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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Dietary protein intake affects amino acid and acylcarnitine metabolism in infants aged 6 months.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Context: The protective effect of breastfeeding against later obesity may be explained by the lower protein content compared to formula milk. However, the metabolic mechanisms remain unknown. Objective: We studied the metabolic response to a higher or lower protein supply in infancy. Design and Setting: The Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP) study is a double-blind, randomized, multicenter intervention trial. Infants were randomized to receive a higher (HP) or lower protein (LP) content infant formula or were breastfed. Patients and Interventions: Plasma samples of 691 infants who received formula milk with different protein content (HP, 2.05 g/100ml; LP, 1.25 g/100ml) or were breastfed were collected. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in plasma amino acid and acylcarnitine concentrations of 6-months old infants according to different dietary protein supply were determined by LC-MS/MS. Results: Twenty-nine metabolites differed significantly between the formula groups. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) were the most discriminant metabolites. Their degradation products, the short-chain acylcarnitines C3, C4 and C5, were also significantly elevated in the HP group. A breakpoint analysis confirmed that with increasing BCAA, the ratio between acylcarnitines and BCAA decreases. Long-chain acylcarnitines were decreased in HP-infants. Conclusions: BCAA seem to play a pivotal role in the effect of a high protein diet on ß-oxidation and fat storage. We provide new evidence for a possible saturation of the BCAA degradation pathway that may represent the mechanism by which high protein intake affects the metabolic regulation. Moreover, it appears to inhibit the initial step of the ß-oxidation, thus leading to high early weight gain and body fat deposition.
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Influences on adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations in women and children: insights from six European studies.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Across Europe, poor health behaviours are associated with increased risks of non-communicable diseases. There is particular concern about young women, children and families, not least as health behaviours operating before and during pregnancy and in early postnatal life may have profound long-term consequences for children's health. Using findings drawn from 7 European countries, we aimed to identify barriers to the implementation and uptake of dietary and physical activity recommendations, and to consider how best to achieve changes in mothers' behaviours and thereby improve the adoption of health recommendations. Six studies across the 7 countries were used for this narrative synthesis of findings. Key Messages: A woman's education has a strong influence on her own and her children's health behaviours. Women's diets vary across ethnic groups and according to number of children, but psychological factors, such as self-efficacy and sense of control, which may be amenable to modification, are powerful, too, particularly in women with lower educational attainment. Maternal influences on children's behaviours are strong. Differences exist in infant feeding across countries, and there are apparent urban/rural differences in children's diets and physical activity.
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Reduced bone mass in 7-year-old children with asymptomatic idiopathic hypercalciuria.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Idiopathic hypercalciuria (IHC), i.e. an elevated urinary calcium excretion without concomitant hypercalcemia, is a common disorder in children and can have a range of urinary clinical presentations and decreased bone mineral density (BMD).
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Rapid Growth and Childhood Obesity Are Strongly Associated with LysoPC(14:0).
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Despite the growing interest in the early-origins-of-later-disease hypothesis, little is known about the metabolic underpinnings linking infant weight gain and childhood obesity.
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The Power of Programming and the EarlyNutrition Project: Opportunities for Health Promotion by Nutrition during the First Thousand Days of Life and Beyond.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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At The Power of Programming 2014 Conference, researchers from multiple disciplines presented and discussed the effects of early nutrition and other environmental cues during the first thousand days of life and beyond on the lifelong risk of noncommunicable diseases. This paper aims to summarize the concepts and some of the first achievements of the EarlyNutrition research project that initiated the conference. The EarlyNutrition consortium is a multinational, multidisciplinary research collaboration of researchers from Europe, the USA, and Australia. A focus is placed on exploration of the developmental origins of obesity, adiposity, and related health outcomes. Here we report on the first findings of experimental approaches, cohort studies, randomized clinical trials, and systematic reviews of current information, as well as position papers, which have all been developed with the involvement of project partners. We conclude that the EarlyNutrition project has successfully established itself during the first 2 project years as a very strong platform for collaborative research on early programming effects. The first results, available already at this early stage of the project, point to great opportunities for health prevention strategies via the implementation of dietary and lifestyle modifications, with large effect sizes. Further results are expected which should support improved recommendations and related policies for optimized nutrition and lifestyle choices before and during pregnancy, in infancy, and in early childhood. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Lower protein content in infant formula reduces BMI and obesity risk at school age: follow-up of a randomized trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Early nutrition is recognized as a target for the effective prevention of childhood obesity. Protein intake was associated with more rapid weight gain during infancy-a known risk factor for later obesity.
