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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reproducibility of histopathological diagnosis in poorly differentiated NSCLC: an international multiobserver study.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The 2004 World Health Organization classification of lung cancer contained three major forms of non-small-cell lung cancer: squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC), adenocarcinoma (AdC), and large cell carcinoma. The goal of this study was first, to assess the reproducibility of a set of histopathological features for SqCC in relation to other poorly differentiated non-small-cell lung cancers and second, to assess the value of immunohistochemistry in improving the diagnosis.
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Biological effects of desert dust in respiratory epithelial cells and a murine model.
Inhal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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As a result of the challenge of recent dust storms to public health, we tested the postulate that desert dust collected in the southwestern United States imparts a biological effect in respiratory epithelial cells and an animal model. Two samples of surface sediment were collected from separate dust sources in northeastern Arizona. Analysis of the PM20 fraction demonstrated that the majority of both dust samples were quartz and clay minerals (total SiO? of 52 and 57%). Using respiratory epithelial and monocytic cell lines, the two desert dusts increased oxidant generation, measured by Amplex Red fluorescence, along with carbon black (a control particle), silica, and NIST 1649 (an ambient air pollution particle). Cell oxidant generation was greatest following exposures to silica and the desert dusts. Similarly, changes in RNA for superoxide dismutase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 were also greatest after silica and the desert dusts supporting an oxidative stress after cell exposure. Silica, desert dusts, and the ambient air pollution particle NIST 1649 demonstrated a capacity to activate the p38 and ERK1/2 pathways and release pro-inflammatory mediators. Mice, instilled with the same particles, showed the greatest lavage concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators, neutrophils, and lung injury following silica and desert dusts. We conclude that, comparable to other particles, desert dusts have a capacity to (1) influence oxidative stress and release of pro-inflammatory mediators in respiratory epithelial cells and (2) provoke an inflammatory injury in the lower respiratory tract of an animal model. The biological effects of desert dusts approximated those of silica.
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Cumulative Retrospective Exposure Assessment (REA) as a predictor of amphibole asbestos lung burden: validation procedures and results for industrial hygiene and pathology estimates.
Inhal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A detailed evaluation of the correlation and linearity of industrial hygiene retrospective exposure assessment (REA) for cumulative asbestos exposure with asbestos lung burden analysis (LBA) has not been previously performed, but both methods are utilized for case-control and cohort studies and other applications such as setting occupational exposure limits.
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In vitro determinants of asbestos fiber toxicity: effect on the relative toxicity of Libby amphibole in primary human airway epithelial cells.
Part Fibre Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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An abnormally high incidence of lung disease has been observed in the residents of Libby, Montana, which has been attributed to occupational and environmental exposure to fibrous amphiboles originating from a nearby contaminated vermiculite mine. The composition of Libby amphibole (LA) is complex and minimal toxicity data are available. In this study, we conduct a comparative particle toxicity analysis of LA compared with standard reference asbestiform amphibole samples.
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Indium lung disease.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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Reports of pulmonary fibrosis, emphysema, and, more recently, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in indium workers suggested that workplace exposure to indium compounds caused several different lung diseases.
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The fake fat phenomenon in organizing pleuritis: a source of confusion with desmoplastic malignant mesotheliomas.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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We report 9 patients with pleural biopsies referred because of concern about infiltration of what appeared to be chest wall fat by pan-keratin-positive spindled cells, a finding that led to a consideration of desmoplastic mesothelioma. All patients showed pleural effusions/pleural thickening on computed tomographic scan. Pleural biopsy showed a greatly thickened and fibrotic paucicellular pleura with circular fat-like spaces and, sometimes, adjacent oblate spaces mostly deep in the fibrotic area. Indistinct, keratin-positive, spindle cells arranged parallel to the pleural surface coursed between these fat-like spaces. S-100 stains were negative around the fat-like spaces. Vimentin stains showed that the spaces did not have a cellular lining of any kind. Sometimes the spaces contained faintly hematoxyphilic material that was Alcian blue positive, and similar material was seen in the fibrotic stroma. Follow-up with periods ranging from 6 to 30 months revealed that 8 cases had stable disease on chest imaging or by clinical findings. One case had slowly progressive pleural thickening. These observations suggest that spaces resembling fat may be encountered in fibrotic pleurae and that horizontally oriented keratin-positive spindled cells between the fat-like spaces deep in the fibrotic portion of a thickened pleura represent a benign finding seen in some cases of organizing pleuritis/fibrothorax. The spaces themselves are probably artifacts derived from the biopsy procedure and/or cutting artifacts. In contrast, in true desmoplastic mesotheliomas there is downward, rather than horizontal, growth of keratin-positive spindled cells running between clearly definable fat cells.
