insoluble fiber, but not the intake of soluble fiber, has been inversely associated with the incidence of T2DM. In contrast, in postprandial studies, meals containing sufficiently quantities of beta-glucan, psyllium, or guar gum have decreased insulin and glucose responses in both healthy individuals and patients with T2DM. Diets enriched sufficiently in soluble fiber may also improve overall glycemic control in T2DM. Insoluble fiber has little effect on postprandial insulin and glucose responses. Fiber increases satiety. In some studies, insoluble fiber has been associated with less weight gain over time. Limited cross-sectional evidence suggests an inverse relationship between intake of cereal fiber and whole-grains and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Although long-term data from trials focusing on specifically dietary fiber are lacking, meeting current recommendations for a minimum fiber intake of 25 g/d based on a diet rich in whole grains, fruits and legumes will probably decrease the risk of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and T2DM.
As the number of women entering urology grows, so should discussions and awareness about pregnancy. To understand if urology training and practice potentially put women and their pregnancies at risk, we set out to assess the childbearing differences between the average American woman and the female urologist.
Four species of Ligophorus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae), i.e., L. tainhae n. sp., L. brasiliensis n. sp., L. guanduensis n. sp., and L. lizae n. sp., are described. The specimens were collected from the gills of Mugil liza (Mugilidae) from the Guandu River (22 degrees 4832"S, 43 degrees 3735"W), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between January 2008 and March 2008. The male copulatory organ of L. tainhae n. sp. differs from the all known species of this genus in having the largest accessory piece, the length of accessory piece exceeding the length of the copulatory organ tube, and the distal tip of the lower lobe crossing the upper lobe. Ligophorus brasiliensis n. sp. and L. guanduensis n. sp. have a similar shape of the accessory piece, but in L. guanduensis n. sp. the lower lobe is larger than the upper lobe (as opposed to L. brasiliensis n. sp.), the ratio between length of upper lobe and the length of the proximal part of the accessory piece before the bifurcation is shorter and the distal tip of the lower lobe extends to the level of the upper lobe (in L. brasiliensis n. sp. the distal tip of lower lobe crossing the upper lobe). In L. lizae n. sp., the terminal bifurcations of the accessory piece are equal in length and unequal in the other 3 new species. Species of Ligophorus are recorded for the first time from Brazil.
Using outcomes data from the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis exploring the costs and benefits of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). A multistage Markov decision analysis model was developed with treatment, including medical management only (strategy 1), waiting list with possible deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT; strategy 2), and waiting list with possible LDLT or DDLT (strategy 3) over 10 years. Decompensated cirrhosis with medical management offered survival of 2.0 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) while costing an average of $65,068, waiting list with possible DDLT offered 4.4-QALY survival and a mean cost of $151,613, and waiting list with possible DDLT or LDLT offered 4.9-QALY survival and a mean cost of $208,149. Strategy 2 had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $35,976 over strategy 1, whereas strategy 3 produced an ICER of $106,788 over strategy 2. On average, strategy 3 cost $47,693 more per QALY than strategy 1. Both DDLT and LDLT were cost-effective compared to medical management of cirrhosis over our 10-year study period. The addition of LDLT to a standard waiting list DDLT program is effective at improving recipient survival and preventing waiting list deaths but at a greater cost.
Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the sickle cell disease. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent antioxidant that is employed in the treatment of several diseases. The objective of this study was to test the ALA effect in the sickle cell disease (SCD) treatment.
The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between muscular strength, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in untrained postmenopausal women who are not on hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Fifty-five women (age: 63.3+/-0.6yr) completed menstrual history, physical activity, and calcium intake questionnaires. Total and regional body composition and total body, anteroposterior lumbar spine, nondominant forearm, and right proximal femur BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (GE Lunar Prodigy, Prodigy enCORE software version 10.50.086, Madison, WI). Participants performed strength tests for 3 upper body and 5 lower body resistance exercises. Women with a relative skeletal muscle mass index (RSMI) value less than 5.45 kg/m(2) were defined as a sarcopenia group (SAR). SAR had significantly (p < 0.05) lower total body and forearm BMD compared with those who were not sarcopenic. BMD sites were significantly correlated with upper body strength (UBS) and lower body strength (LBS) (r = 0.28-0.50, p < 0.01), with the strength of relationship being site specific. Strength and fat mass (FM) significantly predicted total body BMD (R(2) = 0.232-0.241, p < 0.05), FM variables predicted spine BMD (R(2) = 0.109-0.140, p < 0.05), and LBS and RSMI predicted hip BMD sites (R(2) = 0.073-0.237, p < 0.05). Body composition variables failed to significantly predict LBS. In conclusion, the contribution of body composition and strength variables to BMD varied by site as FM was more important for total body, forearm and spine BMD, and LBS exerted greater influence on the hip sites.
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