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Complementary feeding and obesity risk.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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This article will summarize recent progress in research in the area of complementary feeding as it relates to childhood obesity. Newly emerged findings demonstrate how research on contributing factors has shifted. Examining nutrient and caloric intakes alone has failed to answer the critical question, 'Why are some children obese, whereas others are not?' Recent research explores parental attitudes, beliefs and parental feeding styles as contributing factors.
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Infant formula composition affects energetic efficiency for growth: the BeMIM study, a randomized controlled trial.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Protein source, macronutrient composition and content of long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) of infant formulae may influence infant growth. We aimed to assess the effect of a modified infant formula on growth.
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Disease associated malnutrition correlates with length of hospital stay in children.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Previous studies reported a wide range of estimated malnutrition prevalence (6-30%) in paediatric inpatients based on various anthropometric criteria. We performed anthropometry in hospitalised children and assessed the relationship between malnutrition and length of hospital stay (LOS) and complication rates.
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Varicella routine vaccination and the effects on varicella epidemiology - results from the Bavarian Varicella Surveillance Project (BaVariPro), 2006-2011.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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In 2004, routine varicella vaccination was recommended in Germany for children 11-14 months of age with one dose, and since 2009, with a second dose at 15-23 months of age. The effects on varicella epidemiology were investigated.
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Does insulin-like growth factor-1 mediate protein-induced kidney growth in infants? A secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Animal models have shown that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) may mediate protein-induced kidney growth. Our aim was to analyze the effect of IGF-I on protein-induced kidney growth in healthy infants.
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Associations of IGF-1 gene variants and milk protein intake with IGF-I concentrations in infants at age 6 months - results from a randomized clinical trial.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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The interplay of genetic and nutritional regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I axis in children is unclear. Therefore, potential gene-nutrient effects on serum levels of the IGF-I axis in a formula feeding trial were studied.
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Early influences of nutrition on postnatal growth.
Nestle Nutr Inst Workshop Ser
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Health and nutrition modulate postnatal growth. The availability of amino acids and energy, and insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates early growth through the mTOR pathway. Amino acids and glucose also stimulate the secretion of IGF-I and insulin. Postnatal growth induces lasting, programming effects on later body size and adiposity in animals and in human observational studies. Rapid weight gain in infancy and the first 2 years was shown to predict increased obesity risk in childhood and adulthood. Breastfeeding leads to lesser high weight gain in infancy and reduces obesity risk in later life by about 20%, presumably partly due to the lower protein supply with human milk than conventional infant formula. In a large randomized clinical trial, we tested the hypothesis that reduced infant formula protein contents lower insulin-releasing amino acid concentrations and thereby decrease circulating insulin and IGF-I levels, resulting in lesser early weight gain and reduced later obesity risk (the Early Protein Hypothesis). The results demonstrate that lowered protein in infant formula induces similar - but not equal - metabolic and endocrine responses and normalizes weight and BMI relative to breastfed controls at the age of 2 years. The results available should lead to enhanced efforts to actively promote, protect and support breastfeeding. For infants that are not breastfed or not fully breastfed, the use of infant formulas with lower protein contents but high protein quality appears preferable. Cows milk as a drink provides high protein intake and should be avoided in infancy.
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Milk protein intake, the metabolic-endocrine response, and growth in infancy: data from a randomized clinical trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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Protein intake in early infancy has been suggested to be an important risk factor for later obesity, but information on potential mechanisms is very limited.
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Severe influenza cases in paediatric intensive care units in Germany during the pre-pandemic seasons 2005 to 2008.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Data on complications in children with seasonal influenza virus infection are limited. We initiated a nation-wide three-year surveillance of children who were admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with severe seasonal influenza.
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Methodology for longitudinal assessment of nutrient intake and dietary habits in early childhood in a transnational multicenter study.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The aim of this study was to describe developed methods for repeated longitudinal assessment of feeding habits and nutrient intakes of children in a multicenter trial in different European countries and to assess feasibility.
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Nonbacterial osteitis in children: data of a German Incidence Surveillance Study.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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To analyse the incidence, clinical presentation, laboratory and radiological findings, as well as diagnostic approaches and therapeutic procedures in paediatric patients suffering from nonbacterial osteitis.