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Asbestos fiber concentrations in the lungs of brake repair workers: commercial amphiboles levels are predictive of chrysotile levels.
Inhal Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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To investigate the impact of extreme data points in Finkelsteins 2009 findings of no association between lung levels of commercial and non-commercial amphiboles (principally tremolite as a marker for chrysotile asbestos) in brake repair workers with mesothelioma.
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Endobronchial metastatic breast cancer with pagetoid histology mimicking bronchial pagetoid squamous cell carcinoma in situ.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2011
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We report a case of a 56-year-old woman with endobronchial breast cancer metastasis of unusual histology. The patient presented with persistent cough, and a lesion was noted in the left mainstem bronchus on bronchoscopic examination. Biopsy revealed extensive squamous metaplasia of bronchial epithelium along with large, atypical cells exhibiting pagetoid intraepithelial spread within squamous mucosa. Immunohistochemical stains were compatible with a diagnosis of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma with pagetoid spread. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of endobronchial breast cancer metastasis with this histologic presentation. In this report, we describe the clinical, radiographic, bronchoscopic, histologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of this case. We provide a brief review of existing literature on endobronchial breast cancer metastasis. In addition, we discuss the principal differential diagnosis of bronchial pagetoid lesions. This report raises awareness of this uncommon manifestation of metastatic breast cancer.
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International association for the study of lung cancer/american thoracic society/european respiratory society international multidisciplinary classification of lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type of lung cancer. To address advances in oncology, molecular biology, pathology, radiology, and surgery of lung adenocarcinoma, an international multidisciplinary classification was sponsored by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. This new adenocarcinoma classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), the overall approach to small nonresection cancer specimens, and for multidisciplinary strategic management of tissue for molecular and immunohistochemical studies.
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Small neuroendocrine lesions in intrathoracic lymph nodes of patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma: real metastasis?
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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The presence of individual neuroendocrine cells in rare peripancreatic lymph nodes (LNs) suggests that neuroendocrine tumor or nested neuroendocrine cell proliferation can arise in situ from neuroendocrine cells native to any LN. However, it is very difficult to ascertain whether any neuroendocrine lesion in LNs is a primary tumor or a metastasis from adjacent organs. We encountered 4 cases of neuroendocrine proliferation in intrathoracic LNs (ILNs) of patients with primary lung adenocarcinoma. All patients had a single lung mass without mediastinal lymphadenopathy based on computed tomography and positron emission tomography imaging. Mediastinal staging was done by either mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy and none of them had metastasis from adenocarcinoma in any LN. One patient had three ILNs positive for neuroendocrine proliferation measuring 1.7, 1.8, and 4.0?mm, respectively and a minute tumorlet less than 1.0?mm in the lung. Three other patients had small areas of neuroendocrine proliferation no more than 1?mm in single ILN without any lung neuroendocrine lesion. Neuroendocrine cells in ILNs often formed nests of varying size with similar morphology to carcinoid tumorlet in the lung. Small clusters of neuroendocrine cells without any particular pattern were often seen together with these nests. These cells were positive for neuroendocrine markers: synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56. They were also positive for CK7 and TTF-1. It is interesting to note, single cells positive for neuroendocrine markers and TTF-1 were identified near or away from these neuroendocrine nests or clusters. These findings suggest that neuroendocrine lesion can be incidentally identified in ILNs. Close clinical follow-up is warranted as metastasis from or synchronous lesions in adjacent organs cannot be excluded.
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Effect of size fractionation on the toxicity of amosite and Libby amphibole asbestos.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Abnormally high incidences of asbestos-related pulmonary disease have been reported in residents of Libby, Montana, because of occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos-contaminated vermiculite. The mechanism by which Libby amphibole (LA) causes pulmonary injury is not known. The purpose of this study is to compare the cellular stress responses induced in primary human airway epithelial cells (HAECs) exposed to a respirable size fraction (? 2.5 ?m) of Libby amphibole (LA(2.5)) to a similar size fraction of a reference amphibole sample amosite (AM(2.5)). HAEC were exposed to 0, 2.64, 13.2, or 26.4 ?g/cm(2) AM(2.5) or LA(2.5) or to equivalent doses of unfractionated amosite (AM) or LA for 2 or 24 h. Comparable messenger RNA transcript levels were observed for interleukin-8, cyclooxygenase-2, and heme oxygenase-1 in HAEC following a 24-h exposure to AM or LA. Conversely, exposure to AM(2.5) resulted in a 4- to 10-fold greater induction in these proinflammatory mediators compared with LA(2.5) after 24 h. Evaluation of the expression of 84 additional genes involved in cellular stress and toxicity responses confirmed a more robust response for AM(2.5) compared with LA(2.5) on an equal mass basis. Differences in total surface area (TSA) by gas adsorption, total particle number, or oxidant generation by the size-fractionated particles did not account for the observed difference in response. In summary, AM(2.5) and LA(2.5) are at least as potent in stimulating production of proinflammatory cytokines as unfractionated AM and LA. Interestingly, AM(2.5) was more potent at inducing a proinflammatory response than LA(2.5). This difference could not be explained by differences in mineral contamination between the two samples, TSA, or oxidant generation by the samples.
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Pathology of asbestosis- An update of the diagnostic criteria: Report of the asbestosis committee of the college of american pathologists and pulmonary pathology society.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Asbestosis is defined as diffuse pulmonary fibrosis caused by the inhalation of excessive amounts of asbestos fibers. Pathologically, both pulmonary fibrosis of a particular pattern and evidence of excess asbestos in the lungs must be present. Clinically, the disease usually progresses slowly, with a typical latent period of more than 20 years from first exposure to onset of symptoms.
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Asbestos fiber content of lungs with diffuse interstitial fibrosis: An analytical scanning electron microscopic analysis of 249 cases.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Asbestosis is one of many forms of diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. Its histologic diagnosis rests on the pattern of fibrosis and the presence of asbestos bodies by light microscopy in lung biopsies.
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Sarcomatoid mesothelioma: a clinical-pathologic correlation of 326 cases.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Sarcomatoid mesothelioma is the least common, but most aggressive of the three major histological types of mesotheliomas. This study comprises 326 cases of sarcomatoid mesotheliomas among 2000 consecutive malignant mesothelioma cases received in consultation (16%). Patients included 312 men (96%) and 14 women (4%), with a median age of 70 years (range 41-94 years). Most tumors were pleural (319; 98%), and 7 were peritoneal (2%). Some desmoplastic features were identified in 110 cases (34%), and 70 (21%) were classified as desmoplastic. Rare subtypes included two cases with a lymphohistiocytoid pattern (<1%) and eight heterologous mesotheliomas (2%). Labeling for cytokeratins (CKs) was observed in 261/280 cases (93%), and for calretinin and vimentin in 31 and 91%, respectively. Pleural plaques were present in 79% of cases for which information was available, and asbestosis was diagnosed in 34/127 cases (27%). Median survival was 3.5 months. Fiber analysis was performed in 61 cases. The median asbestos body count was 1640/g wet lung tissue (by light microscopy). Amosite fibers were the most commonly identified fibers using energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and were significantly higher in the sarcomatoid cases, as were uncoated fibers using scanning electron microscopy. This study represents the largest series of sarcomatoid and desmoplastic malignant mesotheliomas to date and confirms the diagnostic usefulness of CK immunohistochemistry. The relationship with asbestos exposure--particularly amosite--and an association with pleural plaques and less often asbestosis is confirmed.