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Introduction of potentially allergenic foods in the infants diet during the first year of life in five European countries.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Little information is available on infants age at first introduction of potentially allergenic foods as part of complementary feeding. We aimed to analyze age at the introduction of potentially allergenic foods in healthy term infants relative to recommendations in 5 European countries.
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Increased protein intake augments kidney volume and function in healthy infants.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2010
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Protein intake has been directly associated with kidney growth and function in animal and human observational studies. Protein supply can vary widely during the first months of life, thus promoting different kidney growth patterns and possibly affecting kidney and cardiovascular health in the long term. To explore this further, we examined 601 healthy 6-month-old formula-fed infants who had been randomly assigned within the first 8 weeks of life to a 1-year program of formula with low-protein (LP) or high-protein (HP) contents and compared them with 204 breastfed (BF) infants. At 6 months, infants receiving the HP formula had significantly higher kidney volume (determined by ultrasonography) and ratios of kidney volume to body length and kidney volume to body surface area than did infants receiving the LP formula. BF infants did not differ from those receiving the LP formula in any of these parameters. Infants receiving the HP formula had significantly higher serum urea and urea to creatinine ratios than did LP formula and BF infants. Hence, in this European multicenter clinical trial, we found that a higher protein content of the infant formula increases kidney size at 6 months of life, whereas a lower protein supply achieves kidney size indistinguishable from that of healthy BF infants. The potential long-term effects of a higher early protein intake on long-term kidney function needs to be determined.
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Intussusception-associated hospitalisations in southern Germany.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2010
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The primary objective of this epidemiological surveillance study was to estimate the incidence of intussusception (IS) associated with hospitalisation in children <1, <2 and <17 years of age in Germany. We analysed primary and secondary ICD-10 discharge diagnoses for IS (K56.1) and procedure codes for desinvagination from 28 paediatric hospitals in Bavaria, Germany, to identify children hospitalised in 2005 or 2006 due to IS. A total of 518 children with an ICD-10 code for IS were reported: 123 (23.7%) of the children were <1 year of age, 267 (51.5%) were 1-3 years old and 128 (24.8%) older than 3 years of age. IS was the primary ICD-10 diagnosis in 382 (74%) children, including 231 (60%) children with a procedure code for desinvagination. In 136 (26%) children, IS was reported as a secondary ICD-10 diagnosis, including 38 (28%) with a desinvagination procedure code. The yearly incidence of IS in children <1 year of age was estimated as 72/100,000 overall and as 43/100,000 for those with an additional procedural code for desinvagination. Patients solely with an ICD-10 code for IS are often suspected cases, based on clinical presentation. The combination of the ICD-10 code for IS and a procedure code for desinvagination provides a more specific and clinically relevant case definition, thereby offering a useful tool for long-term surveillance of the incidence of IS.
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Varicella vaccination coverage in Bavaria (Germany) after general vaccine recommendation in 2004.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2010
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Since 2004, general varicella vaccination has been recommended for all children 11-14 months of age in Germany. The objective of this study was to examine vaccination coverage in children and factors associated with parental acceptance during the first years after recommendation. In a regional surveillance area, cross-sectional parent surveys were conducted in 2006, 2007 and 2008 in random samples (n=600) of children aged 18-36 months; data were obtained for 372, 364 and 352 children, respectively. Parents were questioned on their childs varicella disease history, and on varicella vaccination status as recorded in the childs vaccination booklet. Overall coverage increased from 38% in 2006 to 51% in 2007 and stagnated at 53% in 2008; in susceptible children (without previous varicella disease until vaccination or time of survey) coverage was 42%, 61% and 59%, respectively. Recommendation by the paediatrician as reported by the parents increased from 48% (2006) to 57% (2007) and 60% (2008), and was the main independent factor associated with parental acceptance. In 32-35% of unvaccinated children parents had not yet decided whether to vaccinate against varicella. Additional programmes targeting paediatricians and parents acceptance of varicella vaccination are needed to achieve the WHO-defined goal of at least 85% coverage.
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Intake of energy providing liquids during the first year of life in five European countries.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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Intake of energy providing liquids (EPL) other than breast milk or formula to infants is discouraged because it may displace milk intake. Data on actual practice is lacking.
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Maternal postnatal depression and child growth: a European cohort study.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Previous studies have reported postpartum depression to be associated with both positive and negative effects on early infant growth. This study examined the hypothesis that maternal postnatal depression may be a risk factor for later child growth faltering or overweight.