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Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in workers at an indium processing facility.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2009
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Two cases of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, including one death, occurred in workers at a facility producing indium-tin oxide (ITO), a compound used in recent years to make flat panel displays. Both workers were exposed to airborne ITO dust and had indium in lung tissue specimens. One worker was tested for autoantibodies to granulocytemacrophage-colonystimulating factor (GM-CSF) and found to have an elevated level. These cases suggest that inhalational exposure to ITO causes pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, which may occur via an autoimmune mechanism.
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Iron accumulates in the lavage and explanted lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.
J. Cyst. Fibros.
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Oxidative stress participates in the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF). An underlying disruption in iron homeostasis can frequently be demonstrated in injuries and diseases associated with an oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that iron accumulation and altered expression of iron-related proteins could be demonstrated in both the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and explanted lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis. BAL fluid collected from 10 children with CF showed elevated concentrations of protein, iron, ferritin, transferrin, heme, and hemoglobin relative to that obtained from 20 healthy volunteers. Using Perls Prussian blue staining, explanted lung from CF patients revealed increased iron in alveolar and interstitial macrophages. Similarly, there was an increased expression of ferritin, the iron importer DMT1, and the exporter ferroportin 1 in lung tissue from CF patients. We conclude that iron homeostasis is disrupted in CF patients with an accumulation of this metal and altered expression of iron-related proteins being evident in the lungs.
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Diagnosis of lung cancer in small biopsies and cytology: implications of the 2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
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The new International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society lung adenocarcinoma classification provides, for the first time, standardized terminology for lung cancer diagnosis in small biopsies and cytology; this was not primarily addressed by previous World Health Organization classifications. Until recently there have been no therapeutic implications to further classification of NSCLC, so little attention has been given to the distinction of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in small tissue samples. This situation has changed dramatically in recent years with the discovery of several therapeutic options that are available only to patients with adenocarcinoma or NSCLC, not otherwise specified, rather than squamous cell carcinoma. This includes recommendation for use of special stains as an aid to diagnosis, particularly in the setting of poorly differentiated tumors that do not show clear differentiation by routine light microscopy. A limited diagnostic workup is recommended to preserve as much tissue for molecular testing as possible. Most tumors can be classified using a single adenocarcinoma marker (eg, thyroid transcription factor 1 or mucin) and a single squamous marker (eg, p40 or p63). Carcinomas lacking clear differentiation by morphology and special stains are classified as NSCLC, not otherwise specified. Not otherwise specified carcinomas that stain with adenocarcinoma markers are classified as NSCLC, favor adenocarcinoma, and tumors that stain only with squamous markers are classified as NSCLC, favor squamous cell carcinoma. The need for every institution to develop a multidisciplinary tissue management strategy to obtain these small specimens and process them, not only for diagnosis but also for molecular testing and evaluation of markers of resistance to therapy, is emphasized.
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Diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma in resected specimens: implications of the 2011 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society classification.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
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A new lung adenocarcinoma classification has been published by the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, the American Thoracic Society, and the European Respiratory Society. This new classification is needed to provide uniform terminology and diagnostic criteria, most especially for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. It was developed by an international core panel of experts representing all 3 societies with oncologists/pulmonologists, pathologists, radiologists, molecular biologists, and thoracic surgeons.This summary focuses on the aspects of this classification that address resection specimens. The terms bronchioloalveolar carcinoma and mixed subtype adenocarcinoma are no longer used. For resection specimens, new concepts are introduced, such as adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma for small solitary adenocarcinomas with either pure lepidic growth (adenocarcinoma in situ) and predominant lepidic growth with invasion of 5 mm or less (minimally invasive adenocarcinoma), to define the condition of patients who will have 100% or near 100% disease-specific survival, respectively, if they undergo complete lesion resection. Adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma are usually nonmucinous, but rarely may be mucinous. Invasive adenocarcinomas are now classified by predominant pattern after using comprehensive histologic subtyping with lepidic (formerly most mixed subtype tumors with nonmucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma), acinar, papillary, and solid patterns; micropapillary is added as a new histologic subtype. Variants include invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma (formerly mucinous bronchioloalveolar carcinoma), colloid, fetal, and enteric adenocarcinoma.It is possible that this classification may impact the next revision of the TNM staging classification, with adjustment of the size T factor according to only the invasive component pathologically in adenocarcinomas with lepidic areas.
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Reproducibility of histopathological subtypes and invasion in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. An international interobserver study.
Mod. Pathol.
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Histological subtyping of pulmonary adenocarcinoma has recently been updated based on predominant pattern, but data on reproducibility are required for validation. This study first assesses reproducibility in subtyping adenocarcinomas and then assesses further the distinction between invasive and non-invasive (wholly lepidic) pattern of adenocarcinoma, among an international group of pulmonary pathologists. Two ring studies were performed using a micro-photographic image-based method, evaluating selected images of lung adenocarcinoma histologic patterns. In the first study, 26 pathologists reviewed representative images of typical and difficult histologic patterns. A total number of scores for the typical patterns combined (n=94) and the difficult cases (n=21) were 2444 and 546, respectively. The mean kappa score (±s.d.) for the five typical patterns combined and for difficult cases were 0.77±0.07 and 0.38±0.14, respectively. Although 70% of the observers identified 12-65% of typical images as single pattern, highest for solid and least for micropapillary, recognizing the predominant pattern was achieved in 92-100%, of the images except for micropapillary pattern (62%). For the second study on invasion, identified as a key problem area from the first study, 28 pathologists submitted and reviewed 64 images representing typical as well as difficult examples. The kappa for typical and difficult cases was 0.55±0.06 and 0.08±0.02, respectively, with consistent subdivision by the same pathologists into invasive and non-invasive categories, due to differing interpretation of terminology defining invasion. In pulmonary adenocarcinomas with classic morphology, which comprise the majority of cases, there is good reproducibility in identifying a predominant pattern and fair reproducibility distinguishing invasive from in-situ (wholly lepidic) patterns. However, more precise definitions and better education on interpretation of existing terminology are required to improve recognition of purely in-situ disease, this being an area of increasing importance.
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Biopersistence of refractory ceramic fiber in human lung tissue and a 20-year follow-up of radiographic pleural changes in workers.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
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The biopersistence of refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) in human lung tissue is unknown and may contribute to an association between cumulative fiber exposure and radiographic changes.
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Development of a Novel Pre-Clinical Model of Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Non-Human Primates.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
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Pneumococcal pneumonia is a leading cause of bacterial infection and death worldwide. Current diagnostic tests for detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae can be unreliable and mislead clinical decision-making and treatment. To address this concern, we developed a pre-clinical model of pneumococcal pneumonia in non-human primates useful for identifying novel biomarkers, diagnostic tests, and therapies for human S. pneumoniae infection. Adult colony-bred baboons (n=15) were infected with escalating doses of S. pneumoniae (Serotype 19A-7). We characterized the pathophysiological and serological profiles of healthy and infected animals over seven days. Pneumonia was prospectively defined by the presence of three criteria: 1) change in white blood cell count, 2) isolation of S. pneumoniae from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) or blood, and 3) concurrent signs/symptoms of infection. Animals given 10(9) CFU consistently met our definition, and developed a phenotype of tachypnea, tachycardia, fever, hypoxemia, and radiographic lobar infiltrates at 48 hours. BALF and plasma cytokines, including G-CSF, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-1ra, peaked at 24 to 48 hours. At necropsy, there was lobar consolidation with frequent pleural involvement. Lung histopathology showed alveolar edema and macrophage influx in areas of organizing pneumonia. Hierarchical clustering of peripheral blood RNA data at 48 hours correctly identified animals with and without pneumonia. Dose-dependent inoculation of baboons with S. pneumoniae produces a host response ranging from spontaneous clearance (10(6) CFU) to severe pneumonia (10(9) CFU). Selected BALF and plasma cytokine levels and RNA profiles were associated with severe pneumonia, and may provide clinically useful parameters after validation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.