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B cell depletion for autoimmune diseases in paediatric patients.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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Data on B cell depletion therapy in severe autoimmune diseases in paediatric patients are very limited. We conducted a retrospective cohort study and recruited patients who were treated with rituximab (RTX) and followed up for at least 6 months through the German societies of paediatric rheumatology and nephrology. The aim was to describe the spectrum of autoimmune disorders for which RTX was used and to describe the applied therapeutic regimens, the observed efficacy, as well as potential immunological side effects. The need to develop standard treatment guidelines for future trials should be discussed. Sixty-five patients were included. Nineteen patients suffered from systemic lupus erythematosus, 13 from vasculitic disorders, 12 from hematological autoimmune diseases, 5 from mixed connective tissue disorders, 4 from juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and 9 had other autoimmune diseases. Adverse, infusion-related events were reported in 12/65 (18%) patients. Considering laboratory and clinical parameters, 13 patients (22%) were in complete remission, 31 (52%) were in partial remission, 6 (10%) were unchanged and 10 (17%) had progressed after 6 months. In 46% of the patients, the steroid dose could be more than halved. IgG, IgM and IgA decreased from normal levels prior to RTX therapy to below normal levels at 6 months in 2/22 (9%), 10/21 (48%), and 4/22 (18%) patients, respectively. Immunoglobulin deficiency or prolonged CD20 depletion was reported in eight patients after an observation period longer than 12 months. RTX therapy led to a perceivable reduction in disease activity. However, long-term immunological alterations may occur in more than 10% of the patients. Guidelines and protocols for off-label therapy are desirable to document reasonable follow-up data. Controlled prospective studies for RTX therapies in children with standardised therapeutic and diagnostic protocols are urgently needed.
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Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis develops independently of NOD2 variants.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2010
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BACKGROUD/PURPOSE: Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) represents a cause for significant pre- and postoperative morbidity and mortality in Hirschsprung disease (HD). Although multiple studies on HAEC have been performed and several mechanisms have been presumed, the pathogenesis of this condition remains unclear. As changes in colonic mucosal defense are key factors suggested in both Crohns disease (CD) and HAEC pathogenesis, the aim of the current study was to investigate genetic alterations in the most important susceptibility gene for Crohns enterocolitis (NOD2) to see whether carriers of polymorphisms within the NOD2 gene are predisposed to the development of HAEC.
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Infantile colic, prolonged crying and maternal postnatal depression.
Acta Paediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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To study if infant crying is associated with maternal postnatal depression.
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Invasive Haemophilus influenzae infections in Germany: impact of non-type b serotypes in the post-vaccine era.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccination led to a significant decrease in invasive bacterial infections in children. The aim of this study was to assess a potential shift to more non-type b invasive infections in a population with high Hib vaccination coverage and to compare the burden of suffering between children with Hib, capsulated non-b and non-capsulated Hi infections.
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Can infant feeding choices modulate later obesity risk?
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Since the concept of lasting programming effects on disease risk in human adults by the action of hormones, metabolites, and neurotransmitters during sensitive periods of early development was proposed >3 decades ago, ample supporting evidence has evolved from epidemiologic and experimental studies and clinical trials. For example, numerous studies have reported programming effects of infant feeding choices on later obesity. Three meta-analyses of observational studies found that obesity risk at school age was reduced by 15-25% with early breastfeeding compared with formula feeding. We proposed that breastfeeding protects against later obesity by reducing the occurrence of high weight gain in infancy and that one causative factor is the lower protein content of human milk compared with most infant formula (the early protein hypothesis). We are testing this hypothesis in the European Childhood Obesity Project, a double-blind, randomized clinical trial that includes >1000 infants in 5 countries (Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain). We randomly assigned healthy infants who were born at term to receive for the first year infant formula and follow-on formula with higher or lower protein contents, respectively. The follow-up data obtained at age 2 y indicate that feeding formula with reduced protein content normalizes early growth relative to a breastfed reference group and the new World Health Organization growth standard, which may furnish a significant long-term protection against later obesity. We conclude that infant feeding practice has a high potential for long-term health effects, and the results obtained should stimulate the review of recommendations and policies for infant formula composition.
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Do complementary feeding practices predict the later risk of obesity?
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
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Obesity is a multifaceted public health problem, which should be addressed with an all-encompassing approach. Recent research has asked questions that link specific infant nutritional risks to childhood obesity. This article brings recent research in the area of complimentary feeding practices to light and summarizes the research on its consequent impact on obesity risk.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.